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Full text of "The American naturalist."

A427 



THE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST 



THE CETACEA. 



THE Cetacea, as the inhabitants of the water areas of the earth's 
surface, have had am^le space for variation and multiplication 
of forms, an opportunity of which only a moderate advantage has 
been taken. The conditions have been more uniform than those 
to which lane*, mammals have been subject, and a corresponding 
uniformity prevails in this order. Owing to their habitat, op- 
portunities for their preservation have been better than in the case 
of animals of the land, and accordingly great deposits of their 
bones exist, notably on the east coast of the United States, and in 
certain deposits of Belgium and Italy. Among the species 
brought to light in these localities, as among those now existing, 
we find examples of the most gigantic, not only of the Mammalia, 
but of the Vertebrata. The exising Balcenoptera borealis reaches 
a length of over one hundred feet ; and several other species, in- 
cluding the sperm whale, attain to eighty feet. 

The order of Cetacea is one of those of whose origin we have 
no definite knowledge. It appears sparingly in the Zeuglodontidae 
in the Eocene period, and has its greatest multiplication in the 
ages of the Miocene. The Zeuglodontidae are the most gen- 
eralized family, and forms intermediate between them and the 
modern Cetacea are found in Miocene beds. Modern types are, 
however, contemporaries of the latter, and these have achieved a 
multiplication of forms in Pliocene and modern times. 



600 The American Naturalist. [July, 

The line of successional modification of the Cetacea is found in 
changes in (i) the shape of the skull ; (2) the extinction of the 
dentition ; (3) the shortening of the cervical vertebrae ; and (4) in 
the separation of the ribs from articulation with the vertebral 
centra. The modification of the shape of the skull is related to 
the gradual transfer of the external nostrils to more and more 
posterior positions, until they remain, in the extreme types, above, 
or even behind above, the eyes. In this process the nasal, frontal 
and parietal bones become excessively abbreviated, so that in the 
modern toothed whales, they form a narrow band between the 
nostrils and the superior border of the occipital bone. 

The order is naturally divided into three sub-orders, which are 
defined as follows : 
External nostrils on the superior side of the muzzle ; 

teeth present ; ribs with two heads ; Archaoceti. 

External nostrils above gullet ; teeth generally pres- 
ent ; no whalebone ; some of the ribs with two 
heads ; Odontoceti. 

External nostrils above gullet; teeth wanting; the 
gums supporting " whalebone " ; ribs articulating 
by tubercle only ; Mysticeti. 

All of the above # characters are those of divergence from the 
principal mammalian stem, and have relation to the conditions of 
aquatic life. Thus the posterior position of the nostrils permits in- 
spiration without the elevation of the muzzle above the water-level, 
which is rendered difficult, if not impossible in the most specialized 
types, by reason of the extreme flatness and inflexibility of the cervi- 
cal vertebrae. The absence of teeth is appropriate to the habits of 
the types which lack them. Thus the Physeteridae among Odon- 
toceti feed principally on squids, whose soft bodies are swallowed 
whole. The Mysticeti feed on minute Crustacea and Mollusca, 
which they retain in the mouth by straining the water through 
their bristly whalebone, or baleen. The disarticulation and dis- 
appearance of the heads of the ribs in the Mysticeti, is appropriate 
to the support which all the viscera derive from the fluid medium 
in which these large animals live. Strong articulation of the head 
of the ribs to the vertebral column is no longer necessary. 



,890.] The Cetacea. 60 1 

Paleontology confirms the inference derivable from their anat- 
omy, that the phylogeny of the Cetacea has followed the order, 
Archaeoceti, Odontoceti, Mysticeti. 

The mechanical causes which may have given origin to the 
modifications which measure this succession, may be suggested as 
follows : The shortening and obliteration of the neck is probably 
due to disuse, since the general mobility of the body in a watery 
medium renders much flexibility of the neck unnecessary, the 
entire body being readily turned about. It may have resulted, 
also, from the increase in the relative proportions of the head, 
which renders it extremely difficult to handle ; a function which is, 
in the modern Cetacea, quite aborted. The early and rapid reduc- 
tion, and in some lines, extinction of the dentition, is a result of dis- 
use consequent on the increasing percentage of soft or minute food 
used by the more modern types. So the loss of the rib-heads in 
the Mysticeti may be traced to disuse, since, as above remarked, 
they lack the strain caused by the weight of the thoracic and ab- 
dominal walls and the contained viscera, which they experience in 
animals which are not supported by some external medium. The 
same reduction took place in the ocean-dwelling Plesiosauria, 1 
and in those terrestrial reptiles in which the weight of the body 
is borne on the earth, as the lizards proper, and snakes. As re- 
gards the gradual transfer posteriorly of the external nostrils, the 
following mechanical hypothesis has been suggested. They have 
been used as a discharge pipe for air and water from the lungs 
and mouth, and, of course, facility of exit is directly as the short- 
ness of the conduit. It is possible that the constantly recurrent 
presence of a column of air and water on the posterior inferior 
wall of the nareal canal has literally pressed back this obstructive 
roof, until it has ceased to resist the outflow by becoming vertical. 



This suborder embraces but one known family, which is de- 
fined as follows : 

Frontal bones with flat, expanded supraorbital re- 
gion ; teeth two-rooted posteriorly, one- 
rooted anteriorly ; Zenglodontida. 



602 The American Naturalist. [July, 

The species of this family belong to the genus Zeuglodon 2 Owen, 
although when the Z. brachyspondylus Mull, is better known it 
may be found to be referable to a distinct genus, Doryodon Gibbes. 
The longer known Z. cetoides Ow. is distinguished by many pecu- 
liarities. Its skull presents a long symphysis of both premaxil- 
lary and mandibular bones. The cervical and dorsal vertebrae 
are of similar and medium length, while those of the lumbar 
region are remarkably elongate. The fore-limb was short, and 
in its cubital region quite narrow (teste Mullet). The enamel of 
the teeth is wrinkled, and the posterior two-rooted teeth have 
coarsely serrate cutting edges fore and aft. The animal could not 
have been less than seventy feet in length. Bones of species of 
Zeuglodon have been found in the Upper Eocene of Arkansas 
and the Gulf States (in the White Limestone of Alabama), and 
of England and Egypt. It is also recorded as occurring in the 
Miocene of Malta. 

II. ODONTOCETI. 

This group is the most numerously represented by species, re- 
cent and extinct. The families differ as follows : 

I. Teeth of two types, one and two-rooted. 

Neck longer ; teeth in both jaws ; Squalodontida. 

II. Teeth uniformly one-rooted, 

a, Ribs nearly all two-headed. 
Teeth in both jaws ; neck generally longer ; PLatanistidce. 

Teeth in lower jaw only; neck short; Physeterida. 

««, Four or five anterior ribs only two-headed. 
Teeth in both jaws ; neck short ; Delphinidez. 

The SqualodontiD/E resemble the Zeuglodons in the form and 
character of their teeth, but the form of the skull is very different. 
They nevertheless, by their intermediate position, indicate the an- 
cestral relation of the Zeuglodontidse to the other Cetacea. But 
little is known of the skeleton of the Squalodontidae. The species 
occur in Miocene beds of North America and Europe. They did 
not attain such huge proportions as the Zeuglodons, and did not 
exceed thirty feet at the most. The genera known are two, as 



i3,o] 



The Cctacca. 






603 
Squalodon Gratel. 



The posterior mola 
Some of the posterior superior molars three- 
rooted ; Trirhizodon Cope. 
Squalodon grateloupii Pedroni and S. antverpiensis Van Ben. are 
the most abundant European species. In America the 5. at- 
lanticus Leidy has been found in New Jersey and Maryland, and 
the 5*. holmesii Leidy, a species with more delicate teeth than the 
last, has been discovered in South Carolina. 




Fig. x.—Ixacanth 



The greater number of the Platanistid.e are extinct. The 
genera differ much among themselves in the number and form of 
the teeth, and the relative form of the neck. Some of the species 
reach the size of the smaller whales, as the Cttophis luicroclitus 
Cope ; but most of the species have the average dimensions of 
the dolphins. The genera differ as follows : 

I. Teeth with roots extended transversely. 
Teeth with lateral basal lobes ; lumbar diapophy- 

ses wide ; Inia Geoffr. 



604 The American Naturalist. [j u i y> 

II. Teeth with cylindric roots. 

a, Caudal vertebrae plano-convex. 
No caudal diapophyses ; Cetophis Cope. 

aa, Caudal vertebras plane. 

fi, Lumbar diapophyses spiniform. 
Lumbar and caudal vertebrae slender ; Zarhachis Cope. 

Lumbar and caudal vertebrae short ; Ixacanthus Cope. 

/3/3, Lumbar diapophyses wide, flat. 
Muzzle elongate, slender; cervical verte- 
brae long ; Priscodelphinus Leidy. 
Muzzle slender ; cervical vertebrae shorter ; Pontoporia Gr. 

III. Teeth with longitudinally flattened roots. 
Teeth in entire length of maxillary bone ; sym- 
physis connate ; Stenodelphis Gerv. 

Teeth on all the jaws ; symphysis not connate ; 

an erect osseous crest on posterior part of 

maxillary I Platanista Cuv. 

Teeth at the base of the maxillary only; muzzle 

produced into a sub-cylindrical beak ; Rhabdosteus Cope. 

IV. No teeth ; an alveolar groove. 

Muzzle depressed, elongate ; Agabelus Cope. 

The recent species belong to the genera Inia, Pontoporia and 
Platanista. The two first are found in the rivers of S. America, 
and the Platanista gangetica in the rivers of India. Their posterior 
ribs are one-headed. The genera with spiniform diapophyses of 
the posterior vertebras are only known so far from N. America. 
The Ixacanthus coelospondylus Cope was a short robust species 
about the size of a white whale. Another line of modification is 
seen in the attenuation of the vertebral column. The most 
remarkable elongation of the vertebrae is found in Zarhachis, a 
character which is only paralleled in Zeuglodon. Of the other 
genera, Stenodelphis, with its single species S. canaliculars (Del- 
phinus, von Meyer), has been so far found in the middle Miocene 
of Central Europe. Priscodelphinus occurs in the Miocene of 
North America and Europe. The P. grandaevus Leidy (Figs 2 
and 3), of the Miocene of New Jersey has a slender muzzle, with 
a full series of curved cylindric teeth; a neck like that of a seal 



:S..o] 



The Cet 



605 



in proportions, and a long slender body. The first sternal seg- 
ment is T-shaped, and the ribs are slender, compressed, and 
mostly two-headed. The paddles are unknown. Other species 
of the genus are found in the Miocene beds of Maryland. The 
species of the remaining five genera have been found thus far 
only in the Miocene of North America. Nineteen species of 
Platanistidse have been described from the latter region. 




One line of modification observable in the extinct genera is 
towards the extreme which is seen in Rhabdosteus Cope. Here 
the muzzle reaches an extraordinary elongation, and for the 
greater part of its length forms an edentulous cylinder, which re- 
sembles the beak of the sword-fishes. The few teeth which remain 
at the base of the muzzle are like those of Platanista, with roots 
compressed so as to be longitudinal, and crowns compressed so 
as to be transverse, to the axis of the skull. The R. latiradix Cope 
(Fig. 4.), is not uncommon in the Miocene beds of Maryland. Its 



6o6 

skeleton 
made by- 
have one 
sible in 
land Mio 
Delphinu 



The An 






is unknown. The nearest approach to Rhabdosteus is 
the genus Stenodelphis. In Cetophis, the caudal centra 
face very convex, offering greater flexibility than is pos- 
any other genus. The C. heteroclitus is from the Mary- 
cene. A genus Lophocetus has been established for the 
s calvertensis of Harlan, also from the Maryland Miocene, 
on is uncertain ; the skull resembles that of Inia, but the 
roots of the teeth are cylindric. 
/^% The temporal and occipital 

^J^_ ridges are very strong. Skele- 

| ton unknown. Delphinodon 
^^^N. I Leidy is represented by teeth 

\ \ only, from N. American local- 
arf^lw^- \ \ ities > but a skul1 is described 
by Burmeister from Buenos 
Ayres, which shows that the 
nostrils are much more anter- 
ior in position than in Lopho- 



Extinct and recent forms 
about equally divide the Phy- 
seterid^, but the largest 
dimensions are reached by the 
recent sperm whale, Physeter 
macrocephalus L. The modi- 
fications of the family type 
are chiefly those of the denti- 
tion, but the skull develops 
crests of a peculiar character 

sterni. Individual represented in Fig. 2 . ^ a number Q f t h e genera. 

These are distinguished as follows: 
I. Lower jaw with numerous teeth. 

«, Teeth with crown and root continuous, and without 
enamel. Inion and temporal ridges forming a crest 
which encloses a basin-shaped cavity of the front. 
Zygoma complete; symphysis mandibuli long; Physeter' Linn. 







PLATE XX. 




i89o.] The Cetacei 

Zygoma interrupted ; symphysis sborl 
oo, Teeth fusiform, with ena 
Cement coating thick; 



Cement very thick ; 
II. Low jaw v 

0, Maxiil 



A tooth at the 
dibuli ; 










Mandibular ramus w 
Mandibular ramus wit 

As already remarke 



a terminal tooth; Ckomsipkius Duv. 

nedian tooth ; Mesopiodon Gerv. 

e extinct sperm whales do not equal 
in dimensions the single recent species. Their teeth differ a good 
deal from those of the latter. Thus the American form, which 
Leidy called Orycterocetus, have the crowns quite slender, and 
the pulp-cavity large. They occur in the Miocene beds from 






6o8 



. 



.' ' 



[July. 



Maryland to North Carolina. The species from the Miocenes of 
Belgium and Australia have the pulp-cavity very small. The 
Kogias or pigmy sperm whales are found in all southern and 
tropical seas. A single extinct species, the K. dabusii Van Ben. 
has been found in the Miocene beds of Belgium. Hoplocetus 
car, Hnensis Leidy is from the phosphatic deposits of South Carolina. 
But one extinct species of Anarnacus (Hyperoodon) (Fig. 5), has 







been yet found (in Belgium), but species of Choneziphius are 
abundant in the Miocene beds of both Europe and North Amer- 
ica, Five species have been described by Leidy from the South 
Carolina phosphatic beds, of which the most conspicuous is the 
C. trachops. Mesoplodon is represented in the same formations 
by one species, the M. prorops Leidy. A species of each genus 
still lives on the coast of the United States, the Choneziphius 
samjunctus Cope (Plate XX.), and the Mesoplodon bidens Sow- 



erby 



ifuOj 



The Cetacea. 



609 



The Delphinid^: are preeminently a modern type (Fig. 6). 
They display a tendency to the reduction of the rib heads, which 
is completed in the whale-bone whales, and the nostrils are far 
posterior, and the nasal bones mere tuberosities. The dentition 
differs within moderate limits ; the killers, as the carnivora of the 
sea, having it powerfully developed, while in the grampus and 
Globiocephalus many of the teeth are shed. Monodon develops 
a large incisor with which it breaks the ice in Arctic regions. 
The genera differ as follows : 

I. Cervical vertebrae mostly distinct. 

a, Incisors not differentiated. 
Teeth few, caducous ; Delphinapterns 1 Lac. 

act, Superior incisors of one side forming a straight tusk. 
Teeth few, deciduous ; Monodon Linn. 

II. Cervical vertebrae mostly coossified. 

A. Flippers short, with less than twelve phalanges in 
the second finger. 

«, A dorsal fin. 
Teeth few; very robust ; palate not grooved ; 
Teeth medium, numerous, ^cute ; palate not 






Lag t 






Orca Gray. 
wrhynchns* Gray. 
Delphinus Linn. 



Teeth medium, 

grooved ; 
Teeth numerous ; premaxillae elevated 

front of nares ; palate plane ; 
Teeth few, easily shed ; 
Teeth compressed, spatuliform ; 

aa, No dorsal fin. 

Teeth numerous, not caducous ; Leucorhamphus 1 '" Lfllj. 

Teeth flat, spatuliform ; Neomcris Gray. 

AA. Flippers long, falciform ; index with twelve or 

more phalanges. 

A dorsal fin ; teeth few, caducous ; Globiocephalus Gray. 



Sagmatias* Cope. 
Grampus Cuv. 
Phoazna Cuv. 



8 Tursiops and Prodelphinus Gerv. 
Delphinapterus Less, nee Lacep. 



610 The American Naturalist. [July, 

But few species of this family are known from terranes of earlier 
than Pliocene age, and they belong to existing genera. Extinct 
species of Delphinapterus and Orca have been found in the 
Italian Pliocene, and of Orca and Globiocephalus in England. 
In North America the Delphinapterus orcimis has been des- 
cribed from the Miocene of North Carolina, and the D. Vermont- 



r 



anus has left its remains in the so-called Champlain clays of the 
drainage basin of the St. Lawrence river, which are perhaps of 
Plistocene age (Plate XXL). 






This suborder embraces but a single family, the B 
whose characters may be summarized as follows : 
Nareal canal oblique, overroofed by the short horizontal 
nasal bones, and underroofed by the elongate ptery- 



1890.] The Cctacea. 611 

goids ; no longtitudinal or transverse crests of 
the skull ; Bala?nid<z. 

The family of the whalebone whales is represented by many 
species both recent and extinct. These fall into a number of 
natural genera, which display several affinities towards different 
extremes. Thus the fin-backs (Balaenoptera) have developed 
speed through increased length of bjdy ; the humpbacks (Megap- 
tera, have developed especial length of the fore limbs, while the 
right whales (Balaena) have acquired a huge oral cavity and the 
greatest length of whalebone. The fin-backs pursue and devour 
great numbers of fishes of small and medium dimensions, and 
their maw derives an especial capacity for containing them, 
through the presence of numerous expansible longitudinal folds 
of its inferior walls. The Balaenae, on the other hand, take in 
enormous quantities of water, which contains their minute mol- 
luscous food, and so enjoy an especial advantage in this direction, 
Bal^enid.-e are abundant in the Miocene, having an origin 
prior to that of the Dephinidae. They would seem to have derived 
their descent from some form allied to the Squalodontidse, since 
their nasal bones are more elongated than those of the Odonto- 
ceti, and in Plesiocetus the superior cranial bones show some of 
the elongation of that family. The genera of Balamidae differ as 
follows : 

I. Frontal and parietal bones elongated on the median line. 
Cervical vertebrae distinct ; Plesiocetus Van Ben. 

II. Frontal and parietal bones much abbreviated in the 
median line. 

A, Cervical vertebrae all distinct ; fingers four. 

a, Numerous gular folds ; vertebral canal not enclosed ; u 
No coracoid ; manus long ; Megaptera Gray. 12 

A coracoid ; manus not elongate ; Cetotheriwn Brandt. 13 

Mandible with a long angle ; coronoid large ; Herpetocetus Van B. 

11 The external characters of Cetotherium and Herpetocetus are unknown. 

12 Poescopia Gray, Burtinopsis Van Ben. 

13 Eschrichtius Gray. Cetotheriophanes Brandt. 



612 The American Naturalist. (July, 

aa, Numerous gular folds ; vertebral canal enclosed by 
diapophyses and parapophyses ; 
Both coracoid and acromion ; manus short ; a 

coronoid process ; a dorsal fin ; Balanoptera™ 

aaa, Only two gular folds ; 
No dorsal fin ; an acromion ; Rhachianectes Cope. 

aaaa, External chfc-acters unknown ; maxillary bones 

Manus short ; Mesoteras Cope. 

AA. Cervical vertebrae more or less coossified. 
Anterior three cervicals only united ; Palczocetus, Seeley. 15 

All cervicals coossified; fingers five; no 

gular plicae ; no coronoid process ; Balczna, Linn. 16 

The genus Plesiocetus is intermediate in its characters, and 
as it is generalized in structure, it is probably the ancestral type 
from which modern Balaenidae have been, by a process of differ- 
entiation, derived. Four species have been described from 
Belgium. The largest of these, P. brialmontii Van Ben., was 
some sixty feet in length ; while the P. brcvifrons Van B. and 
P. affine Van B. were twenty feet and less in length. Cetotherium 
is more nearly allied to Balsenoptera (the finners). The number 
of species appears to have been considerable, several having been 
described from Southeastern Europe, one from Italy (C. capellinii), 
and others from Belgium and England. Corresponding species 
have been found in the Miocene beds of the Eastern States of 
North America. The C. cephalus Cope is about thirty feet in 
in length, the head being nine feet ; and its flippers short. The 
ear bulla is noticeably compressed, somewhat incurved, and with 
a nearly parallelogrammic outline from the side ; (Fig. 7). The 
skeleton was found in Charles Co., Maryland. (Plate XXII.) 
There have been described several species, probably of this 
genus, from the same region and horizon, of smaller size, the 
least, C. pusillum Cope, having been about fifteen feet in length. 

*• Eubabena, Macleayius, and Halibalama Gray ; Balsenula and Balsenotus Van 



i89o J The Cetacea. 613 

Species of Balsenoptera and Megaptera occur in the European 
and probably in the American Miocenes. Those of Belgium 
correspond in various respects with the existing species. Thus 
BalcEnoptera goropii is compared by Van Beneden with the com- 
mon existing finner, B. musculus ; the B. borealina Van B. with 
the B. borealis of the Atlantic ; and the B. emarginata Owen 
with the small pike whale, B. rostrata. Three species of Belgium 
and England are referred to the hump-backs, or Megaptera. A 
remarkable genus is Herpetocetus Van B., of which a single 
species of rather small size has been found i 




Forms more or less nearly related to the right whales occur 
in Miocene beds on both sides of the Atlantic. Mesoteras Cope 
has the characters of the finner whales (Balaenoptera) with the 
narrow maxillary bones of the true Balaenae. A large species 
with a skull of about eighteen feet in length was found by Prof. 
W. C. Kerr in Eastern North Carolina, and was named by the 
writer Mesoteras kerrianus. It is distinguished by an enormous 
thickening of the superciliary' part of the frontal bone. The peri- 
otic bones are peculiar for their very short proportions, and 
balaeni-form bulla. A small balaenoid with only partly co- 
ossified cervical vertebrae has been found in the boulder clay 
of England and named Palcco. t Prof. Seeley. 

The P. insignis Van Ben. from Belgium is also a small species. 
True Balaenae have been found in various parts of Europe. 



6 14 The American Naturalist. [July, 

In Western Europe three species are recorded from the Miocene, 
and two from later beds. Of the former, B. affinis Owen is 
similar in size and character to the right whale, B. mystketus, 
and B. primigcnia Van Ben. to the shorter headed type repre- 
sented by the B. cisarctica of the middle Atlantic (Plate XXIIL). 
The B. balcenopsis Van B. is not over twenty feet in length. 
In the Plistocene beds of Sweden a true Balaena of the B. cisa- 
rctica type has been discovered, and has been named B. sveden- 
borgiana. It is thus evident that many species of whalebone 




? 



in Fig. 7. Original ; from Miocene of Maryland. 

whales have become extinct, some of them in comparatively 
modern times. Such is the Cctothcrium robiistum Lilljeborg, 
which is known from a few fragments, not fully fossilized, from 
an island in the Baltic, and from Cornwall, England. 

List of the Extinct Cetacea of North America. 

BASILOSAURID.E, 3 

Basilosatirus cctoidcs Owen. Ala., Miss. 
Doryodon serratus Gibbes. Ala., Fla. 



3oooj3tty 



>>■ ■;. a Lope 



The Cctacca. 



SQUALODONTID^, 

Leidy. N. J., Md. 

vinearuis Leidy. Mass. (Martha's Vineyard.) 
" holmesii Leidy. S. C. 

pelagius Leidy. S. C. 
" pygczmus Miiller. S. C. 

protej-vm Cope. S. C. 



Delphinodon mento Cope. S. C. 

" wymanii Leidy. S. C. 

venustus Leidy. S. C. 

Lophocettis calvertensis Harlan. Md. 

Priscodelphinus grandtzvus Leidy {=P. harlani Leidy). N.J. 
" laccrtosus Cope. Md. 

" gabbii Cope. Md. 

" urceus Cope. N. J. 

" mschenbergerii Cope. Md. 

Zarhachis flagcllator Cope. Md. 
tysonii Cope. Md. 
velox Cope. N. J. 
Ixacanthns caelospondylus Cope. Md. 
" spinosus Cope. Md. 

" atropius Cope. Md. 

conradi Leidy. Va., Md.' 
stenus Cope. Md. 
Rhabdosteus latiradix Cope. Md. 
Agabehis porcatus Cope. N. J. 



Cctophis heteroclitus Cope. Md. 
Saurocctus gibbsii Agass. S. C. 



Phvscter vctus Leidy. N. C. 

« comutidens Leidy. N. C, Md. 

" quadratidens Leidy. N. C. 
Hoplocetus obesus Leidy. S. C. 
Oioncziphius trachops Leidy. S. C. 



6i6 


The American Naturalist. 




Us Hops Leidy. S. C. 




ccdops Leidy. S. C. 




macrops Leidy. S. C. 




chonops Leidy. S. C. 


Mcsoplodo) 


i prorops Leidy. S. C. 




DELPHINID/E. . . . . . . 


Delphinaptevus vcrmontanus Thompson. Vt, Canada. 




orcinus Cope. N. C. 


Dephinus c 


vciduus Leidy. Cal. 




bal#:nid,e, 


Cetotherim 


n pitsillum Cope. Md. 




cxpansum Cope. Md. 




priscum Leidy. Va. 




- rum Cope. N. C. 




mysticctoides Emmons. N. C. 




ccplialus Cope. - Md. 




Icptoccntrum Cope. Va. 


Balcenopte 


ra palaatlantica Leidy. Va. 




davidsomi Cope. Cal. 


Mesotcras 


kerrianus Cope. N. C. 


Total number of species, 



52 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

Plate XyL,—Choneziphius semijunctus Cope. One-tenth natural size. 
From photographs of the type in the Museum of Charleston, S. C, taken by 
Lieut. Vogdes, U.S.A. Fig. 1. Cranium from above; 2, cranium from 
below ; 3, extremity of the mandible, with teeth. 

Plate XXI. — Delphinapterus lencas Pallas. One-thirteenth natural size. 
From a skeleton in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, obtained by Dr. I. I. Hayes, from Baffin's Bay. Type of 
Beluga concreta Cope. 

Plate XXII. — Cetotherhtm cephalus Cope. Restoration, one-eighteenth 
natural size ; the portions shaded are the actual specimens of one individual 
found in the Miocene of Maryland, and now in the Museum of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Described by E. D. Cope in its Pro- 
ceedings, 1867, p. 148. 

Plate XXIII. — Balcena cisarctica Cope. Type specimen as mounted in 
the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia; one- 
thirty -seventh natural size. Fig. 1, side view; Figs. 2, 3, 4, periotic bones 
from side, end, and below ; Fig. 5, cervical vertebrae, oblique inferior view. 



THE CONCRESCENCE THEORY OF THE VERTE- 
BRATE EMBRYO. 



The Mcroblastic Embryo. — Considerations of practical conven- 
ience have led to the custom of distinguishing in the develop- 
ment of meroblastic ova the embryonic from the extra-embryonic 
portions. The distinction is in reality entirely arbitrary, for the 
whole of the ovum is included, morphologically speaking, within 
the body of the embryo. Custom has led to designating the 
two parts as the embryo and the yolk ; the student should be 
careful not to allow himself 
to be misled by these terms. 
In the laboratory it is a gen- 
eral practice to remove the 
so-called " embryo " from the 
yolk, and in doing this the 
entoderm ic cavity loses its 
inferior wall, to wit, the ento- 
dermic yolk. Let the rela- 
tions be represented by the 
accompanying diagram, the 
embryo being drawn very 
much too large in proportion 
to the yolk for the sake of 
clearness. Suppose the lay- 



. be , 



ugh on the 




lines, x x' \ we could then | 

remove the embryonic por- % c 

tion. This is what is actually yolk - 

done in practice. It is very important to understand clearly that 

the yolk is part of the embryo, and that our sections usually 

represent only a torso. 



6 1 8 



The Amen vi Xdtunu st 



[July. 



StructUri : ak. — For our purposes it is con- 

venient to give i°, a general comparative account ; 2°, a more 
detailed description of the mammalian ovum up to the stage with 
completed primitive streak. 

i°. Vertebt — It is advisable to begin with 

the consideration of the arrangement as we find it in eggs of 
marsipobranchs, ganoids, and amphibians, since these eggs are 
probably more primitive in their mode of development than those 
of other vertebrates. The points of most importance in my 
judgment are illustrated in Fig. II, A and B. In A, we have a 
section through the middle portion of a partly-formed primitive 




streak of an axolotl, the streak still requiring considerable additions 
at its hinder end before attaining its full length ; the archenteric 
cavity, Ae, is a large space bounded above by an epithelium, en, 
and below by the large mass of yolk-cells ; the two-layered 
ectoderm, Ec, everywhere bounds the section ; above the archen- 
teron and below the ectoderm lies the accumulation of cells con- 
stituting the primitive streak,//-; the lateral prolongations, Mes, 
of the streak represent the commencing mesodermic outgrowths ; 
whether the mesoderm grows out from the primitive streak, and 



1890.] Concrescence Theory of the Vertebrate Embryo. 619 

subsequently expands solely by its own proliferation, or whether 
it receives at its periphery accretions from the yolk-cells, is uncer- 
tain. I am inclined to think that the mesoderm does at first receive 
additions from the yolk. In B we have a similar section, but of 
an older stage, and through the hind end of the nearly full-grown 
streak ; the general arrangement is the same as in A ; we note 
the following differences : the primitive streak, Pr, is very thick, 
and composed of numerous small cells, and its lateral mesodermic 
expansions, Mes, extend further around the ovum. In both sec- 
tions we see that the cells of the primitive streak are not marked 
off from those of the adjoining, entoderm. In a longitudinal sec- 
tion, as is illustrated by that of a sturgeon, Fig. 7, ante, p. 510, 
we see that the mesoderm or tissue of the primitive streak runs 
way forward, and is thickest around the blastopore. The dispo- 
sition of the parts and the appearance of the cells vary in the 
three groups we are considering, but for our purpose it is un- 
necessary to describe these secondary differences. The points 
essential to note are that the primitive streak is formed by 
mesoderm, which is accumulated along the line, and is thickest 
around the blastopore, and which spreads laterally between the 
ectoderm and entoderm ; in the axial region the mesoderm is 
not separated from the entoderm ; the blastopore passes through 
the thick hind end of the streak. 

In elasmobranchs the differentiation of the axial tissues begins 
in the embryonic rim before concrescence takes place, so that while 
the type affords peculiarly conclusive evidence of concrescence, it 
is less convenient for the study of the primitive streak since the 
hind end of the primitive streak is, as it were, divided, being con- 
tinued as the embryonic rim right and left. The degree of dif- 
ferentiation varies extremely ; in Pristiurus the mesoderm grows 
out from the embryonic rim ; in Scyllium the mesoderm grows 
out, and the differentiation of the notochord begins ; in Torpedo 
(Riickert, 48, 101) the myotomes appear in the embryonic rim be- 
fore concrescence, as in Elacate among teleosts. The relations 
are further complicated by the advance in development of the 
; while concrescence is going on, so that, as for in- 



620 The American Naturalist. [July, 

stance in Pristiurus, Rabl, 44, 1 16-129, the notochord may be 
differentiated while the mesoderm is still developing in the em- 
bryonic rim. The precocious changes in the embryonic rim de- 
mand especial attention when the origin of the mesoderm is dis- 
cussed. The ectoderm, as soon as it becomes one-layered, con- 
sists of high cylinder cells. As development progresses the ecto- 
derm thins out except at either side of the axial line. The meso- 
derm arises from the entoderm, close to the ectental line, and is 
there quite thick, but as it stretches away it thins out. Now, if 
it be remembered that the ectental line becomes the axial line 
when concrescence takes place it is evident that this mesodermic 
thickening of the entoderm is in reality axial thickening, and 
when concrescence takes place it fuses with the corresponding 
thickening of the opposite side and constitutes an actual axial 
thickening or true primitive streak ; but in elasmobranchs as soon 
as the anterior axial structures have concrcsced we find by preco- 
cious development that the notochord and medullary groove ap- 
pears ; now, as I have shown elsewhere, the appearance of these 
structures causes the division of the axial mesoderm into com- 
pletely separated right and left portions. It is only by keeping 
the process of concrescence and the precocious development of 
the parts constantly in mind that we can understand the develop- 
ment in elasmobranchs or compare it rightly with that of other 
types. From what has been said it is clear that a section of the 
blastodermic rim from which the mesoderm was just growing out 
would correspond to half a section of, say, a bird's ovum through 
the primitive streak, and upon comparison it will be found that all 
the essential relations are identical. 

The structure of the primitive streak in birds has been re- 
peatedly investigated and the subject of much discussion. As 
the observations of Duval, 17, iS, appear to me the most 
thorough, and as my own preparations have enabled me to 
confirm many of his statements, I follow in the main that author. 
Duval's statements have also, been verified in many essential 
points by Zumstein, 6g. Other important authorities to be con- 
sulted are K611iker in both his text-books ; His 2S, 28, 20, etc.: 



1890.] Concrescence Tin 

Koller, 31 ; Disse, 13, 1 
Gasser, 21, 22 ; Rauber, 4 

The following descrip- 
tion applies" to the hen's 
egg. When the egg is laid 
the centre of the segmen- 
ted blasto-disc presents a 
circular area of lighter 
color; during the first 
few hours of incubation 
this area pcllucida, as it 
is called, becomes more 



goes on the area pcllu- sflRi^ fH I 'i "' -f"\^ 

cida expands, and the \ 

primitive streak appears * a - 
in it excentrically be- p| . 

tween the eighth and FlG I2 ._ Ar ea peiiucida of a 1 
twelfth hour. By the [JJgff^J 
sixteenth hour the primi- P*< primitive groove, x 20 diam. 
tive streak has its full length. The rate of development is ex- 
tremely variable, autumn eggs developing more slowly than 
spring eggs ; the eggs vary also individually, and are moreover 
much influenced by the temperature of their incubation. For 
a fuller discussion of these variations see His, 23, 56-63. Seen 
from the surface the area pcllucida with completed streak presents 
the following features: the area pcllucida, ap, is considerably 
elongated and somewhat pear-shaped, being widest at the anterior 
end of the primitive groove, pt ; this groove is well marked as 
a narrow and shallow furrow, which begins some distance from 
the anterior edge of the area, and ends just before reaching the 
posterior edge of the area ; the front end of the furrow usually 
bends slightly to the left, but not invariably, as Koller and Rabl 
have maintained, for it sometimes bends to the right or is quite 
straight ; a line of granules is sometimes noticeable above the 
primitive groove ; they were seen by Dursy, /. c, and are called 
by Duval, 17, p. 1 5, the. mpare Gasser, 14. The 



622 The American Naturalist. [July, 

portion of the area pellucida immediately around the primitive 
groove appears slightly darker than the rest. The anterior 
portion of the pellucida is further distinguished by the ante- 
rior crescent, ct, the " vordere Aussenfalte " of His, 25, and 
other German writers. The anterior crescent is a temporary ap- 
pearance due, according to Duval, to a series of folds of the ento- 
derm, which forms a curving row of shallow pockets, that, shining 
through, mark out the crescent. The crescent disappears a little 
later, and there arises, nearly if not quite in its place, a new fold, 
the amniotic. The similarity of position has led to the anterior 
crescent being identified by some authors with the true amniotic 
fold, 
■mes Ec En A B C 



Longitudinal and transverse sections are very instructive. We 
begin with the examination of a longitudinal section of a some- 
what younger stage, in which the blastopore is open. Later the 
ectoderm closes behind the primitive streak, as already stated, 
and spreads backward over the yolk. The section shows that 
the yolk is not divided into cells, although nuclei are scattered 
through it; the nuclei are represented as black dots in A and C. 
The cavity of the archenteron, Ack, is enlarged by the formation 
of a deep pit in the yolk, while the posterior half of the cavity 



1890.] Concrescence Theory of the Vertebrate Embryo. 623 

remains a narrow fissure between the cellular entoderm, Ent, and 
the yolk ; the archenteron communicates with the exterior by 
the blastopore, bl. The entoderm is a loosely put together 
stratum of Cells, which passes over anteriorly into a ridge of the 
yolk in which cells are being produced around the already 
accumulated nuclei ; this ridge, k w, is the germinal wall. Poste- 
riorly the cell layers are much thicker, A ; the ectoderm is clearly 
differentiated from the underlying cells, which are all more or 
less alike, though they represent both the entoderm and meso- 
derm. From this connection and from the fact that the con- 
nection between the ectoderm and mesoderm, which is so well 
known to exist after the primitive streak has attained its full 



%fe 



length, Duval concludes that the mesoderm arises primitively 
from the entoderm. Transi < r& A ctu ns afford additional informa- 
tion. The accompanying figure, 14, represents cross sections of 
a germinal area the primitive streak of which has attained about 
one-half its full length. The first section, Fig. 14, A, passes 
through the anterior region of the area pellucida ; it shows the 
large cavern, Ach, of the archenteron hollowed out in the yolk ; 
the entoderm, Ent, above the cavity is a thin layer of cells, con- 
nected laterally with a projecting shelf of yolk, kw (the bourrelet 
cnti it;--.; i-vitcllin of Duval), which is rich in nuclei, and subse- 



624 The American Naturalist. [July 

quently expands very far and acquires a more cellular character; 
this shelf is the commencement, therefore, of the Keimwall of 
German writers. Immediately above the entoderm and intimate- 
ly connected with it are a few cells which belong to the meso- 
derm, C, Mes ; the ectoderm is quite thick, C, Ec, and consists 
of high columnar cells ; towards its periphery the ectoderm thins 
out, and its edge rests upon the yolk, with which it has no con- 
nection. In the region of the primitive streak, Fig. 14, B, 
the fundamental relations are the same, but there are important 
differences to note. The entodermic cavity, Ach, is very much 
smaller ; the mesoderm is much thicker, and in the axial region 
fuses with both the ectoderm and entoderm, thus forming the 
A hsenstrang (axial cord) of German writers ; the mesoderm also 
spreads out over the yolk far beyond the archenteric cavity, about 
one-third of the way from the axial line to the distal edge of the 
ectoderm; the ectoderm is disposed about as in the previous 
section, except that in the centre it merges into the mesoderm 
and presents externally a small notch corresponding to the section 
of the primitive groove. There appears to me no satisfactory 
evidence that the mesoderm receives, as some writers have main- 
tained, peripheral additions from the yolk. In both sections the 
yolk under the blastoderm contains numerous nuclei near its 

Modifications very soon ensue in the Sauropsida (birds and rep- 
tiles) by which the disposition of the mesoderm is considerably 
changed, especially in three respects, namely : by the appearance 
of the so-called head process (Kopffortsatz), by the axial connec- 
tion of the mesoderm with the ectoderm, and by its losing in part 
its connection with the mesoderm. During these changes the 
archenteron expands rapidly, the archenteron expands rapidly, 
the entoderm becomes very thin in the region of the are apellucida, 
and passes more and more abruptly, as development progresses, 
into the so-called germinal wall of the area opaca ; finally the 
ectoderm becomes thinner peripherally ; so that the axial thicker 
part is gradually marked off more and more abruptly. Sections 
of a stage with a primitive groove at its maximum, — a stage 
which is usually found towards the end of the first day of incu- 



lego.] Concrescence Theory of the Vertebrate Embryo. 625 

bation, — show three changes clearly. A cross section through 
the area opaca in front of the area pellucida shows the thin ecto- 
derm, the thick cellular entoderm overlying the archenteric 
cavity and charged with yolk granules ; the entodermic nuclei are 
very variable in form and irregular in distribution f the cell boun- 
daries are indistinct. There is no mesoderm. A cross section 
near the front of the area pellucida likewise shows only ectoderm 
and entoderm ; the former is a high cylinder epithelium over the 
area pellucida and thins out towards the opaca on each side ; the 
latter is a thin layer over the area pellucida, and passes quickly 
but not abruptly into the very thick yolk-bearing entoderm (or 
Keimwall) of the area opaca. Sections a short distance in front 
of the primitive groove show that the head process 1 h 
is a forward prolongation of the primitive streak and consists of an 



tive groove. The black dots represent yolk granules. 

axial accumulation of the mesodermic cells, fused with the ento- 
derm, and having broad extensions sideways to form the mesoderm 
beeween the outer and inner germ-layers ; the lateral portions of 
the mesoderm have no connection with the outer germ-layers, and 
at its distal edge the mesoderm thins out and rests upon the ento- 
derm of the opaca, but without being connected with it; I cannot 
find any satisfactory evidence that it receives any additions from 
the opaca entoderm, as many authors have maintained. The ecto- 
derm in the region of the Kopffortsatz resembles that further 
forward, but it very soon shows a faint median furrow, the so- 
called dorsal groove ;/.'. is the commencement 
of the medullar}* groove. In the anterior half of the primitive 
streak the relations are similar to those in the head process, ex- 



626 The American Naturalist. [July, 

cept that the ectoderm shows the primitive groove, Fig. 15, 
and is fused with the axial cord (Achsenstrang) of the mesoderm, 
so that in the axial region the three layers are united. In the 
posterior region of the primitive groove the connection of the 
mesoderm with the inner germ layer is dissolved, but the connec- 
tion with the entoderm is retained. Behind the primitive groove 
the mesoderm extends, but lies free between the ectoderm and en- 
toderm. To recapitulate : — There is a long axial mesodermic 
thickening, which has the primitive groove over its posterior two- 
thirds ; the thickening in front of the groove is united with the 
entoderm and is called the head process ; the thickening under 
the front half of the groove is united with both the ectoderm and 
entoderm ; the thickening under the hind half of the groove is 
united only with the entoderm^ it is to be remembered that the 
mesoderm arises from the entoderm, and its connection with the 
ectoderm is, it seems to me, to be considered secondary. 

A comparative examination of the primitive streak, as described 
for various classes in the preceding pages, shows that it has a re- 
markable uniformity of organization. In all types it consists of 
an axial accumulation of mesodermic cells; this mesodermal 
axial cord overlies the archenteron, and sends out mesodermic 
tissue in a widening sheet between the ectoderm and entoderm, 
headwards, sideways, and backwards ; the mesoderm is thickest 
posteriorly, i. e., in the region of the blastopore ; when it first ap- 
pears it is intimately connected with the entoderm except in the 
neighborhood of the blastopore, where both entoderm and meso- 
derm unite with ectoderm. The mesoderm constitutes an axial 
mass, and offers no trace of a bilateral division or origin. Such 
a division is produced secondarily by the meeting of the medul- 
lary and notochordal grooves. The ectoderm in the region of 
the primitive streak consists of high cylinder cells, but it gradu- 
ally thins out toward the embryonic rim. The entoderm on the 
dorsal side of the archenteron consists of discrete cells, which 
soon acquire a distinctly epithelial arrangement ; laterally and in 
front it passes over into the yolk, which may be cellular or a 
multinucleate mass. These features recur in all the types we 
have studied, though the variations are very great. In the imme- 



i8go.] Concrescence Theory of the Vertebrate Embryo. 627 

diately following stages there is a rapid expansion of the meso- 
derm, in all directions, and also an expansion of the archenteric 
cavity, which is especially noticeable in meroblastic ova. The 
relations of the blastopore are discussed below. 

2°. Mammalian primitive streak. — The description of the primi- 
tive streak has to be preceded by an account of the changes in 
the blastodermic vesicle from the close of segmentation to the 
appearance of the primitive streak. 

Mammalian '''las/ >,L nine reside. — After the close of segmenta- 
tion we find that the inner mass becomes flattened out, and in the 
region it occupies we can distinguish three layers of cells, as 
previously described, first, counting from the outside the thin 
layer of cells known as Rauber's " Deckschicht ; " second, a 
middle layer of cylindrical cells, which becomes the ectoderm ; 
third, an inmost layer of thin flattened cells, which belong to the 
entoderm ; the " Deckschicht " continues round the whole 
vesicle as a single layer ; the others layers do not so continue. 

The next step in development is the formation of a second 
layer which spreads out in all directions from the region of the 

as the new layer reaches 
the blastodermic vesicle be- 
comes two-layered. Mean- 
while the " Deckschicht " 
disappears, leaving two lay- 
ers in the region of the inner 
mass ; it is to be remarked 
that the " Deckschicht " is 
retained in certain rodents, 
m^HI ^^m undergoing special modifi- 
tion as described in the 
ction on inversion of the 
fig. 16.— Blastodermic vesicle of a ^abbit of germ-layers. The stage in 

hield; ge\ line,' above which the vesicle is two which the Vesicle is partly 

two -layered, while the 
1 Deckschicht" is still present, is exemplified in Fig. 16. 
Blastocyst of the rabbit of six days. — The development is ex- 




6 2 8 The American Naturalist. [July, 

ceedingly variable, so that exact times cannot be given. The gen- 
eral appearance is illustrated by Fig. 16. from Kolliker. The 
vesicle figured was 4.4 mm. in length ; the envelopes of the ovum 
are not shown, though they were still present ; at the upper pole 
is the small embryonic shield, corresponding in position to the 
inner mass; it is marked out by the greater thickness of the 
walls of the vesicle ; the developing second layer extends over 
more than half the vesicle, reaching to the line ge. 

The following is a summary of Ed. van Beneden's description, 
2, 185-200, of the blastodermic vesicle of a rabbit at 6 days, I 1 /, 
hours after coitus. The vesicle measured 3.2 mm. in diameter; 
it was nearly spherical ; the wall of one hemisphere consisted of 
one layer of cells ; the other hemisphere had two layers of cells, 
and besides in its central portion a third layer intervening between 
the other two. The area with three layers van Beneden desig- 
nates as the tackt m nna , it showed no trace of the primi- 
tive streak ; it was oval in outline, and had one point, which the 
author identifies as Hensen's knot, where the layers adhere to- 
gether closely. Transverse sections show that the outermost 
layer of cells is a low cylinder epithelium, which at the edge of 
the area passes into a thin epithelium quite abruptly ; it corre- 
sponds to Rauber's " Dcckschicht" and has been said by him to 
flatten out and disappear, leaving the cells underneath as the outer 
layer of the embryonic vesicle in later stages, compare the fol- 
lowing paragraph. The cells of the innermost layer are thin and 
wide ; they are called the hypoblast (entoderm) by van Beneden ; 
the ceils themselves have round nuclei, around each of which is 
accumulated a court of granular protoplasm ; the adjacent courts 
are connected by a coarse meshwork of protoplasmic threads ; 
treatment with nitrate of silver brings out the cell boundaries, 
and divides the reticulum into polygonal areas. The cells of 
the present outermost layer have distinct boundaries and contain 
granules, and long bacilliform bodies, which van Beneden saw 
also in the fresh specimens, and found to be constant appear- 
ances. Similar bodies are found in the germinal vesicles of 
sheep, and are held by Bonnet, 10, to be derived from the uterine 
milk ; the rabbit is not known to have uterine milk. The histo- 



x8 9 o.] History of Garden Vegetables. 

logical peculiarities of these two layers remain about the same from 
the fifth to the eighth day. The middle layer consists of rounded 
cells with numerous granules ; seen from the surface their di- 
ameter is greater than that of the cells outside them, but much 
less than that of the cells underlying them. While we know 
that the middle layers are ectodermal, it is uncertain whether the 
inner layer is really entodermal or really belongs with the two 
outer layers as part of the primitive blastoderm or ectoderm ; 
in the latter case, the true entoderm of the archenteron must arise 
later, as we must consider probable also for the reason that the 
primitive streak is not yet formed. 



HISTORY OF GARDEN VEGETABLES. 



rocket salad, hrassica erne a L. 
'"PHIS strong and to most persons offensive plant has been long 
under culture, and is even now highly esteemed by the 
Greeks and Turks, who prefer it to any other salad. 1 It was cul- 
tivated by the ancient Romans. Albertus Magnus 2 in the thir- 
teenth century speaks of it in gardens ; so also does Ruellius 3 in 
1536, who uses nearly the present French name, roqueta. In 
1586 Camerarius* says it is planted most abundantly in gardens. 
In 1726 Townsend' says it is not now very common in English 
gardens, and in 1807 Miller's Dictionary says it has been long 
rejected. It was in American gardens in 1854 or earlier/ and 
is yet included by Vilmorin 8 among European vegetables. 

» Ruellius. De Nat. Stirp., 1536, 513. 



Pat. Off. Rept., 1854. 



630 The American Naturalist. [July, 

Rocket or Rocket Salad is called in France, roquette, cresson de 
fontaine, salade de vingt-quatre heures ; in Germany, raitke, 
senfkohl ; in Flanders, krapkool ; in Holland, rakettc kriad ; in 
Italy, ricola, ruca, ruccola, ruchetta, rucola ; in Spain, jar amago, 
oruga, raqueta ; in Portugal, pinchao ; % in Greece, aromatos, 
Egypt, djaerdjir ; 9 in Arabic, gcrgyr.™ 

Rosmarinus officinalis L. 

This aromatic herb, whose leaves are sometimes used for sea- 
soning, had many virtues ascribed to it by Pliny, and it is also 
mentioned by Dioscorides and Galen. It was also familiar to 
the Arab physicians of Spain in the thirteenth century, and is 
mentioned in an Anglo-Saxon herbal of the eleventh century. 11 
The first notice I find of its use as a condiment is by Lignamine 
in 1475, 12 who describes Rosemary as the usual condiment with 
salted meats. In 1783 it is described by Bryant 13 as so common 
in gardens as to be known to every one, and it also finds men- 
tion in nearly all the earlier botanies. In 1778 Mawe u names 
four varieties, the common narrow-leaved, broad-leaved, the 
silver-striped, and gold-striped leaved. It was in American gar- 
dens in 1806 or earlier. 

Rosemary is called in France, romarin, euccusoir, hcrbe aux 
couronnes ; in Germany, rosmarin ; in Flanders and Holland, 
rozemarijn ; in Denmark, rosmarin ; in Italy, rosmarino ; in 
Spain, romero ; in Portugal, alecrim; 15 in Greece, dendrolibanon ; 16 
in Arabic, klyl, aselban, 17 vkleehd-jilbal, hasalban-acksir , M in 
India, bubureeah}^ in Tagalo, romero?® 



>Delile. Fl. Aeg. III. 

1 Pharmacographia, 1879, 488. 

! Lignamine. De Conserv. Sar 

1 Mawe. Gard., 1778. 

6 Hogg. Hookers Jour, of Bo, 
1 Delile. Fl. Aeg., 111. 



1890.] History of Garden Vegetables. 631 

rue. Ruta graveolens L. 

The leaves of Rue, although of a strong odor, disagreeable to 
some people, are occasionally used for seasoning, and the 
Italians and Greeks are said to eat them in salads. It was for- 
merly in request, and the Romans seem to have appreciated it 
highly; and Pliny 21 devotes more than a just space in enumerat- 
ing its virtues, and speaks of wine flavored with Rue as among 
the viands distributed to the populace by a Roman consul. In 
the book on cookery by Apicius 22 in the third century we find 
Rue used among 'the condiments. In the thirteenth century 
Albertus Magnus 2 '' 5 describes Rue among garden esculents, and 
praises it. At a later period its garden culture is mentioned in 
the early botanies and in the earlier works on gardening. In 
1806 McMahon 24 mentions it among the medicinal herbs for 
American gardens. Two varieties, the broad-leaved and the 
narrow-leaved, were known to Burr 2 * in 1863, to Mawe* in Eng- 
land in 1778, and apparently to Tragus 27 in Germany in 1552. 

Rue or herb grace is called in France, rue ; in Germany, 
raute, weinraute ; in Holland, wijnruit ; in Spain, rudaf* in 
Norway, viiurude ; 29 in Italy, ruta ; in Greece, peganos , M in 
Arabia, schedab ; 31 in India, satoora, aloodu ; 32 in Japan, mats 
kase so. 33 

ruta-baga. Brassica napo-brassica. 

The Ruta-bagas of our gardens include two forms, the one with 
white flesh, the other with yellow. The French call these two 
classes chou-navets and Ruta-bagas. The chou-navet or Brassica 
napo-brassica communis A. P. DC. has either purple or white 

« Pliny. Lib., XX., c. 51 1 XIX.. 4 5- 

» Albertus Magnus. De Veg., Jessen Ed., 1867, 148. 

" McMahon. Am. Gard. Kal., 1806. 

« Burr. Field and Gard. Veg., 1863, 573. 

"Mawe. Gard.. 1778. 

» Tragus. De Stirp., 1552, 68. 



m Pickering. Ch. Hist., 271. 

si Forskal. Ft Aeg. Arab., CXI. 

32 Speede. Ind. Handh. of Gard., 185. 

33 Thunberg. Jap., 180. 
Am. Nat.-July.-3. 



632 The American Naturalist. [j u i y , 

roots ; the Ruta-baga or B. napo-brassica Ruta-baga A. P. DC- 
has a more regular root, round or oval, yellow both without and 
within. 34 In English nomenclature, while now the two forms are 
called by a common name, yet formerly the first constituted the 
turnip-rooted cabbage. In 1806 the distinction was retained in 
the United States, McMahon 35 describing the turnip-rooted cabbage 
and the Swedish turnip or Roota-baga. As a matter of con- 
venience we shall describe these two classes separately. 

The first description of the white-rooted form that I note is by 
Bauhin 36 in his Prodromus, 1620, and it is. named again in his 
Pinax, 37 1623, who calls it napo-brassica. In 1686, Ray 38 appar- 
ently did not know it in England, as he quotes Bauhin's name 
and description, which states that it is cultivated in Bohemia and 
is eaten, but Morison 39 in 1669 catalogues it among the plants in 
the royal gardens. In France it is named by Tournefort, 40 in 
1 700, Brassica radice napiformi or chou-navet. In 1 7 7 8 these were 
called in England turnip cabbage with the turnip underground, 
and in the United States, in 1806, turnip-rooted cabbage, as noted 
above. 35 There are. three varieties described by Vilmorin, 41 one 
of which is purple at the collar, and apparently these same 
varieties are named by Noisette 42 in 1829, and the white, and the 
red-collared by Pirolle 43 in 1824, under the names chou-navet, chou 
turnip, and chou de Lapland. This class, as Don 44 says in 183 1, 
is little known in English gardens, though not uncommon in 
French horticulture. 

The Ruta-baga is said by Sinclair, in the account of the system 
of husbandry in Scotland, to have been introduced into Scotland 
about 1 78 1-2, and a quotation in the Gardeners' Chronicle? says 

M Decandolle. Mem. on Brassica, 1821, 25. 

K McMahon. Am. Gard. Kal., 1806. 

36 Bauhin. Prodromus, 1671, 54. 

" Bauhin. Pin., 1623, III. 

=» Ray. Hist., 1686, 797 . 

M Morison. Hon. Reg. Bles., 1669, 31. 

« Vilmorin. Les PL Pot.,' 143. 

* Pirolle. L'Hort. Fran., 1824. 

** Don. Gar. and Bot. Diet., I., 241. 

« Gard Chron., 1853, 346- 



1890.] History of Garden Vegetables. 633 

it was introduced into England in 1790. I find no earlier 
references. It is mentioned in 1806 by McMahon as in American 
gardens, and in 18 17 there is a record of an acre of this crop in 
Illinois. 46 The vernacular names all indicate an origin in Sweden 
or Northern Europe. It is called Swedish turnip or Roota-baga 
by McMahon in 1806, by Miller's Dictionary in 1807, by Cob- 
bett in 1 821, and by other authors to the present time. Decan- 
dolle in 1821 calls it navct jattne, navet de Swede, chou de 
Laponie, and chou de Suede. Pirolle in 1824 Ruta-baga or chou 
navct de Suede, as does Noisette in 1829. In 182 1 Thorburn 
calls it Ruta-baga or Russian turnip, and a newspaper writer in 
1835 47 calls it Ruta-baga, Swedish turnip, Lapland turnip. The 
foreign names given by Don in 1831 include many of the above- 
named and the Italian navone di Laponia. Vilmorin, 41 in his Les 
Plantes Potageres, 1883, describes three varieties, one with a 
green collar, one with a purple collar, and a third which is early. 
The modern names for the species are : In English, Swedish 
turnip, Ruta-baga ; in England also, turnip-rooted cabbage and 
Swede; in France, chou-navets, chou-ravc en terre, chou tumep ; 
in Germany, kohlrube, erd-oder unter-koJdrabi, wruekenrube ; in 
Flanders, steekrapp ; in Holland, koolraapen onder den grand ; 
in Denmark, roe ; in Italy, eavalo navone ; in Spain, col nabo, 
nabicol ; in Portugal, couve nabo ; a in Sweden, rot-kaJ; 48 in 
India, lal shulghum.® 

saffron. Crocus sativus L. 
This plant is hardly deserving of mention, as its presence in 
the kitchen-garden is scarcely ever noted. Saffron, however, as 
a medicine, condiment, perfume, or dye, has been highly prized by 
mankind from a remote period. Under the Hebrew name, car- 
corn, the plant is alluded to by Solomon ; and as krohos by 
Homer, Hippocrates, Theophrastus, and Theocritus. Virgil and 
Columella mention it, and Cilicia and Sicily are both alluded to 
by Dioscorides and Pliny as localities celebrated for this drug. 

"Pat. Of. Rept., 1854, 198. 
«Tengborg. Hort. Culin., 1764. 



634 The American Naturalist. [July, 

Throughout the middle ages frequent notices are found of its 
commerce and cultivation. A most interesting resume of the 
history of Saffron may be found in the Pharmacographia by 
Fluckiger and Hanbury. 

Saffron is called in France, safran ; in Germany, saframpflance ; 
in Italy, zafferano ; in Spain, azafran ; m in Greece, krokos ; in 
Egyptian, methaio ; 51 in Arabic, koorkum zafran ; in Burma, 
thauwen ; in Hindustani, zofran key stir ; in Malay, saffaron coon- 
yer ; in Persian, kerkum ; in San- btnkunm } 

in Tamil, klioongoomapoo ; in Telegu, khoonkoomapoo, kukuma™ 



sage. Salvia officinalis. 

This is one of the most important occupants of the herb gar- 
den, being commonly used for seasoning, and also in domestic 
medicine. It has been under cultivation from a remote period, 
and is considered to be the elelisphakos of Theophrastus, the 
elelisphakon of Dioscorides, the salvia of Pliny, and its medicinal 
virtues are noted by Oribasius, and others of the early writers on 
medicine. In the middle ages it found frequent mention, as by 
Albertus Magnus in the thirteenth century, and the plant and its 
uses are noticed in nearly all of the early botanies. Although but 
one variety is now grown in our gardens, yet formerly a number 
of sorts are noted, the red, green, small, and variegated being 
named by Worlidge 53 in 1683. Sage was in American gardens 
in 1806 54 and doubtless long before, and six varieties are de- 
scribed by Burr 59 in 1863, all of which can perhaps be included 
among the four mentioned in 1683, and all by Mawe in 1778. 

Sage is called in France, sauge officinale, grande sauge, herbe 
sacree ; in Germany, salbei ; in Flanders and Holland, salie ; in 
Italy, salvia ; in Spain, salvia ; in Portugal, molho , M in Norway, 



1 Pickering. Ch. Hist., 115. 
1 Birdwood. Veg. Rod. of Bomb., 
r J. W. Gent, 1683, 2 



Am. ( 

84 Burr. Field and Gard. Veg., 1863, 438. 
^Vilmorin. Les. PI. Pot., 546. 



History of Garden I 



salsify. Tragopogon pomfolium L. 

In the thirteenth century Albertus Magnus 61 describes a wild 
plant, Oculus porce or flos campi, which commentators identify 
with the salisfy, as having a delectable root, which is eaten, but he 
makes no mention of cultivation. It is described, but apparently 
not under kitchen garden culture by Matthiolus in 1 5 70 and 1 598," 
but not mentioned by him in 1558, when he refers to the yellow- 
flowered species ; there is no mention of culture by Camerarius 63 
in 1586, but in 1587 Dalechamp 64 says it is planted in gardens. 
In 1597 Gerarde 65 describes it, but apparently as an inmate of 
the flower garden. In 16 12 Le Jardinier Solitaire speaks of it 
as under kitchen garden culture in France, and in 16 16 Dodo- 
naeus, 66 J. Bauhin 67 in 165 1, and Ray ftS in 1686, refer to it as ap- 
parently cultivated. After this period its culture seems to have 
been quite general, as it is referred to in the works on gardening, 
beginning with Quintyne, in 1693. It was in American gardens 
prior to 1806. There are no varieties, and the drawings of an 
early period indicate as improved a root as is now commonly 
grown. 

The Salisfy or oyster plant is called in France, salsifs, cereifx, 
salsifx blanc, barberon ; in Germany, haferworzel ; in Flanders, 
haverwortel ; in Denmark, havrerod ; in Italy, barba di becco, 
salsifia ; in Spain, salsifi bianco; in Portugal, cercifi ; in Brazil, 



*» Hogg. Hook. Jour, of Bot., i, i; 

59 Speede. Ind. Handb., of Gard., 

60 Birdwood. Veg. Prod, of Bomb. 

61 Albertus Magnus. De Veg., Jess 
« Matth. Comm., 1570, 379 ! Op., 1 



636 The American Naturalist. [July, 

cercefin ; 69 in Greece, trihoura; 70 in Norway, havrerod ; n in the 
Mauritius, salsifisP 

The yellow-flowered species, Tragopogon pratense L. 73 seems 
formerly to have been cultivated. The use of the root is noted 
by Matthiolus in 1558. In 1597 Gerarde notes it as a wild plant 
of England. In 1640 Parkinson recommends it as excellent for 
the table, and cultivated for this purpose. Vilmorin, in 1883, 
also mentions a yellow-flowered form as under occasional cul- 
ture, but he does not refer it decisively to this botanical species. 

samphire. CritJimitih :;. iritimnm L. 

The shoots of this seaside plant are pickled in vinegar, and it 
is even an object of garden culture for this purpose. The first 
mention of its culture that I find is by Quintyne, 74 in France, in 
1690; it is again mentioned by Stevenson, 75 in England, in 1765 ; 
and its use as a pot-herb by the poor, as well as a pickle, is no- 
ticed by Bryant 76 in 1783. It is noticed in American gardens in 
182 1. 77 

Samphire, Sampier, Sea Fennel, or Sea Samphier is called in 
France, perce-pierre , baeilc, christe marine, crete marine , fenouil 
des marais, fenouil marin, herbe de St. Pierre, passe-picrre, saxi- 
frage maritime ; in Germany, nteer-fenehel y steinbrech ; in Flan- 
ders and Holland, zeevenkel ; in Italy, bacicci, erba san-pietro, 
sassifraga ; in Spain, hinojo marino, pasa piedra ; in Portugal, 
fn fie ho marina j r 78 in Greece, almura or kretamon 79 

savory. Satureja sp. 

But two species of Savory are now included among the 

cultivated sorts, but it is not long since that four species occurred 

69 Vilmorin. Les. PI. Pot., 543. 

w Pickering. Ch. Hist., 625. 

« Schubeler. Culturpfl., 85. 

"Bojer. Hort. Maur.,190. 

73 Miller's Die, 1807. Mcintosh. Book of the Gard., II, 228. 

» Quintyne. Comp. Gard., 1693, 105. 

*•> Stevenson. Gard. Kal., 1765, 102. 

T6 Bryant. Fl. Diet., 1783, 136. 



1890.] History of Garden Vegetables. 637 

in our books on garden esculents, and yet another by earlier 
writers* This class of aromatics were known to the ancient Ro- 
mans, and were referred to under the name of satureia cunila and 
thymbra. 

The European names given to the Savory are : In France, 
sarriette ; in Germany, die saturei ; in Holland,^//; in Italy, 
sautoreggia ; in Spain, ajedrea ; in Portugal, segurelJia ; in Rus- 
sia, tschaber; in Denmark, saer ; in Poland, ozaH? 



Satitreja hortensis L. 

This species seems to be the satureja of Palladius 81 in the 
third century, and of Albertus Magnus 82 in the thirteenth, and is 
mentioned in England by Turner 83 in 1538, which would indicate 
its presence there at this date. It was. also well known to all the 
earlier botanists, and is mentioned as a common pot-herb by all 
the earlier writers on gardening. In 1783 Bryant' 4 says that 
besides being used as a pot-herb, it is frequently put into cakes, 
puddings, sausages, etc. It was in American gardens in 1806 or 
earlier, 85 and as an escape from gardens is now sparingly found 
in Ohio, Illinois, Nevada, etc. 86 The whole plant is highly odori- 
ferous, and it is usually preferred to the other species. 

Summer Savory is called in France, sarriette annuelle, sarriete 
commune, herbe de St. Julie n, sadree, savouree ; in Germany, 
bohnenkraut, pfefferkrant, kollkraut ; in Flanders and Holland, 
boonenkruid ; in Denmark, sar ; in Italy, santoreggia ; in Spain, 
ajedrea comun, sojulida ; in Portugal, segurelha ; 87 in Norway, 
sar ; ss in the Mauritius, sarriette?* 



Mcintosh. Bool 


: of the Gard 


.,11.. 238. 


Palladius. Lib., 






Albertus Magnus 


. DeVeg., 


Jessen Ed., 569. 



Satureja 

A species known to the earlier botanists, and probably known 
to the ancient culture, although I do not find it identified with 
any certainty. It is mentioned in Turner's Herbal in 1562, and 
this is as far back as we have printed registers ; but there can be 
little doubt but that this, with the summer savory, was much cul- 
tivated in far earlier times in England. 90 It was in American 
gardens in 1806. 85 The uses are the same with the preceding 
species. 

Winter Savory is called in France, sarriette vivace, sarriette des 
montagnes ; in Germany, winter bohnen-oder pfefferkraut ; in 
Spain, hisopielo® 

Satureja capitata L. 

This species is omitted from our most modern books on gar- 
dening, although recorded in American gardens as late as 1863. 91 
It is mentioned as under culture in many of the early works on 
botany and gardening. 

Headed Savory is called in France, thim de Crete? 1 



Satureja viminea L. 
A native of Jamaica, and introduced in Britain in 1783, and 
has two varieties. It was recorded by Burr, 91 in 1863, as in 
American gardens, but as little used. It is said to be much used 
for seasoning in its native country. It is not now recorded as in 
European cultivation. 

Satureja Juliana L. 
This Savory is mentioned by Gerade, 93 in 1597, as sown in gar- 
dens. It is a native of the Mediterranean countries, called in 
Greece, ussopo, in Egyptian, pesa/en. 9i Its name has disappeared 
from our seed catalogues. 



11 Burr. Field and Gard. Veg., 1863. 
n Tournefort. Inst., 1719, 196. 
8 Gerarde. Herbal, 1507, 461. 
* Pickering. Ch. Hist., 343 



1890.] History of Garden Vegetables. 639 

savoy cabbage. Brassica oleracea bullatta DC. 

This race of cabbage is distinguished by the blistered surface 
of their leaves, and by forming only a loose or little compact 
head. I am inclined to believe that the heading cabbages of the 
ancient Romans belonged to this class, as in their descriptions 
there are no indications of a firm head, and at a later period this 
form is named as if distinctly Roman. Thus Ruellius 95 in 1536 
describes under the name Romanos a loose heading sort of cab- 
bage, but does not describe it particularly as a Savoy. This sort 
probably is the Brassica italica tcnerrima glomcrosa ftore a/do fig- 
ured by J. Bauhin 96 in 165 1, its origin, judging from the name, 
being ascribed to Italy, and also figured by Chabraeus* 1677, 
under the same name, and with the additional names of Chou 
d'lialie and Chou de Savoy e. In the Adversaria 98 and elsewhere 
this kind is described as tender, and as not extending to the 
northern climates. I do not know of this form, so carefully pic- 
tured, as existing under culture, and it has doubtless been super- 
seded by better varieties. 

In the Savoy class three types are to be seen. The most 
common is the spherical-headed, next the long-headed or ellipti- 
cal, and lastly the conical. There are a number of varieties. In 
1883 Vilmorin describes fifteen in his Les Plantes Potageres, and 
names others. In the report of the New York Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station for 1886, thirteen varieties are described. 

The Spherical-Headed. This race is the most common, and 
occurs in various degrees of blistering, and in a large number of 
varieties. The following synonymy embraces this type : 

Brassica crispa. Matth., 1558,247; Pin., 1561, 162; Cam. 
epit, 1586, 249; Pancov., 1673, n. 614. 

B. alba crispa. Lugd., 1587, I., 520. 

B. patida crispa. Sabauda aestiva. Lob. ic, 1501, I., 244; 
Chabr., 1677, 269. 

B. sabauda. Ger., 1537, 247. 

B. sabauda crispa. Ger., 1. c. 

95 Ruellius. De Natura Stirpium, 1536, 477. 
* J. Bauhin. Hist., 1651, II., 827. 



640 The American Naturalist. [July, 

B. sabauda rugosa. J. Bauh., 165 1, II., 828. 
The Illiptical-Headed. This race has also a syonomy, and 
has been long known. 

Brassica sabauda hiberna. Lob. ic, 1591, I., 244. 

B. alba capite oblongo non penitus clause C. Bauhin, Phytopin., 

1596, 176; Pin., 1623, III. 

B. sabauda. Dod. Pempt, 16 16, 624." 

The Conical-Headed. Of this type I know of but one form, 
the Conical Savoy, the French synonyms chou milan a tete longue, 
chou /rise pointu, and chou milan pain de sucre. This variety 
finds mention in French works on gardening in 1824, 1826, and 
1829. 100 

The modern names of the Savoy Cabbage are : In France, 
choux de miln u cabus /rise, chou cloque, chou de 

Hollande, chou pancalier, chou de savoie; in Germany, wirsing, 
savoyerkohl, borskohl ; in Flanders and Holland, savooikool ; in 
Denmark, savoy kal ; in Italy, cavolo di milano, verza ; in Spain, 
col de milan, col risada, col lombarda ; in Portugal, saboia ; m in 
India, sikoree kobee. 102 

In ancient times it was called : In English, savoie cole, Ger.> 

1597, savoy cabbage, Ray, 1686; in France, chou de savoy e, 
Lyte, 1586, choux vers, Pin., 1561 ; in Germany, koel, Pin., 156 1, 
krauskol, Cam. Epit., 1586 ; in Dutch, savoy koolen, Lyte, 1586; 
in Italy, cavoli, verza, Pin., 1561, cavolo crespo, verza crespa, Cam. 
Epit, 1586 ; in Spain, colles or covves, Pin., 1561. 

A more minute examination would serve to identify nearly all 
of our sub- varieties with kinds named preceding 1830. 

scarlet runner bean. Phaseolus vmltiflorus Willd. 
This bean, a native of South America, was described and fig- 
ured by Cornutus 103 in 1635, under the name Faseolus puniceo 
/lore ; but it appears in Johnson's edition of Gerarde, 1633. It 
was first cultivated as an ornamental plant, and the first mention 



1 Vilmorin. Les PI. Pot., 1883, 121. 

2 Speede. Ind. Handb. of Gard., 1842, 113. 

a Cornutus. Canad. Plant., 1635, 184, Fig. 185. 






1890.] History of Garden Vegetables. 641 

I find of its use as a vegetable is by Townsend 104 in 1726, who 
says " the cods are eaten sometimes like other kidney beans," and 
Stevenson, 105 in 1765, gives directions for kitchen-garden culture. 
In America, in 1806, 106 it was cultivated exclusively for orna- 
ment, and first appears in the vegetable garden about 18 19. 107 
At the present time five varieties are given by Vilmorin, but one 
of these, the black, I have neither seen nor found recorded for 
American gardens, and the hybrid is not clearly described. 
The synonymy of the different varieties is as below : 

I. Phaseolus pre coccineo.. Ray, 1686, I., 884. 
P. multiflorus coccineus. Lam. ex Martens, n. 123. 
Large Scarlet Climber. Ma we, 1778. 

Haricot d'Espaguc rouge. Vilm., 1883, 276. 
Scarlet Runner. N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta. Rept., 1883. n. 56; 
1874, n. 89. 

II. Faseolus punkeo flore. Cornutus, 1635, 184. 
Phaseolus indicia pre miniato, scminc nigro. Titius, 1654, ex 

Mart. 

P. multiflorus niger. Martens, 1869, n. 121. 

Haricot d'Espaguc a grain complement noir. Vilm., 1883, 277. 

III. Phaseolus multiflorus bicolor. Anabida, 1827, ex Mar- 
tens, 83. 

Haricot d'Espagne bicolor. Vilm., 1883, 227. 

Painted Lady. N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta. Rept., 1884, n. 90. 

IV. Phaseolus indicus flore ct seminc albo. Titius, 1654, ex 
Martens. 

Phaseolus multiflorus alius. Martens, 1869, 82. 

Large White Climber. Mawe, 1778. 

White Dutch Runners. Gardiner and Hepburn, 18 18, 68. 

White or Dutch Runner. N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta. Rept, 1884, 
n. 91. 

This synonymy establishes the dates at which each variety ap- 
peared, and the varieties have kept true since then. The seed of 

i« Townsend. Seedsman, 1726, 83. 
if® Stevenson. Gard. Kal., 1765, 103. 
we McMahon. Am. Gard. Kal., 1806. 
iot Practical Am. Gard., Baltimore, 1819, 84. 



642 The American Naturalist. [July, 

each produces its own variety, unless the blooms have been cross- 
fertilized. Under these circumstances I have noted the Scarlet 
Runner seed producing the White Runner ; the White Runner 
seed producing the Scarlet Runner, the Painted Lady, and 
another form which I think is the Haricot d'Espagne hybrid of 
Vilmorin. There have appeared in these crossed plants no inter- 
mediate types whatsoever, and I believe that the mixed seed tends 
to revert ultimately to the original variety, having purged itself 
of its contamination. 

The names under which the species is known are : In France, 
haricot d'Espagne; in Germany, arabische bohne ; in Holland, 
tursche boon ; in Italy, fagivolo di Spagna ; 108 in India, led loba or 
lal lobeea} 09 

scolymus. Scolymus hispanicus L. 

This plant is supposed by authors to be the skolumus and 
kimonia of Theophrastus, 322 B.C., and its root recorded as 
edible ; the scolymus of Pliny A.D. 79, recorded as a food plant. 
The wild plant was seen in Portugal and Spain by Clusius 110 in 
1576. The plant was described by Gerarde 111 in England in 
1 S97, but he does not appear to have grown it. It was in the 
botanic gardens at Oxford 112 in 1658, but receives no other than 
a quoted mention from Clusius by Ray 113 in 1686. It appears 
not to have been in English culture in 1 778, 114 nor in i8o7, 112 and 
recorded as anew vegetable. 115 In 1597 Gerarde 111 
ts culture in Holland, and in 16 16 Dodonaeus 118 says 
it was planted in Belgian gardens. In France, in 1882, it is said 
not to be under culture, but that its long fleshy root is used as a 
kitchen vegetable in Provence and Languedoc. 117 In 1883 it is 
included among kitchen esculents by Vilmorin. 118 It is accorded 

108 Vilmorin. Les PI. Pot., 276. 

109 Speede. Ind. Handb. of Gard., 125. 

110 Clusius. Hisp., 1576. 448 ; Hist., 1601, 2, 153. 

111 Gerarde. Herb., 1597, 993. 



5 Gard. Chron., '1869, 584. 
5 Dodonaeus. Pempt., 161 



1890.] History of Garden Vegetables. 643 

by Burr 119 for American gardens in 1863, and its seed was offered 
in American seed catalogues of 1882, perhaps a few years earlier. 
Scolymus, Spanish scolymus, Spanish oyster plant, 119 or golden 
thistle 1 -" is called in France, scolyme d'Espagne cardonille, cardoussc, 
epine jaune ; in Holland, varkens distel ; in Italy, barba gentile, 
cardo scolimo ; in Spain, escolimo, cardiUa /"" at Constantinople, 
by the Greeks, kephalaggalho. m 

SCORzonera. Scorzonera hispanica L. 

This plant was not mentioned by Matthiolus 122 in 1558, but in 
1570 was described as a new plant, called by the Spaniards 
scurzonera or scorzonera. In 1 576, Lobel 123 says the plant was in 
French, Belgian and English gardens from Spanish seed. Neither 
Camerarius 124 in 1586, nor Dalechampius 125 in 1587, norBauhin 128 
in 1596, nor Clusius 127 in 1 601, indicate it as a cultivated plant, and 
Gerarde, 128 in 1597, calls it a stranger in England, but growing in 
his garden. In 161 2 Le Jardinier Solitaire 129 calls it the best root 
which can be grown in gardens. The use of the root as a garden 
vegetable is recorded in England by Meager 1 * 1 in i683,Worlidge 131 
in 1683, by Ray 132 in 1686, etc. Quintyne 133 in France, in 1690, 
calls it " one of our chiefest roots." Its cultivation does not, 
therefore, extend back to the sixteenth century. No varieties are 
recorded under culture. It was in American gardens in 1 806. 

The black oyster plant, black salsify, Spanish salsify, or scorzo- 
nera, is called in France, scorsonere, scorzonere d'Espagne, corcion- 
naire, ecorce noire, s xlsifs uoir ; in Germany, scorsoner, schwarz- 

119 Burr. Field and Gard. Veg., 1863, 94. 

120 Vilmorin. The Veg. Gard. , 1885 , 249. 

121 Forskal. Fl. Aeg., XXX. 

I" Matth. Com., 1558 ; 1570, 370 ; 1598, 409. 
123 Lobel. Obs., 1576, 298. 

125 Hist. Gen. Lugd., 1587, 1206. 

126 Bauhin. Phy tophi., 1596, 537. 
W Clusius. Hist., 1601. II., 137. 
128 Gerarde. Herb., 1596, 597. 

130 The Eng. Gard. 1683, 61. 

13 i Syst. Hort., by J. W. Gent, 1683, 186. 

133 Quintyne. Comp. Gard., 1693, 200. 



644 Wie American Naturalist. [July, 

wursel ; in Flanders and Holland, schorseneel ; in Denmark, 
scktfrsenerrod ; in Italy, scorsonera ; in Spain, escorzonera, sal- 
sifi nero ; in Portugal, escorcioneira ; 134 in Norway, skorsoneerrod. m 



scurvy grass. Cochtearia officinalis L. 

The wild plant, as an antiscorbutic salad, has long been in re- 
quest, and received especial commendation in Holland, where, on 
account of its abundance, it does not seem to have been culti- 
vated. In 1586 it is mentioned as common in gardens by 
Camerarius ; 136 in 1597 it was grown in England by Gerarde 137 
and a few others ; in 1 598 it was only found in gardens in Ger- 
many; 138 in 16 16 recorded in the gardens of Brabant by 
Dodonaeus. 139 In 1686 called the Garden Scurvy by Ray. 140 In 
the United States it is recorded among garden vegetables by 
Burr 141 in 1863. 

Scurvy Grass is called in France, cochlearia officinal, herbe ati 
scorbut, herbe aux cuillers ; in Germany, loffelkraut ; in Flanders, 
lepelkruyd ; in Holland, lepelblad ; in Denmark, kokleare ; in 
Italy and Spain, coclearia; in Portugal, cochlearia ; U2 in Norway, 

sea kale. Crambe 1 



Although this plant is recorded as wild on the coast of 
Britain, and as fit for food, by Pena and Lobel, 144 Dalechampius, 145 
Gerarde, 146 and Ray, 147 yet it was brought into English culture 
from Italy 148 a few years preceding 1765, and the seed sold at a 



« Camerari 


us. Epit., 1586, 271. 




Herb., 1597, 324. 


*Matth. Op., 1598, 381. 






"Ray. Hi 






ield and Gard. Veg., 




. Les PI. Pot.. 158. 




r. Culturpfl., 102. 


* Pena and 




5 Hist. Gen. Lugd., 1587,526. 







ion. Gard. KaL, 1765. 5 



1890.] History of Garden Vegetables. • 645 

high price as a rarity. In 1778 1 * 9 it is said to "be now culti- 
vated in many gardens as a choice esculent," and in 1795 150 it 
was advertised in the London market. According to Heuze" 1 it 
was first cultivated in France by Quintyne, the gardener to Louis 
XIV., but I do not find it mentioned in my edition of Quintyne 
of 1693 ; it, however, is mentioned in the French works on gar- 
dening of 1824 152 and onward. The Sea Kale is named in 
American gardens in 1806, 153 and by seedsmen in 1829 and on- 
wards, and in 1 809 is recorded as cultivated near Boston, and in- 
troduced to the public in 18 13. 154 At the Mauritius it was 
cultivated in 1837. 155 It is even now but rarely grown in the 
United States. There are no varieties. 

Sea Kale or bcaeh-cole is called in France, erambe, ehou marin ; 
in Germany, viccr-kohl, set-kohl; in Flanders and Holland, 
zeekool, meerkool ; in Denmark, strandkaal ; in Spain, soldanela 
maritima, erambe, col marino /''"' in Italy, erambe marina™ 

shallot. Allium ascalonicam L. 
The askalonion krommoon of Theophrastus, and the ecpa 
ascalonia of Pliny, are usually supposed to be our Shallot, but 
this identity can scarcely be claimed as assurred. It is not estab- 
lished that it occurs in a wild state, and Decandolle is inclined to 
believe it a form of A. cepa or onion. 158 It is mentioned and fig- 
ured in nearly all the early botanies, and many repeat the state- 
ment of Pliny that it came from Ascalon, a town in Syria, whence 
the name. Indeed, Michaud, in his History of the Crusades, 
says that our gardens owe to the holy wars Shallots, which take 
their name from Ascalon. 159 Amatus Lusitanus, 160 in 1554, gives 



. Agr. Reposit., 1814, i 



Book of the Gard., II., 116. 

Orig. Des PI. Cult., 56. 
Hist, of the Crusades, i853. " T - 



646 ** The American Naturalist. [July. 

Spanish, Italian, French, and German names, which goes to show 
its culture in these countries. In England, they are said to be 
cultivated in 1633, 161 but Mcintosh 162 says they were introduced 
in 1548, but they do not seem to have been known to Gerarde in 
1597. In 1633, Worlidge 163 says " eschalots are now from France 
become an English condiment." They are enumerated for 
American gardens in 1806. 164 Vilmorin 165 mentions one variety 
with seven sub-varieties little differing. 

The Shallot or eschalot is called in France, eschalote , chabte , ail 
sterile ; in Germany, schalotte, eschlaitch ; in Flanders and Hol- 
land, sjalot; in Denmark, skalottelog ; in Italy, scalogno ; in 
Spain, chalote, escaluna ; in Portugal, eschalota ; 1M in Norway, 
skalotlog ; xm in the Mauritius, echallotte ; 167 in China, Jiiai ; m in 
Cochinchina, cay nen; m in India, gundhuna, gudheenk™ 



AN AMERICAN TERRESTRIAL LEECH. 

\ LTHOUGH leeches are normally aquatic worms, terrestrial 
^ species of various genera occur in many parts of the world — 
Ceylon, Java, Summatra, Australia, Japan, Chili, and Brazil — and 
some properly aquatic leeches [Trocheta subviridis of Europe, for 
example) leave the water in pursuit of earthworms and other prey. 
I cannot find, however, that either the terrestrial habitat or the 
earthworm habit has been reported for any North American leech 
— a fact which gives especial interest to a hitherto unnoticed species 
occurring commonly in Illinois, and found, so far as known, only 
in moist earth. 



xSgo.] An Amenetm Ttms&ia t Leech. 647 

This terrestrial leech was first obtained by me in April, 1876, 
at Normal, McLean county, Illinois, where it was dug Up in a 
house garden about a dozen rods from the nearest rivulet. An 
example sent the following year to Prof. A. E. Verrill, with some 
remarks on its superficial characters, was by him identified, provis- 
ionally and with some hesitation, as his Semiscolcx graudis, orig- 
inally described 1 from three aquatic individuals obtained from 
Lake Huron and Lake Superior and a river in Connecticut. I 
have now, however, fifty-six specimens of this leech, all from the 
earth in central Illinois, sometimes half a mile or more from 
water, and representing collections made at different times from 
April, 1876, to June, 1890 ; while, on the other hand, it has not 
once occurred in the course of a large amount of aquatic work 
done in the same regions during these fifteen years. It has, 
moreover, constant characters which clearly distinguish it from 
Semiscolcx gnvtdis, as far as one may judge by a comparison 
with Verrill's description, and I do not doubt that it is unde- 
scribed. Its only known food is earthworms of various genera, and 
these it swallows entire — as I have repeatedly found by dissec- 
tion, and demonstrated likewise by feeding experiments on leeches 
in captivity. Indeed, my serial sections have this peculiarity : 
that they present the structure of three worms in one section — 
that of the leech itself and of two earthworms in its stomach. 

From the fact that all my specimens were obtained during the 
early months of the year — from March to June — it is probable 
that this leech, like the earthworm, penetrates to considerable 
depths during the midsummer drouths. 

Diagnosis : Semiscolcx tcrrestris, n. sp. This is one of the 
largest of our leeches, my contracted alcoholic specimens reaching 
a length of seven inches, a width of three-fourths, and a depth of 
three-eighths of an inch. In form, it is heaviest posteriorly, be- 

1 Synopsis of the North American Fresh-Water Leeches. By A. E. Verrill. U. S. 
Commission of Fish and Fisheries. Part II. Report of the Commissioner for 1872 and 
1873. P- 672 (Published in 1874.) This species clearly belongs to Kinberg's genus Semis- 



648 The American Naturalist. [July, 

ing widest at about the eighth annulus in front of the acetabulum, 
but tapering very gradually, or scarcely at all, thence forward to 
the antierior fourth, and thence more rapidly to the mouth. Its 
transverse section is depressed oval, flattened beneath the margins 
of the body obtuse. 

The color is sooty drab, varying to plumbeous black, some- 
what lighter beneath, uniform in tint, and quite without spots or 
mottlings of any sort. A darker median longitudinal stripe, 
very conspicuous and well defined, is almost invariably present ; 
a paler marginal stripe, often approaching buff, little less con- 
stantly so, and a ventral submarginal stripe of the same color as 
the dorsal one, likewise quite frequent. The surface is every- 
where smooth, and I find no external trace of segmental papillae. 
There are ninety-nine complete annuli from the mouth to the 
posterior sucker, four imperfect annuli in the cephalic lobe, and 
one such just before the vent — 104 in all. All the perfect annuli 
are very distinct, except the first two,which,while well distinguished 
dorsally, are almost completely fused beneath to form the posterior 
border of trie mouth. In front of the first annulus is the upper 
lip, divided by a delicate median groove. There are, conse- 
quently, eleven such grooves meeting the margin of the mouth, 
its posterior boundary being formed by the undivided ventral por- 
tion of the fifth annulus. The eyes are ten in number, placed 
upon the first, second, third, fifth, and eighth annuli, representing 
somites one to five. The acetabulum is broad oval, wider than 
long, and measures about ten mm. in its greatest diameter. The 
vent is large and surrounded by irregular radiating grooves. 

The first nephridial pore is at the anterior margin of the 
tenth complete annulus — the fourteenth in all — and the last or 
seventeenth pore at the anterior margin of the ninetieth ventral 
annul us — the ninety-fourth of the full series. These pores open 
on the ventral surface just within the dark ventral line, and con- 
sequently at some little distance from the margin of the body. 
The male sexual opening is on the posterior part of the twenty- 
eighth entire annulus, and the female opening on the thirty third. 
Within the buccal cavity is a prominent circular fold. Maxillae 
three, rudimentary, distinguishable only in sections, with an ill- 



1890.] Recent Books and Pa7itphlets. 649 

defined armature of teeth. The pharynx presents ten to fifteen 
longitudinal folds, the number varying in different parts — the 
average twelve or thirteen. 

I have seen no specimens of Semiscolcx grandis Verrill, but 
draw from the author's description distinctions in the number of 
annulations (" about ninety " in grandis), the markings of the 
upper lip, the positions of the sexual orifices (in grandis in the 
twenty-fifth and thirtieth annuli respectively), and in the color 
markings — grandis being without stripes, and spotted or blotched 
with dark, in Verrill's specimens. 



RECENT BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS. 



Celebration du Centenaire de M. Chevreul. From Charles Brongniart. 

Circular No. 6, Am. Soc. Psychical Research. 

Circular No. 6, No. 8, No. io, University of Texas. 

Clarke, F. W.— Report of Work Done in the Division of Chemistry and Physics, 
36-'87. Bull. U. S. Geol. Sur., No. 55. From the Dept Int. 

D'AGINCOURT, Dr. — Methodes de Cartographic Geologique Employees par U. S. 
:ol. Sur. Annuire Geologique Universal, Appendice. 

Dix< N. S. G.— Education in America. Extract Med. and Surg. Kept., 1890. 

ElGWWANN, C. H.— Notes on the Specific Names of Certain North American 

S C. H.— On the Genesis of the Color-cells of Fishes. Extract West 



650 The American Natu 


ralist. 


[July. 


Eigenmann, R. S.— Description of a New Species 


ofEuprotomicrus. 


Extract Proc. 








Evermann, B. W.— Birds of Carroll County, Indi 


iana.' Extract Auk, 




Evermann, B., and C. H. Bollman.— Notes on a Collection of I 


•ishes from the 


Monongahela River. From the author. 






Evermann, B., and O. P. Jenkins.— Notes on I 


ndiana Fishes. E 


xtract Proc. U. 


S. Nat. Mus., 1888. 






FONTAINE, W. M.— The Potomac or Younger M« 




nograph U. S. 


Geol. Sur., Vol. XV., Parts I. and II. 






Forsyth, C. J— L'Ossario di Olivola in Val di Magra. Extract Dal 




Soc. Toscana di Sci. Nat., 1890. 






GADOW, H.— Dr. Bronn's Klassen und Ordnur 


.gen des Thier-Re 




Band, IV. Abtheilung, Vogel, Aves. 






Galloway, B. T— Treatment of the Black Rot c 




. No. 6, U. S. 








GILBERT, C. H.— Notes on the Occurrence of Gillichthys y-c-.uda. 




Cal. Extract Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XII., 1890. 






Goette, A.— Entw^kelungeschicte des Flussnei 


inauges {Petromy: 










GREGORIO, A. DE.— Iconografia Conchiologica Mediterranea Viver 










Hay, R.— A Geological Reconnaissance in Southwestern Kansas 


• BulL U " S - 



Jordan, D. S.— Descriptions of Fourteen Species of Fresh-Water Fishes Collected 
:he U. S. Fish Com. in 1888.— Description of a New Species of Callionymus from the 

JORDAN, D. S.— Report of Explorations Made During 1888 in the Alleghany Region 
Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Western Indiana, with an Account of the 
bes found in Each of the River Basins of Those Regions. Extract Bull. U. S. Fish 
n., Vol. VIII., 1888. 

Jordan, D. S., and C. H. Bollman.— Descriptions of New Species of Fishes Col- 
:ed at the Galapagos Islands and along the Coast of the United States of Colombia, 
7-88. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XII., pp. 149-183. From the Smithsonian 

Jordan, D. S., and B. W. Evermann— Description of the Yellow-finned Trout of 
in Lakes. Extract Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XII., 1889. From the author. 

Jordan, D. S., and B. W. Evermann.— Food Fishes of Indiana. Extract Rep. 
m. Fish and Fisheries 1882-83. 

Jordan, D. S., and B. W. Evermann— Description of the Yellow-finned Trout of 
in Lakes, Col. Extract Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XII., 1890. 

Jordan, D. S., and C. H. Eigenmann— Notes on a Collection of Fishes sent by C. 
Leslie from Charleston, South Carolina. Extract Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.. 1887. 

Jordan, D. S., and C. H. Gilbert.— Description of a New Species of Thalassoph- 

KEYES, C. R-— Lower Carbonic Gastropoda from Burlington , Ia.—The American 
I Gastropods. Ex 
L, 1889.— Variation Exhibited by a Carbonic Gastropod.- 
Naticopsis. Extract Am. Geo/., 1889.— The Carboniferous E< 
ippi Basin. Extract Am. Jour. Sci., Vol. XXXVIII., 1889. 

I.— Fossil Wood and Lignite of the Potomac Formation. Bi 



Books and Pamphlet 



ie Island of Grenada, West Indies, with a Note on Zetiaida rubripes. Extract Auk, 
ol. VI., 1889. 

LERCH, O.— Uber Brom und Jodmagnesium. Inaugural Dissertation der Hohen 

Lerch, O., and W. F. Cummins.— A Geological Survey of the Concho Country. 

List : Gen. rale d< - M. mbres Congres Geol. International, 1888. 

Lyman, B. S.— A Geol. and Top. Map of the New Boston and Morea Coal Lands 

actProc. Phiia. Aoad. Nat. Set, 1885. 



dermata, from the Coal-M 

Nehring, Herr.— Uber den Scti fa I dries Fnmqwiro Ochsen 1 

Photographs of Bones of Cast n i Us U tmtit, tnund near Richmo: 
From Prof. Joseph Moore. 

rapports aves les Chevaux des autres pays. Extract Bull, de la Soc. Imp 
alistes de Moscou, 1889. From the author. 



Report of the Committee appointed January 6, 1888, by the Am. Philosoph. Soc., to 
ist the Commission on Amended Orthography. 
Rice, W.N.-- book. From the author. 

RlNGUERERG, E. N. S.— The Calceocrinidae. Extract Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., Vol. 

»wny Mildew and Black Rot of the Grape- Vine. Bull. No. 10, Dept. Agri. 

STEARNS, R. E. C— On Certain Parasites, Commensals, and Domiciliares in the 
irl Oysters Meleagrinse. Extract Ann. Report Smithsonian Institution, 1886. From 

SwiNHOE, C, and COATES, E. C— A Catalogue of the Moths of India. From 

—On the Placentation of Halicore dugong. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin- 
:gh . V ! . XXXV. From the author. 
Vocabulario Tzotzil Espaiiol dialecto de los Indies de la parte Orienta del Estado de 

Wright, G. F.— The Nai 
XXIV., 1889.— A Moraine of Retrocession in Ontario. Ext. Bull. Geol. ! 



ndc*-abdruck aus Ding] 
2. Extract Proc. Boston 



The American Naturalist. 



General Itfotes. 



GEOGRAPHY AND TRAVEL. 

Asia.— The Great Central Trade Route. — Mr. Mark S. Bell 
(Proc. Roy. Geog., Feb., 1890) contributes a lengthened and inter- 
esting account of his journey along the Great Central Trade Route, 
which leads from Peking to the remote province of Kashgaria. Two 
routes connect the east of China with Kashgaria, viz : The Alashan 
route, along which Mr. Younghusband was the first Englishman to 
travel, and the above-mentioned Great Central Trade Route, traversed 
by Mr. Bell in 1887. The latter route was gone over in 1874-75 by 
Colonel Losnoffsky, who reported that it represented all conditions for 
becoming the most important artery between Russia and China. It is 
by no means the straightest route possible, since it first trends consider- 
ably to the south to the Wei valley, and then proceeds northwestward to 
the line of Chinese towns of the province of Kansu. From Peking to 
Paw-Ting-Fu (218 miles) the road passes over an alluvial plain ; thence to 
Khavailu (157 miles) it lies upon the hill- between Chili and Shansi ; 
rises to a height of 4500 feet, and then descends to Tai-Yuen-Fu, the 
capital of Shansi. The road is entirely on metal, and from Khavailu 
to Si-Ngan-Fu, the capital of Shensi, consists of nothing more than 
ruts at the bottom of a gully in the pliable loess of the district. Tai- 
Yuen-Fu has a population of 5,000, and its nearest port is Tientsin. 
From Tai- Yuen -Fu to Ping-Yong-Fu (185 miles) the road passes down 
the valley of Fuen-Ho. Ping-Yong-Fu has a population of about 
20,000; between it and Si-Ngan-Fu, the capital of Shensi, intervene 
253 miles, still over the loess. The last-named city was the capital of 
China for more than 2,000 years, from 1122 B.C. to 1127 A.D. The 
Yellow River is crossed at Tung-Kwan, 93 miles before reaching Si-Ngan- 
Fu. Tung-Kwan is a very important place, since it is situated on the 
main line of traffic between the east and west of China at the point 
where that line is crossed by the chief route from the southeast to the 
northwest of the kingdom. No commercial route of importance 
crosses the Hoang-Ho north of Tung-Kwan. With such roads as have 
been described, and no railways, it may well be conceived that land- 
carriage in China is very costly-£-in practice, 30 miles upon land is in 
expense equal to 600 to 800 miles of water-carriage. The province of 



1890.] Geography and Travel. 653 

Shensi is in great part a vast wheat field, and is exceedingly rich in 
coal, iron, and rock-salt. From Singan-Fu to Lan-Chau-Fu, the capital of 
Kan-Fu, the road traverses a hilly country, usually 6,000 or 7,000 feet 
above the sea, and sometimes rising to 8,000 or 10,000, for a distance 
of 449 miles. Kan-Fu is, as it were, a wedge of China driven to the 
northwest between Mongolia and Kashgaria, from which it is, however, 
separated by a portion of the desert of Gobi. Formerly it joined the 
best portion of Tangut, which was destroyed by Genghis or Chenghz- 
Khan. From that period until now it has formed an integral portion 
of the Chinese Empire, and its importance has been recognized by all 
Chinese dignasties. The great wall was carried northwards to Kia-Yu- 
Kwan, 500 miles to the north of the capital, Lan-Chau-Fu, with a view 
to its protection. Previous to the Mohammedan rebellion, during « Inch 
Kashgaria was for awhile independent under the rule of Yakub Beg, 
the population of Kansu was about 1,500,000, but during the wars 
which ensued before that rebellion was finally squelched the inhabi- 
tants were reduced to some 200,000, and all settlements except a 
few of the largest walled towns were deserted. The Mohammedans in- 
spired the greatest fear in the Chinese settlers, who fled before them 
almost without resistance. It is a common mistake to suppose that the 
rebellion was finally put down by the bravery of the Chinese troops, 
whereas the most potent weapons were really bribery, the starvations 
of the garrisons of the town, and the distributions of buttons of 
rank to traitorous leaders. The recovery of Kansu is at present but 
very partial. Only the richest oases are in cultivation. The pop- 
ulation is exceedingly degraded, opium-smoking is almost universal, 
young girls are regularly sold. Sodomy is common, and during the 
rebellion cannibalism was resorted to. From Lan-Chau-Fu to 
Urumtsi, which the Chinese have made the strategic centre of their 
new province of Kashgaria, thirteen hundred miles have still to 
be traversed. The Wei, an important tributary of the Yellow River 
from the west, is crossed at Sien-Yang-Nsien, where it is one hundred 
and fifty yards wide. One of the chief graneries of Lan-Chau-Fu, 
which is a town of 40,000 inhabitants, has fine shops, and is in trade 
with Russia, is An-Ting-Nsien, at the junction of three valleys, and the 
others are the valleys of Ho- and Sing-Ning. Lan-Chau-Fu stands at an 
elevation of 5,500 feet, and the Yellow River is here 250 yards wide. 
Comparatively easy roads lead from Lan-Chau to Lhassa, the sacred cap- 
ital of Tibet. The hilly western districts of the kingdom of Tangut 
did not become subject to China until about 17 18. The native Tan- 
guts much resemble the gypsies. To Su-Chau-Fu (482 miles) the road 



654 The American Naturalist. [July, 

traverses for a portion of the distance a narrow wedge of cultivation 
intervening between the Nan-Shan mountains and the desert, but the 
last portion of the way passes over a barren salt plain or on low hills. 
An elevation of 9,000 feet is reached from two places. Along the cul- 
tivated strips coal is plentiful ; the main crops are various kinds of 
millets. After leaving Lan-Chau the pigs in the villages are as numer- 
ous as the men. From Sci-Chau to Ngan-Si-Fu, on the edge of the 
actual desert of Gobi, is 1 78 miles ; and the town of Hami, on a small 
rich oasis, is 240 miles further. From Hami to Peking there is a camel 
route, which can be traversed by those animals in 70 to 80 days, but 
this is only used for the conveyance of war material. To reach 
Urumtsi (408 miles) the Tian-Shan mountains must be crossed at their 
easy easternmost pass, at an elevation of 9,000 feet. There are some 
fertile oases on the way. At this point Mr. Bell diverged to Tok-Sien, 
the most eastern town of Yakub Beg's former domain, 103 miles from 
Urumtsi, and on the opposite side of the Tian-Shan mountains. Be- 
tween this point and Karashahar (150 miles) Lake Baghrash, a fresh- 
water lake with an abundance of fish, is passed. The whole of this 
eastern portion of Chinese Turkestan or Kashgaria is in truth nothing 
more than a desert, with fertile oases at intervals, each more or less 
thickly populated and containing a town. As we proceed westward 
the Turkish element commences to predominate over the Tungusian 
and the Chinese. Thus the fertile oasis of Khur has 2,000 Turkish 
families, 50 Tungusian, and 10 Chinese. Aksu, 373 miles beyond 
Karashahar, is the centre of a district with 180,000 people. From 
Aksu to Kashgar, in which district there are 160,000 families, is 310 
miles. The district of Yarkand is still more populous, and is credited 
with 300,000 families. From the extreme length of the route from 
Peking to Kashgaria, the great number of days required to reach the 
most populated districts from the eastern seaboard, the proximity of 
those districts to Russian Turkestan, and the identity of race between 
the subjects of the two countries on both sides of the border, it seems 
evident that Mr. Bell is correct in his conclusion that unless China 
promptly constructs a railway to connect this outlying province with 
her main body, it must fall into the hands of Russia whenever it suits 
the convenience and finances of the latter to take it. Not that the 
Turks particularly dislike the Chinese rule, which is rather loose than 
severe. Several routes lead from Yarkhand to Kashmir and Hindoo- 
stan, but the Kilian route is, since the enclosure of the Mustagh, the 
one universally used. Before reaching Kashmir this route goes over 
the following passes : Kilian, 17,000 feet: Suget, 17,100 feet; Kara 



1890.] Geography and Travel. 65 

Kowm, 18,500 feet ; Sasir, 17,800 feet; Karawal Dawin, 14,100 fee 
Kharching, 17,700 feet above sea. A considerable number of Hii 
doos have penetrated into Chinese Turkestan and are engaged i 



Polar Regions. — The Geographical Society of Australasia has 
offered ^5000 towards defraying the expenses of an Antarctic Expe- 
dition, and to this sum Oscar Dickson has added another ^5000. 
Baron Nordenskjold has lectured upon the desirability of such an ex- 
pedition before the Swedish Academy, but he will not himself take the 
command of it. 

Dr. Fridtjof Nansen, who has justly achieved celebrity by his suc- 
cess in crossing South Greenland, has recently expounded his views 
respecting an expedition to the North Pole before the Geographical 
Society of Norway, at Christiana. Dr. Nansen stated that he believed 
De Long was quite correct in his idea of endeavoring to penetrate to 
the pole by means of the warm current that flows up Behring Strait. 
Three years after De Long's expedition articles belonging to the 
Jeannette were picked up on the west coast of Greenland. These 
must have drifted across by Spitzbergen, down the coast of Greenland 
and up the west. A piece of wood, identical in kind with that used 
by the natives of Alaska to make their bows, had been found on the 
coast of Greenland. The Esquimaux of Greenland fish up drift tim- 
ber belonging to the Siberian larch, and to the red and white pines of 
the west coast of North America. He believed that the warm current 
flowed up Behring Strait, past the New Siberian Isles, across the pole, 
between the pole and Franz Josef's Land, and then between Spitzber- 
gen and Greenland. The thing needed to reach the pole was to 
have a ve>sel built extraordinarily strong, and with sloping sides, so 
that she could not be crushed in the ice, but would be simply lifted 
upward by it. In such a vessel he proposed to go through Behring's 
Strait, then to the New Siberian Islands, and then to plow onward 
northward through the ice, going with the current, packed up safe, not 
caring for being frozen up. With few men and good, and plenty of 
provisions, such a course did not offer extraordinary risks. Even 
should the vessel be crushed, many experiences have shown that a crew 
can safely take to the ice. Dr. Nansen then dwelt on the scientific re- 
sults, geographical, meteorological, etc., that would flow from the suc- 
cessful accomplishment of such a journey. 

Australasia and Polynesia.— According to a convention between 
England and Germany, the latter power not only has possession of the 
northern half of the eastern part of New Guinea, but has the right to 



656 The American Naturalist. [July, 

extend its rule over all unclaimed islands in the Eastern Pacific. This 
gives Germany the Admiralty Isles, New Hanover, New Ireland, New 
Britain, the Solomon Archipelago, the Gilbert or Kingsmill Islands, 
the Ellice and the Phoenix groups, also the Samoan and .Tongan. 
Complications, as is well known, have already arisen over the Samoan 
Island, and, as the German fleet in Pacific waters is by no means 
sufficient to enforce the proper treatment of white men by the natives 
of all these scattered groups, trouble may be expected in other quar- 
ters. No power but Germany has a right to interfere to enforce order 
in any of these islands, except as circumstances may compel modifica- 

The Carolines.— A recently published work upon the Caroline 

Islands gives the results of the studies of J. S. Kubary in the Caroline 
group, which he first visted in 1868, as agent for the Godeffroy Mus- 
eum at Hamburg. The group lies between five and ten degrees of 
north latitude, and stretches from 130 to 160 of east longitude. The 
population is rapidly diminishing, largely on account of the hiring of 
native labor by the whites. The current cash of these islands is for 
the most part formed of shells, and the natives are very particular in 
limiting each kind to its special purpose. Thus in Yap equal-sized 
disks made out the shells of the Spondylus, and polished, form a money 
not in use among the general public, but accumulated by the chiefs to 
purchase canoes or weapons to resist or attack. The Spondylus is only 
found in the east and north of the island of Yap, is used on this and 
some other isles, and is traditionally the oldest form of money — it oc- 
curs in old graves of the Ladrone chiefs. The next most valuable 
money consists of disks of arragonite, obtained from the Pelew 
Islands. These are called palan, and are known as " men's money." 
A third variety, formed of small threaded nacreous shells, is called 
yar, and known as " women's money." 

In the Pelew Islands beads, called andouth, and probably obtained 
by trading, form the currency. Each variety of bead has a different 
value, and payments are made in specifically prescribed forms. Thus 
forty to fifty beads that are in the hands of one or two of the kings 
have a value representing ^10 to £xz each. If a debtor does not 
possess the correct money in which to make payment, he has to borrow 
the right kind. Herr Kubary believes that this system must have been 
acquired from the Malayan States. There is a strong diversity between 
the textile arts, the methods of tattooing, the stature, the appearance, 
and the general physical characters of the natives of contiguous islands 
in this group. 



1890.] Geography and Travel. 657 

New Guinea. — The proceedings of the Royal Geographical So- 
ciety for April of this year contain Sir W. Macgregor's account of his 
expedition to the culminating point of the Owen Stanley range of New 
Guinea. On a trip to Doura, a district northwest of Port Moresby, 
he was told of a river named Vanapa. On April 20 he found an open- 
ing hidden in a bend of the inlet, and held his way up the river until 
the 27th, when the rapids became very strong, and the party were 
compelled to take the shore. Somewhere about this point was found 
a most ingenious native bridge of V-shape, at a spot where the stream 
was 70 yards in width. The structure was supported by a banyan-tree 
at one end, and by a small tree and a post at the other. The bottom 
was composed of four rattans, above which, at a height of about two 
feet six inches were two rattans on each side, and two feet three inches 
above these were three on one side and four on the other. The rat- 
tans were kept in position by split canes worked in. The distance 
between the upper rattans was about three and a half feet. Platform 
approaches were made at both ends. 

The advantages offered by the Venapa as a basis from which to as- 
cend the Owen Stanley range were evident, and Sir W. Macgregor re- 
solved to avail himself of them. Considerable trouble was, however, 
experienced with the native porters, who objected to ascend the 
heights. These difficulties were at last surmounted, and the Governor, 
with one or two companions, eventually succeeded in following the 
main ridge to its culminating eastern extremity, now known as Mount 
Victoria. The difficulty of obtaining provisions was great, and the 
woods swarmed with the scrub-itch insect and with ticks, while in 
ground soaked with rain and warmed in the sun great numbers of 
leeches were encountered, of two kinds, one thin and wire-like, three- 
quarters of an inch in length, the other as thick as a goose-quill, and 
about two inches long. The mountains were found to be of slate, in- 
tersected with quartz veins. The summit called Mount Knutsford, 
11,100 feet high, was reached on June 6th, and this point proved to 
be the best from which to follow with the eye the course of the Vanapa, 
which drains the entire south side of the Owen Stanley range from 
Mount Victoria to Mount Lilley. After a descent, the next summit, 
Winter Height, was ascended (11,882), then Dickson Pass (10,844) 
was crossed, and the highest peak (13,127-13,205 feet) was climbed. 
Alpine plants were not met with until within about 570 feet of the 



658 The American Naturalist. [July, 

Africa.— Dr. Meyer's Ascent of Kilima-njaro.— Dr. Meyer 
has recently made a second and entirely successful attempt to climb 
the great ice-dome of Kibo, the main summit of Kilima-njaro. The 
principal reasons for the failure of the former attempt were the diffi- 
culties of procuring provisions sufficient for the continued stay needed, 
and the want of ice-axes and rope to aid in surmounting the steep wall 
of ice met with near the summit. To remedy the former, Dr. Meyer 
made friends with the young chief Mareale, of Marangu, with whom 
he established a camp of substantial huts for the shelter of his caravan ; 
a second camp was formed at a height of 9,515 feet, where eight por- 
ters were left. A tent was pitched upon the saddle connecting the 
peaks of Mawenzi with Kibo, at a height of 14,270 feet. Each day 
three or four men brought provisions from Marangu to the middle 
camp, and two men climbed to the upper camp, so as to keep the 
travelers supplied. In order to conquer the ice-slope, Dr. Meyer had 
secured the services of Herr Purtsheller, an experienced Alpine moun- 
taineer, provided with ice-axes and other essentials. These two spent 
in all sixteen days among the higher peaks, while a faithful negro 
stayed all the while at the upper tent. On the first occasion they left 
the upper camp at 2.40 A.M., and by breakfast time had left the peaks 
of Mawenzi below them. There was less snow (October) than had 
been found on the previous ascent (July, 1887). At 15,980 feet a 
lava dyke, with evidences of glacial action, was encountered, and the 
first patches of snow were found at 16,400 feet. At 17,650 feet the 
travelers reached the ice-slope, with an angle of 35 , conquered it in 
two hours, and in another hour and a quarter reached the summit- 
ridge, and found themselves upon the edge of an immense circular 
crater. The point where they stood was not the highest portion of 
the jagged rim, and it was not until three days later, after a return to 
their tent, that the travelers, using their former steps and sheltering 
themselves for a night in a cave, the temperature of the interior of 
which was 12 C, succeeded in reaching what Dr. Meyer proudly 
states is "probably the highest point of the German possessions." 
This point is estimated (by aneroid only) at 6,000 metres, or 19,684 
feet. The diameter of the crater is at least 2,200 yards, and the depth 
of the floor 650 feet. Upon the north and east the ice descends in 
terraces to the bottom, but on the west and south steep lava cliffs break 
out of the ice-cap. In the centre a cone of brown ashes, with the top 
bare, rises to a height of 500 feet. The girdle of ice and snow 
wreathed around this cone sweeps out over a gap in the western wall 
of the crater-rim in the form of a glacier about a mile and a half long 



isgo.] Geography and Travel. 659 

(including the part within the crater), which terminates at the height 
of 17,900 feet. A great portion of the crater is filled with neve, 
assuming the form called in the Andes nieve penitente, from the fancied 
resemblance of the hardened masses left standing above the general 
level to the figures of kneeling penitents. The highest trace of 
humanity found upon the mountain was a hunter's bivouac at 15,400 
feet. 

Dr. Meyer made three attempts at the Mawenzi peaks, reaching a 
height of 16,260 feet, though he did not attain the highest pinnacle. 
The broken and fantastic peaks of this group surpass description in 
their rugged magnificence, and are evidently the skeletal remains of a 
volcanic crater far older than that of Kibo. On the eastern flank one 
looks from a precipice of 6,500 feet to the country below. Our 
traveler believes that the former crest of Mawenzi stood southeast of 
the present highest point, and that its original height approximated 
that of Kibo. Numerous flowers and grasses ascend the sheltered 
slopes of Mawenzi to a height of 15,750 feet, and elk and antelope 
from the northern side come over the saddle to browse upon them. 
The slopes on the southern and eastern side from 6,500 to 9,750 feet 
are covered with primeval forest, which is continued as a narrow 
interrupted belt on the north side of Mawenzi, but vanishes altogether 
on that of Kibo. Below the forest, upon the southern slope of the 
entire mountain, extends the fertile and well-watered plain of Ohagga ; 
while to the north are waterless, regularly sloping plains, with grass 
and wild brush, inhabited by the Masai. 

The mountain land of Uguene, to which Dr. Meyer took a ten 
days' trip after his ascent, is a gneiss range to the west of Lake Jipe. 
The inhabitants are known as Waguene. South of Uguene lies 
Usangi. 

Before leaving the neighborhood, Dr. Meyer made an excursion to 
Madjame, previously visited by Van der Decken. On his way he 
traversed the districts of Uru, Kindi, Kombe, and Maruma, and 
crossed two large rivers, one of them the Weri-Weri, which takes its 
origin from the foot of the glacier that escapes from the crater of 
Kibo. The Ngorube draws off all the water from the melting ice of 
the south side of the mountain, and flows to Pangani. Dr. Meyer 
falls into raptures about the magnificent aspect of the mountain from 
Madjame, with the typical volcanic curve exhibited by its 6,000 feet 
of ice-cap, and with the grand ravine of the Weri-Weri leading upward 
to the glacier. 



660 The American Naturalist. [July, 

A map or plan and a bird's-eye view of the crater of Kibo accom- 
pany Dr. Meyer's account of his ascent in Petermanris Mitteilungen, 
1890, Pt. I. The cone of ashes occupies a northern position in the 
depression, while the glacier and beds of neve fill in the southern part. 
The rim to the northward is swathed in ice, but the highest ice-covered 
peak is inferior in elevation to " Kaiser Wilhelm Spitze," on the south 
side, where the peaks are free from ice. 

Lake Leopold.— The April issue of the Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc. 
contains an account of H. H. Johnston's journey to Lake Leopold, 
Rukwa, or Rukuga, north of Lake Nyassa. This lake is but the shrunken 
vestige of a much greater body of water, yet it extends much farther 
to the southeast, and is longer than was supposed. On its southern 
and western sides a level plain extends to a width of from twenty-five 
to thirty miles, but on the east side the mountains rise direct from the 
shore. The basin is girdled with mountains, and on the southeast 
there is a remarkable bay or inlet of the lake penetrating into them. 
The only affluent of the lake from the south is the Sengive, which 
rises near the more important Songeve, a tributary of Nyassa. On the 
west shore, about the middle of its length, enters the Saisi, a large 
river with many affluents. The lake, which swarms with hippopotami, 
crocodiles, and fish, is at a level of 2,900 feet above the sea. Not- 
withstanding the unlovely character of its shores, they are frequented 
by elephants, buffalo, zebra, many species of antelopes, guinea-fowl, 
francolins, ring-doves, etc. Nothing can be grown, and the natives 
live entirely by rapine or by the chase. Mr. Johnston was the first 
white to visit the region, and he came among them suddenly with 150 
followers without asking permission. 

In 1889 Dr. Abbott and T. Stevens found a stream coming from the 
east side of Kilima-njaro, and running into the Tsave river. They 
followed it upwards into a canon, and farther still until its course was 
covered over by a lava-stream. They discovered a nest of small 
extinct craters, and among them one that held a lovely lake, bordered 
with palms, and containing abundance of fish, at 100 feet below its 
rim. Probably this is a pool in the course of the subterranean river, 
which is marked higher up by a streak of black lava. The lake is 
3,000 feet above sea level. These travelers speak a good word for the 
much abused Masai, call them jolly good fellows, and deny some of 
the strange customs usually attributed to them. 



Geology and Paleontology. 



GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY. 
The Origin of Petroleum and Gas. — The following state- 
ments bring before us the principal views as to the origin of petroleum, 

i. Petroleum is produced by the primary decomposition of organic 
matter, and mainly in the rocks that contained the organic matter. Of 
this view, Hunt is one of the chief advocates. 

2. Petroleum results from the distillation of organic hydrocarbons 
contained in the rocks, and has generally been transferred to strata 
higher than those in which it was formed. Newberry and Peckham 
have been quoted at length in support of this general theory. New- 
berry holds that a slow and constant distillation is in progress at low 
temperatures. Peckham refers the distillation of the petroleum of the 
great American fields to the heat connected with the elevation and 
metamorphism of the Appalachian mountain system. 

These views as to the date of the origin of petroleum and gas are 
seen to cover almost all the possibilities in regard to the subject. Hunt 
believes petroleum to have been reduced at the time that the rocks that 
contain it were formed, once for all. Newberry believes it to have been 
in process of formation, slowly and constantly, since the strata were 
deposited. Peckham refers it to a definite and distant time in the 
past, but long subsequent to the formation of the petroliferous strata. 
He supposes it to have been stored in its subterranean reservoirs from 
that time to the present. 

In these several statements as to origin, two questions are seen to be 
especially prominent, viz : What particular kinds or classes of rucks 
are the sources of petroleum ? and, What is the value of the chemical 
processes involved in its production ? 

In answering the first question, we find the views of Hunt and New- 
berry distinctly opposed to each other. Hunt counts limestones the 
principal source of petroleum, and denies that it has been produced by 
distillation from bituminous shales ; while Newberry finds in these 
shales the main source of both oil and gas, and vigorously opposes the 
view that limestones are ever an important source of either. 1 

It is not necessary to follow the discussion in relation to these points 
further. It is enough to say that in the light of present knowledge 
each statement is sustained as to its particular affirmations and incon- 
clusive as to its general denials. Petroleum is undoubtedly indigen- 

1 Rept. Geol. Survey Ohio, Vol. I., p. 159. 



662 The American Naturalist. [July, 

cms to and derived from certain limestones, as Hunt has so strongly- 
asserted. On the other hand, Newberry's doctrine that the great sup- 
plies of the Pennsylvania field are derived from Devonian shales is be- 
coming more firmly established and widely accepted every year, 
though it seems likely that he has laid too much stress on bituminous 
shales. In other words, the theories are not incompatible with each other. 
Different fields have different sources. We can accept without incon- 
sistency the adventitious origin of the oil in Pennsylvania sandstones, 
and its indigenous origin in the shales of California or in the lime- 
stones of Canada, Kentucky, or Ohio. 

The double origin of petroleum from both limestones and shales — 
and it is not necessary to exclude sandstones from the list of possible 
sources — deserves to be universally accepted. In confirmation of this 
double origin, it is coming to be recognized that the gas and oil de- 
rived from them two sources — limestones and shales — generally differ 
from each other in noticeable respects. The oil and gas derived from 
limestones contain larger proportions of sulphur and nitrogen than 
are found in the oil and gas of the shales. Nitrogen renders the oils 
unstable, and sulphur compounds impart to them a rank and persistent 
odor from which they can be freed only with great difficulty. In the 
case of the oil-bearing shales of California, the petroleum is evidently 
derived from the animal remains with which the formation was orig- 
inally filled. In composition this oil agrees with the limestone oils 
already described. It contains more than four times as much nitrogen 
as the Mecca oil of northeastern Ohio, and its percentage of sulphur 
is very high. Peckham says of the Pennsylvania oils : z 

" The exceedingly unstable character of these petroleums, consid- 
ered in connection with the amount of nitrogen that they contain and 
the vast accummulations of animal remains in the strata from which 
they issue, together with the fact that the fresh oils soon become filled 
with the larvae of insects to such an extent that pools of petroleum be- 
come pools of maggots, all lend support to the theory that the oils are 
of animal origin." 

He speaks again of this class of petroleums as formed of animal 
matter that has not been subjected to destructive distillation. 3 

It now appears as if oil and gas derived from animal remains can be 
distinguished from those of the bituminous shales by the characters 
above described. Certain it is that the "limestone oils" differ in 
physical characteristics from the Pennsylvania oils, for example, in a 



l8 9°J Geology and Paleontology. 663 

marked degree. They are dark in color ; they are heavy oils, their 
gravity generally ranging from 34 to 36 Beaume, though sometimes 
falling to 40 or even 42 ; they have a rank odor, arising from the 
sulphurous compounds which they contain. The oils of Canada, Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, and of the fields in northwestern Ohio all agree in 
these respects, and the oil and gas of the Utica shale and Hudson 
River group of the state fall into the same category. 

In the preceding statements the organic matter of the bituminous 
shales has not been positively referred to a vegetable source. Such a 
source is highly probable, but it cannot be said to be fully demonstrated 
until the origin of the so-called Sporangites of the shales is finally de- 
termined. There are a few geologists who are inclined to refer these 
forms to hydroid zoophytes (animal) rather than, with Dawson, to 
marine rhizocarps (vegetable). Whatever their origin, they give rise to 
petroleum and oil of a definite character, which is in marked contrast 
to that of the limestone oils. 

Which of these theories as to the mode and time of origin of petro- 
leum has the most to commend it ? 

In conclusion, a few of the previously stated propositions in regard 
to the origin of petroleum that seem best supported will be concisely 
summarized : 

1. Petroleum is derived from organic matter. 

2. It is much more largely derived from vegetable than from animal 



3. Petroleum of the Pennsylvania type is derived from the organic 
matter of bituminous shales, and is of vegetable origin. 

4. Petroleum of the Canada and Lima type is derived from lime- 
stones, and is of animal origin. 

5. Petroleum has been produced at normal rock temperatures (in 
Ohio fields), and is not a product of destructive distillation of bitum- 
inous shales. 

6. The stock of petroleum in the rocks is already practically com- 
plete. —Edward Orton in Ann. Report U. S. Geol. Survey, 1886- '87. 
{Published 1890). 

Production of Salt in the United States.— In 1S87 the pro- 
duction of salt in the United States was 7,831,962 barrels of 280 
pounds each. Of this, the value was estimated at 54,093,846. Mich- 
igan produced 3,944,309 barrels; New York, 2,353,560 barrels; Ohio 
and West Virginia, about 600,000 ; Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia, 
about 200,000 ; or about 7,000,000 barrels in all produced from the 
evaporation of brines. In addition, Louisiana produced 225,000 bar- 



664 The American Naturalist. [July, 

rels from the quarries of rock salt at New Iberia ; Utah, 325,000 bar- 
rels, mostly from the waters of Salt Lake, but a small portion from the 
quarries of rock salt in Jaub and Sevier counties. California produced 
in former years over 200,000 barrels, chiefly from the evaporation of 
sea-water in San Francisco Bay, but in 1887 the production was only 
28,000 barrels, in consequence of a combination of the operators to 
reduce the output and enhance the price. 

In Kansas a discovery of rock salt has recently been made, which 
promises to be an important addition to the resources of the State. 
The salt beds lie near the base of the Trias, and occupy a large area 
in the southern portion of the State, extending into Texas. In seven 
localities cited by Mr. Robert Hay, in the biennial report of the Kan- 
sas State Board of Agriculture, the rock salt lies at depths varying from 
450 to 925 feet, and the thickness is from 75 to 250 feet. The pro- 
duction in 1888 was about 2,000 barrels. 

In New York the production of salt is about equally divided between 
the reservation at and about Syracuse and the Warsaw district in 
Western New York, the latter having increased with great rapidity. 
The salt from the Onondaga Reservation is obtained from the evap- 
oration of the brine of about 40 wells ; these wells have an aver- 
age depth of 330 feet, and the strength of the brine is about 70 per 
cent, of the salometer. 

In the Warsaw district there are about 50 wells in operation, from 
800 to 2,500 feet in depth. According to the report of Dr. F. E. 
Englehart the entire production in 1887 was 6,072,000 bushels. 

The well at Piffard, belonging to the New York Salt Company, is 
producing rock salt, and is the pioneer enterprise of this kind in the 
State. The first bed of salt was reached at a depth of 938 feet. This 
bed is two feet in thickness, and is separated from the second bed, 12 
feet in thickness, by 4 feet of shale. The third salt bed was 6 feet 
thick and 28 feet below the second ; and the fourth bed, 9 feet below 
the third, was 58 feet in thickness.—/. S. Newberry, in Transactions 
of the N. Y. Academy of Sciences, Nov., i88p. 

Geological News.— General.— O. Feistmantel, in his account 
of the geology of South Africa, parallels the Karroo formation with 
the Gondwana of Hindustan. The upper beds of this formation he 
considers equivalent to the Mesozoic coal-measures of Eastern Aus- 
tralia, the middle Karroo to the Hawksbury beds, and the lower 
Karroo to the upper coal-beds and upper marine beds, which last are 
probably representative of the Permian and Carboniferous of general 
geology, so that the upper and middle Karroo may represent respec- 



1890.] Geology and Paleontology. 665 

tively the Lias and the Trias. The cape formation is paralleled with 
the Vindhya of Hindustan, which probably represents the lower Car- 
boniferous and Devonian. The South African primary includes meta- 
morphic and archaic. 

The Imperial Geological Survey of Japan has publised a reconnais- 
sance map, scale 1-400,000; sectional maps, scale 1-200,000 ; and 
agronomic maps of twice the latter scale. The reconnaissance sheets 
comprise North Japan between 138 E. and 38 N., and N. 
Japan from 38 to 40 N., while the sectional maps include the prov- 
inces of Shikoaka, Fuji, Kofu, Veda, Nagano, I/u. Yokohama, Tokio, 
Mayebashi, Nikko, Kakusa, Chiba and Mito. T. Harada, writing of 
the geotectonic "membering" of Japan, states that the outer oceanic 
curve of the islands, though poor in volcanoes, is rich in seismic 
activity, while the inner side is rich in recent eruptive masses, active 
volcanoes and thermal springs. The Japanese Sea is a great " Kessel- 
bruch " (chaldron-fissure), and the archipelago is its eastern border. 

Palaeozoic — The Gt rch, April, and May of 

this year contains notes on the palaeontology of Western Australia. 
A. H. Foord describes the gastropods, brachiopods, etc., including the 
new species of Spirifera, while G. J. Hinde gives the corals and polyzoa, 
with a new genus of the former. 

In a recent number of the Quar. Jour. Geol. Soc. T. Rupert Jones 
describes many new species of palaeozoic Ostracoda from North Amer- 
ica, Wales, and Ireland. 

G. J. Hinde describes {Quar. Jour. Geol. Soc, Feb. 1, 1890) anew 
genus of siliceous sponges from the lower calcareous grit of York- 
shire, and names it Rhaxella. Small globules of silica take the place 
of elongated spicules in this sponge. 

Mesozoic. — In the Wealden near Hastings Mr. R. Lydekker iden- 
tifies five distinct species of Iguanodon, viz : /. bernissariensis Dollo, 
/. mantelli, I. dawsoni iLyd., I. fittoni Lyd., and / hollingtoniensis 
Lyd. He also maintains the existence in the English Wealden of two 
species of Megalosaurus, one of which is M. dunkeri, while the other 
is yet undescribed. 

Comoliosaurus {Pliosaurus) portlandicus has been proved to range 
upwards to the middle Purbeck. 

G. Cotteau has commenced the study of the cretaceous echini of 
Mexico on six species collected by S. R. Castillo, the director of the 



666 The American Naturalist. [July, 

mines. Three of these forms, Pseudocidaris saussurei Loriol, Holectypus 
castilloi Cotteau, and Heteraster mexicanus, are peculiar to Mexico, but 
the three others have previously been found outside of that country. 
Diplopodia malbosi is common enough in France in the aptian, as is 
also Salenia prestnesis Desor. Laniera lumen, from the higher cre- 
taceous beds, is sufficiently common in Cuba. 

According to M. A. de Grossenore, the callovian beds east and west 
of the primitive mass of La Vendee have some fossils, unlike those of 
the Paris basin, but like those of the callovian of the Alps and Car- 
pathians. Terebratula antiplecta occurs here, and is also found in the 
Tyrol and in Galicia. There also occur Terebratula? of the groups 
nucleata and bivallata, and Rhynchonella acutiloba. The callovian of 
Cape Mondago (Portugal) is analogous. 

Tertiary. — The discovery of a new mandible of Dryopithecus has 
recently led M. A. Gaudry to compare it with the lower jaw of man 
and of the existing apes, with the result that it proves to be inferior in 
type, not only to the former, but to most of the latter. The length- 
ened jaw and the contracted space left for the tongue are the two 
points chiefly dwelt upon. In these respects the gorilla is below the 
orang, which again is inferior to the chimpanzee. M. A. Milne-Ed- 
wards stated that the Dryopithecus was nearer to the gorilla than to 
any other existing ape, and that the prognathism of the jaw was so 
excessive that one might suppose the animal to have been quadrupedal. 

A giant example of a fossil tortoise, with a carapace five feet and 
a half in length and rather more than three feet nine inches wide, has 
been discovered by M. Deperet in the red clays of the upper Miocene 
of Mont Leberon. Portions of this species had been previously found 
by M. A. Gaudry, but the present specimen was in astonishingly com- 
plete preservation, the body standing nearly in a natural position in 
the side of a ravine. The carapace was somewhat crushed with the 
superincumbent weight. This tortoise is larger than any other known 
living or fossil form except T. atlas of the Himalayas. It is, however, 
so very near in all important characters to Testudo perpiniana, which 
occurs in the environs of Paris, and has been found with a length of 
four feet, that it may probably be best regarded as a variety of that 
species. Though T. perpiniana is of Pliocene age, and the new fos- 
sil was found in the uppermost beds of the Miocene, the resemblance 
is great. 



1890.] Geology and Paleontology. 667 

In a recent issue of the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 
of London, Mr. R. Lydekker treats of the presence of the Striped 
Hyaena in the Pliocene beds of the Val d'Arno, describing the re- 
mains in answer to the assertion that they belonged to H. crocuta. It 
is curious that these two species do not now exist in the same localities, 
though in ancient times they seem to have done so ; also that they have 
to a considerable extent interchanged their localities. 

Recent.— Capt. A. W. Stiffe recently read a paper before the Geo- 
logical Society of London concerning the ijaciation of the Smd and 
Jhelam valleys in the Himalayan mountains of Kashmir. He stated 
his belief in the gigantic character of the ancient glai union and gave 
a general description of the features of the Sind valley and of the ex- 
isting glaciers near Sonawarg. At this point there are snow fields at a 
lower level than the foot of the glacier, which is rather unusual. Very 
perfect typical older terminal moraines exist at Sonawarg, some of 
them four miles below the present termination of the glaciers, and at 
an elevation of 10,000 feet. These once blocked up the Sind River, 
and the sections cut by the rivers through these moraines are remark- 
able. The glaciated appearance of the gorge below Sonawarg is very 
striking, and the entire Sind valley presents a continual succession of 
moraines. The hillsides of the valley exhibit a comparatively rounded 
outline to a height of 2000 feet or more, while above this they are 
rugged. 

The existing lakes of the Kashmir district were referred by the 
writer to glacial action — they were the remains of a former much more 
extensive alluvial lake which had been largely silted up ; he then 
treated of the supposed glacial deposits of the Jhelam valley, and 
stated that the whole valley from Baramilla to Mozufferabad contained 
extensive glacial or moraine deposits. In conclusion attention was 
drawn to the great deposits of travelled granite blocks at Rampoor, 
blocks which from their size, and from their difference from the neigh- 
boring rocks, must certainly have been carried thither by the action of 



The American Naturalist. 



MINERALOGY AND PETROGRAPHY. « 
Petrographical News.— A contribution to the knowledge of 
the geology of South America has recently been made by Bergt 2 
through the study of thin sections of rocks collected in the Sierra 
Nevada and the Sierra de Perya in the United States of Columbia. 
Bergt has confined himself to a description of a large number of rocks 
that were collected by others, and therefore he has not been able to 
do more than indicate the interesting results which follow from a close 
study of their thin sections. Among the facts of general interest dis- 
covered may be mentioned the formation of secondary epidote from 
augite and olivine in melaphyre, and the production of an epidosite 
therefrom ; the occurrence of lamellae in uralite of syenite, that have 
became curved through the pressure exerted upon them by a feldspar 
crystal during its growth j the existence of a rim of brown hornblende 
around a grain of uralite, and the occurrence of secondary brown mica 
as a product of the alteration of augite. The writer also discusses the 
nature of uralite, and suggests that the name uralitite be used as a 
comprehensive one for those rocks containing secondary hornblende, 

whose original nature cannot be determined. Goller 3 describes 

in a very careful article a number of lamprophyre dykes cutting 
gneiss and crystalline schists in the Vorspessart in Germany. The 
crystalline schists consist of dioritic and " augen " gneisses, produced by 
pressure from eruptive rocks, and other gneisses, the history of whose 
origin is unknown. They are cut by dykes of camptonite and ker- 
santite, whose characteristics are minutely described by the author. 
Both contain large quartz and orthoclase grains that are supposed to 
be the remnants of dissolved inclusions, and smaller quartzes that have 
crystallized from the magma. Two varieties of augite were observed ; 
one alters into talc and tremolite through green hornblende, and the 
other into serpentine through the same intermediate product. The 
original quartz is supposed to owe its origin to the physical conditions 
prevailing during the solidification of the rock mass— principally pres- 
sure and the presence of water. Still other instances of the occur- 
rence of young rocks with the characteristics of old ones 'are de- 
scribed by Reiser 4 from four localities in the northern Alps. They are 
typical diabases and diabase porphyrites of Eocene age. They con- 
» Edited by Dr. W. S. Bayley, Colby University, Waterville, Me. 



1890.I Mineralogy and Petrography. 669 

sist of plagioclase, augite, apatite and secondary substances, and occur 
with the typical structure of granular and aphanitic diabases. They 
are characterized by the zeolitization of the plagioclase. Among the 
zeolites formed arenatrolite and analcite. of which the latter has been 

separated and identified by chemical means. Thin veins of diabase 

with tachylite borders have produced fusion along the edges of the 
slates through which they cut. According to Rutley* the glassy rim 
produced by the fusion is darker in color than the tachylite selvages oi 

the dyke rock. N. H. and H. V. Winched • propose a new theory 

for the origin of the iron ores of Minnesota, in opposition to the iron 
carbonate theory 7 of Irving. The new theory follows the same lines 
as does Hunt's crenitic hypothesis. It is based entirely on theoretical 
suppositions, which, so far as is known, can have little foundation in 
facts. 

Mineralogical News. — Rare Minerals. — In an article on the 
minerals of Fiskernas, in Greenland, Ussing 8 has given the crystallo- 
graphic and optical properties of several rare minerals. Sapphirine 
has for its axial ratio a : b : e = .65 : 1 : .93. ,5=79° 30'. The axis 
of least elasticity is inclined 8° 30' to the vertical axis, and 2V na = 
68° 49'. The indices of refraction are a = 1.7055, ,5=1.7088, y = 
1. 71 1 2. The mineral is negative, and is pleochroic with A colorless, 
and B and C= blue, or A = light greenish blue, B = dark bluish 
green, and C= yellowish sap green. An analysis of the mineral 
yielded : 

Si0 2 A1 2 3 Fe 2 3 FeO MgO Loss 
12.83 65.29 .93 .65 19.78 .31 

Kornempine is orthorhombic with a : b = .854 : 1. It has a specific 
gravity of 3.273, is colorless in. thin section, and has cc P®" as the 
plane of its optical axes, with e the acute bisectrix, which is negative. 
The optical properties of gedrite and pargasite are also investigated. In 
a few general remarks on the properties of the former mineral the 
author states that it is more probable that the optical angle of the 
orthorhombic hornblendes increases with the increase in the percentage 

of silica rather than with the increase of iron. Atelesite, analyzed 

by Busz, 9 yielded : 

As 2 5 Bi 2 3 Fe,0 3 H,0 

14.12 82.41 .51 1-92 

5 Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, 1889, p. 626. 

8 American Geologist, Nov. 1889, p. 291. * 

T American Naturalist, Dec, 1886, p. 1050. 

8 Zeits.f. Kryst., 1889, XV., p. 596. 

» Zeits.f. Kryst., 1889, XV., p. 6a*. 



670 The American Naturalist. [July, 

The axial ratio, recalculated from von Rath's measurement, is a : b : e= 
.9297: 1: 1. 5123. j5=6g° 35'. New measurements by Busz gave 

a: b: ^ = .9334: 1: 1.5051. /fc=7o° 43'- Kobellite, from the 

Silver Bell Mine, Ouray, Colorado, has been analyzed by Kellar. 10 Its 
composition is : 

S Bi Sb Pb Ag Cu Fe Zn Gangue 
18.39 28.40 7.55 36.16 3.31 2.59 1.50 .39 .45, 

which may be represented by 2(Pb.Ag 2 Cu 2 ) S.(BiSb) 2 S 3 . It differs 
in composition from the mineral called kobellite by Rammelsberg 
(Pb 3 BiSb 6 ), but is like that to which the name was first given by Sel- 
terberg. The same author suggests the name lillianite for a substance 
of the composition 3(PbAg 2 ) Bi 2 S 3 described by himself 11 several 

years ago. Nivenite is a rare mineral associated with fergusonite 

and gummite at the gadolinite locality in Llano County, Texas. It 
is described by Genth 12 as velvety black, with a brownish streak. It 
is easily soluble in nitric acid, and possesses the composition : 
UO, UO Th0 2 Y 2 3 , etc. Fe 2 3 PbO Ign Ins Sp Gr 
46.75 19-89 7-57 u-22 .58 10.16 2.54 1.22 8.01 

It is allied to broggerite (3RO.UO3) and cleveite (6R0.2UO s . 3 H 2 0) 
in containing a large proportion of uranium. Its hardness is 5.5, 
and its composition is represented by (9RO.4UO3.3H2O). Two 
varieties of fergusonite have been found in the same locality. The 
first corresponds to Cb^.R^.H.O, and the second to Cb a 6 6 .R,0,. 
3H a O. The two are closely associated. The first is probably tetra- 
gonal, with a bronzy lustre on a fresh fracture. It is infusible, 
decrepitates when heated, and changes to an olive green color. The 
second variety is deep brown in color. Its streak is greenish gray. 

Upon ignition it turns light brown but does not decrepitate. 

Hydrocerussite (aPbO, + Pb(OH 2 ), corresponding to azurite 
among the copper salts, has been produced by Bourgeois, 13 by acting 
upon lead acetate with ammonium carbonate. The little crystals thus 
formed have all the properties of the natural substance. By means of 
them the composition of the mineral has been determined. The white 
lead of commerce is found by the author to be a mixture of two sub- 
stances with the composition respectively of cerussite and hydrocerus- 
site. Percylite and earacolite are briefly mentioned by Fletcher M 

"Ztits.f. Kryst., 1889, XVII., p. 67. 
njemr. Amer. Chem. Soc, Vol. vn., No. 7. 
» Amer. Jour. Sci., Dec. 1889, p. 474 . 
«*«//. Soc. Franc, d. Min., XI., p. MI . 
" Min. Magazine, 1889, p. 171. 



1890.] Mineralogy and Petrography. 67 1 

as among the many lead salts produced by the decomposition of 

Miscellaneous. — Pseudomorphs of talc after quartz, magnesite and 
calamine are found not uncommonly in a talc layer at ( )d\ ifersgriin. near 
Wunsiedel in the Fichtelgebirge, near a contact of granite and lime- 
stone, that has suffered dolomitization as the result ot the action ot 
magnesian solutions emanating from the eruptive rock. The genesis 
and growth of the talc pseudomorph after quartz are carefully described 
by Weinschenck 13 as taking place in the following manner. The 
quartz crystals are first traversed by numerous capillary cracks, run- 
ning parallel to the prismatic faces and rarely parallel to the rhombo- 
hedral planes. Along the sides of these, little plates of talc are devel- 
oped. From certain points within the crystal other fissures then begin 
to form, and along the sides of these more talc is formed, until finally 
there remain only a few isolated areas in which the original mineral 
can be detected. The production of the new mineral along the 
cracks leads to the supposition that the change is due entirely to the 
medium of circulating water, a view that is substantiated by experi- 
mental researches. An important contribution to the discussion of 

optical anomalies has been made by Erb 16 in a study of sodium acetates 
of copper, magnesium, nickel, and other metals. When allowed to 
crystallize slowly these salts form at first uniaxial crystals belonging to 
the hexagonal system. As they increase in size the crystals become 
twinned according to certain orthorhombic laws. In thin section 
they show twinning lamellae, which disappear when the temperature is 
raised to 65 °. The etched figures produced in both the simple and 
twinned crystals are of the same shape. They lie in the same relative 









planes of the lamellae, but they have the symmetry belonging to the 
hexagonal system. The twinned crystals are pyroelectric, but upon 
assuming the isotropic condition they lose this property entirely. To 
account for these anomalies the author thinks that a strain has been 
superinduced in them during their growth. If they are mimetitic forms 
it is odd that the crystals should possess a certain grade of symmetry when 

small, and assume it again when heated. Upon treating freshly 

precipitated ferric hydroxide at 25 o° with water, to which a trace of 
fluoride has been added, Bruhns ■ obtained little plates of 
vith hexagonal cross sections. Freshly precipitated alumina 

: Kryst., XIV., p. 305. 



672 The American Naturalist. U ul y- 

when treated in the same way at 300 , yielded little crystals of corun- 
dum with pyramidal terminations. Quartz crystals with rhombohedral 
terminations were produced by heating pulverized glass or amorphous 
silica to 300 under the same conditions. Microcline gave tridymite 
plates. A mixture of metallic iron, iron oxide and amorphous silica 
produced litte black amorphous plates of ilmenite and crystals of 
magnetite. The syntheses are of importance as indicating the possi- 
bility of the formation of contact minerals at a low temperature in 

the presence of traces of fluorine. Johnston 18 has subjected mus- 

covite and biotite to the action of pure water and to that of dilute 
carbonic acid for the length of one year. The Muscovite undergoes 
no change in this time except slight hydration, in consequence of 
which it becomes a hydro-muscovite resembling margarodite in com- 
position. Biotite during this time becomes bleached under the in- 
fluence of the carbonic acid. It loses some of its magnesium and 
iron, assumes water, and passes like the muscovite into a hydromusco- 
vite. Anhydrous micas when they undergo hydration increase in bulk, 
a fact that may help to explain the cause of the rapid weathening of 

micaceous sandstones. Bruhns l9 has succeeded in obtaining genuine 

glass inclusions in quartz by heating in a bath of molten granite speci- 
mens of phrase and pieces of quartz containing inclusions of fibrolite. 
The resulting glass is entirely surrounded by quartz, and is not merely 
a portion of the granitic substance filling cracks produced in the 
mineral by heating. The inclusions are arranged in straight and 
curved lines, and have all the properties of inclusions found in porphy- 

ritic quartzes. A brief comparison of the shapes of the etched figures 

in diopside and spodumene is made by Greim 20 . The depressions 
found on the 00 P faces of the first mineral are nearly triangular, with 

their apices inclined toward the positive hemi-pyramid. Mr. Lane al 

describes a method of determining the values of the optical angles of 
minerals in thin sections of rocks without the use of converged light. 

is Quart Jour. Geol. Soc, May, 1889, p. 363. 
19 Neues. Jahro.f. Mm., etc., 1889, I., p. 268.' 
50 Miner. Magazine, May, 1889, p. 252. 
KAmer.Jour. Sci., Jan., 1890, p. 53. 



BOTANY. 
Some Elementary Botanies.— That there is a dissatisi 
nth the commoner methods of teaching botany as set forth in t 



books, is indicated by the numerous attempts of various teachers to 
give us better books. In no other science is there to-day such diver- 
sity of opinion as to the best method of introducing the pupil to the 
subject to be studied. As a result we haw ■ multiplicatiOD of elemen- 
tary books, each designed to lead the pupil into his work by a different 
route. For twenty years the little books by Miss Youmans have stood as 
a sort of protest against mere " book botany. ' ' Though faulty in many 
particulars, they were valuable in showing that there are other ways of 
teaching botany than the stereotyped ones. A recent book, " De- 
scriptive Botany," by the same author, has much in it to commend. 
At the very beginning the pupil is told to supply himself with his own 
material for examination. He is told to "gather a variety of leaves; 
and to begin their study by comparing them," etc., etc. Further on 
we find this : " Pull up any herb which has a distinct stem, and com- 
pare the stem with the root," and so on repeatedly. This is excellent, 
and the pupil cannot fail to be greatly benefited by such a course. 
There is too marked an emphasis given to technical terms, which are 
needlessly printed in italics, and too frequently there is a dictionary- 
like brevity, as when we read that "The leaf of a fern is called a 
frond,'" and " The stalk or petiole of a frond is called a stipe." Why 
this is so is not hinted. The " Popular Flora " is just what it pretends 
to be — popular — and will be useful to the beginner who has prepared 
himself aright to take it up. It contains brief but plain descriptions 
of the more common flowering plants including cultivated as well as 
wild species. It is pleasant to note that the Gymnosperms are as- 
signed to their proper place between Angiosperms and the Pterido- 
phytes. It is not so pleasant, however, to note that the explanation of 
the structure of the flowers of the Conifers (the sole representatives of 
the Gymnosperms) is wholly erroneous. There has been an attempt to 
carry the old and discarded ideas as to floral structure over into the 
new classification. The Conifers as described in this book should go 
back into their old position, sandwiched between the Monocotyledons 
and Dicotyledons ! 

In many points the "High School Botany," prepared by H. B. 
Spotton for the use of Canadian students, has a considerable resem- 



674 The American Naturalist. [July. 

blance to Miss Youmans's work noticed above. There is '.he same 
admiration and following of Henslow's "schedules" for analysis, the 
same examination of representative plants, while in each there are sev- 
eral chapters given to generalizations. Most of the work of preparing 
this volume appears to be well done, but there are evidences here and 
there of haste. Thus while the true nature of the lichens is recognized 
on page 202, a little further on (p. 206) we have the old statement that 
" the lichens, from their peculiar constitution, may be regarded as tran- 
sitional between the Algae and the Fungi." Here we have a little new 
wine (p. 202) in a very old bottle (p. 206). The " Flora for the Use 
of Beginners " in this book is much like Miss Youmans's "Popular 
Flora." It is really a very useful little manual. 

A recent English book, Edmonds's " Elementary Botany," has been 
placed before the American public by Longmans of New York. It is 
a much more scientific book than either of the preceding, although 
like them it teaches botany by observation. The principal difference 
is that the observation in this book is more profound, and is directed 
to essential rather than to superficial characters. The student is brought 
to study the plant as a living thing, rather than an object to be classi- 
fied and labeled. We find that while 153 pages are given to structure 
and physiology, but 35 are devoted to classification. A few orders are 
selected, and in each a typical plant is suggested for study, while a few 
others are cited as common examples. The book is a very good one. 
Dr. Campbell's " Structural and Systematic Botany," which has re- 
cently been brought out by Ginn & Co., is an attempt to supply a small 
and handy introduction to all parts of the vegetable kingdom. It is 
based upon, and to a certain extent is an abridgement of, Goebel's 
" Outlines of Classification and Special Morphology of Plants," a work 
of great usefulness to the student in spite of its considerable cost. 
This introduction will be welcome to many a teacher and student who 
cannot afford the larger work. 

After a few introductory pages devoted to methods of work, and a 
brief examination of the cell, the Protophytes are taken up, nine pages 
being devoted to them. Then follow in order the Algae, Fungi, Bryo- 
phytes, Pteridophytes, and Spermaphytes. Very good outline drawings, 
largely original, accompany the text. A commendable feature of the 
work is the adoption of Eichler's arrangement of the flowering plants. 
Here and there slips, due doubtless to haste, are noticed. Thus 
the figures B, C, and D, on page 132, are certainly not of " year-old 
cones of Scotch Pine," and on page 131 the relation of scale and 
" ovule-bearing leaf ' ' are badly confused. There is also a looseness in 



the quotation of the titles of works of reference and the names of 
authors and publishers on pp. 235-6. We note further that Ustilago 
is persistently spelled Ustillago. — Charles E. Bessey. 

The Completion of Saccardo's Sylloge Fungorum.— Eight 
years ago the first volume of this great work appeared, and this has 
been followed by others in rapid succession until now we have the 
eighth and final volume of the series. In these thick volumes, which 
aggregate more than eight thousand pages, nearly thirty-two thousand 
species have been described (exactly, 31,927). The completion of so 
great a labor in so brief a space of time must excite at once our wonder 
We have here a work of vast extent, whose first and 
ne, so that they are not ap- 
preciably separated by any change in plan, due to a change of view on 
the part of the authors. Whatever we may say of the plan of the 
work, and however much we may wish that a different one had been 
adopted, it is comfortable to know that here at least is a book comple- 
ted upon the lines laid down by its author less than a decade ago. It 
is cheerful, also, to think that a generation has not died during the 
publication of the work, but that nearly all who saw its beginning have 
seen its completion. Thus the depressing influence of De Candolle's 
" Prodromus," dragging its way through fifty years to incompletion, is 
counteracted, and we may again hope to see great undertakings inau- 
gurated. 

If we take the great masses of families as worked in this book, and 
make a distribution in an approximately natural system, we get abetter 
idea of the numbers and extent of the fungi. For convenience of ref- 
erence the number of species in each family is given, and the total 
number in each order or class. 

PROTOPHYTA. 

Myxomycete^e. — (Vol. VII.) — Monadinacese, 49 species; Soro- 

Myxomycetaceae, 383. Total, 441 species. 

1. — Schizomycetacese, 659 species. (Vol. VIII.) 

ZYGOPHYTA. 

Conjugate.— Protomycetaceae, 19 ; Chytridiaceas, 132. (Vol. 

VIII.); Entomophthoraceae, 20; Mucoraceae, 200. (Vol. VII.); 

Total, 371 species. (Vol. VII.) 

OOPHYTA. 
Cceoeloblaste^e.— Saprolegniaceae, 80 ; Peronosporaceae, 96. Total, 
176 species. (Vol. VII.) 



CARPOPHYTA. 

ASCOMYCETE/E. 

Pyrenomyceteje.— (Vols. L, II., and Add.)— Perisporiaceae, 481; 
Sphgeriaceae, 5448 ; Coryneliaceae, 2 j Hypocreacese, 640 ; Dothidi- 
aceae, 351 ; Microthyriaceae, 65 ; Lophiostomaceae, 213 ; Hysteriaceae, 
372 ; Hermihysteriaceae, 3. Total, 7575 species. 

Hypoderme^e.— (Vol. VII.) — Uredineae, 1224 ; Ustilagineae, 284. 
Total, 1508 species. 

Phymetosphaeriaceae, 16 ; Onygenaceas, 6; Laboulbeniaceae, 15. 
Total, 37 species. (Vol. VIII.) 

Sph^ropside/e.— (Vol. III.)— Sphaerioidaceae, 3690 ; Nectrioidaceae, 
44 ; Leptostromaceae, 203 ; Excipulaceas, 143. Total, 4080 species. 



1 species. (Vol. III.) 

Hyphomycete^e.— (Vol. IV.)— JVIucedinaceae, 1147; Dematiaceae, 
1579; Stilbaceae, 344; Tuberculariacese, 594. Total, 3664 species. 

Saccharomycete^e. — Saccharomycetaceae, 30 species. (Vol. VIII.) 

DiscoMYLETE.E. — (Vol. VIII.)— Caliciaceae, 78; Gymnoascaceae, 
51; Cordieritaceae, 5; Patellariaceae, 161; Phacidiaceas, 268; Stic- 
taceae, 229 ; Bulgariaceae, 152 ; Dermateaceae, 255 ; Ascobolaceae, 
130; Pezizaceae, 1948; Heloellaceae, 169; Cyttariaceae, 7. Total, 
3453 species. 

Tuberoide.e.— (Vol. VIII.)— Elaphomycetacese, 21 ; Cenoccoca- 
ceae,i ; Tuberacese, 102; Endogonaceae, 6. Total, 130 species. 



Gasteromycete^e.— (Vol. VII.)— Hymenogastraceae, 78; Lyco- 
perdaceae, 426 ; Nidulariaceae, 61 ; Phallaceae, 81. Total, 646 species. 

Hymenomycete^e— (Vols. V. and VI.)— Tremellacese, 258; Clava- 
riaceae, 371; Thelephoraceae, 884; Hydnaceae, 427; Polyporaceae, 
1972; Agaricaceae, 4639. Total, 8551 species. 

There are thus 11 00 species of Protophytes ; 371 of Zygophytes ; 
176 of Oophytes, and 30,280 of Carpophytes. Of the latter again 
there are 12,703 Ascomyceteae ; 9,197 Basidiomyceteae, with 8,380 
probably, but not certainly, imperfect stages of the former. 

Charles E. Bessey. 

The Preparation of Vegetable Tissues for Sectioning on 
the Microtome.— Vegetable tissues vary so much as to the amount 
of protoplasm, cellulose, and other substances contained, that the 



1890.] Botany. dyj 

methods used for obtaining good sections from them must vary greatly. 
I have prepared and sectioned fungi, lichens, the cotyledons, plumules. 
hypocotyledonary stems, roots, and root-tips of the cucumber, young 

pine cones, young wheat blades, lilac buds, and bean stems, with vary- 
ing degrees of success. 

Lichens, and the young firm cotyledons of the cucumber could be 
dehydrated, and permeated with paraffine much more rapidly than 

water. The formermay be placed in 50 per cent.. 75 per cent., uo per 
cent., and 100 per cent, alcohol, chloroform, chloroform and paraffine, 
and finally in paraffine, at a temperature of 55 ° C, remaining in each 
from two to twelve hours, and good results may be obtained. 

But the meristemic and the thin-walled watery tissue must be 
treated differently, or the tissue will come through very much shrunken 
and distorted— worthless biologically. 

I have had the most success following the method described by Dr. 
J. W. Moll, in the Botanical Gazette for January, 1S88. I have 
obtained good sections from all the material that I have treated in this 
way. I used a 1 per cent, solution of chromic acid and 20 per cent., 
35 per cent., 50 per cent., 75 per cent., and 90 percent, alcohols for 
dehydrating. The chromic acid seems to fix the protoplasm, and 
macerate the cellulose, allowing the alcohols to pass more freely. I 
allowed the specimens to remain in the several per cents, of alcohol 
from two to twenty-four hours, according to their size and texture. As 
as rule, I found that the more gradually the specimens were dehydrated 
the better. From absolute alcohol, the specimens were placed in a 
solution of equal parts of turpentine and paraffine. The solution con- 
taining the specimens was then raised gradually from a temperature of 
2o°+ C. to about 45 C. They were then placed in melted paraf- 
fine, kept as nearly at 50 C. as possible. Small specimens will be 
permeated in one or two hours, but large specimens require from four 

From the 75 per cent, alcohol I placed the specimens in a stain. 
The stains I tried were alum cochineal, hematoxylin, fuchsin, methyl 
green, methyl blue, methyl violet, and ammonia carmine. I found 
alum cochineal a good stain for fungi, plumules, stems, roots, and root- 
tips, but it would not penetrate the cucumber cotyledons, Fuchsin 
would penetrate anything I tried ; but as it is soluble in alcohol it is 
necessary to over-stain the specimens, and then allow the coloring to 
come out until it is about right. Hematoxylin stained all the tissue 
that I tried except the young cucumber cotyledons. This stain gives 



6; 8 The American Naturalist. [July, 

large specimens a dark blue color on the outside, and a purplish pink 
color on the interior. The nuclei and the cell walls are brought out 
clearly. I did not have good success with the methyl colors, as they 
were easily dissolved out by the alcohol. 

If specimens have not taken sufficient color, or if the alcohol has 
removed too much of the color, sections can be stained upon the slide, 
after they are cut. Any stain can be used, but none that I tried differ- 
entiated the parts sufficiently. Fuchsin will give enough color in a 
few seconds. The sections must stand in hgematoxvlin from two to ten 



intended to stain upon the slide, an alum fixative will be found better 
than collodion. 

I heated the slides in the gas flame to melt the paraffine, and poured 
on turpentine to wash it out. The specimens were then mounted in 
balsam dissolved in chloroform. Air bubbles that appear when sections 
are first mounted, will disappear after the slides stand a few hours. If 
the razor or knife used for cutting is very sharp, small specimens may 
be cut 1-2500, or even 1-5000 of an inch in thickness. But larger 
specimens cannot be cut more than 1-600 to 1-1500 of an inch thick 
without crowding the tissues together, and giving them the appearance 
of being shrunken. — A. J. McClatchie, Lincoln, Neb. 



ZOOLOGY. 

The Ontogeny of Limulus. — The following is preliminary to 
a more detailed account, with ample illustrations, which will be pub- 
lished soon. The work was done in the Marine Biological Laboratory 
at Woods Holl, Mass., during the summers of 1889 and 1890. In 
my views of the earlier stages, as seen from the surface, I fail to cor- 
roborate Osborn's account 1 in many particulars. The eggs were arti- 
ficially fertilized, and were carried through until hatching. 

(1) The segmentation nucleus is subcentral, and is surrounded by a 
thin pellicle of protoplasm. It undergoes several divisions before any 
signs of segmentation are visible from the surface. The products of 
this division migrate more rapidly toward that pole of the egg where the 
germ is subsequently to appear than to any other portion of the surface. 
Forty hours after impregnation the egg itself begins to segment, and 
this segmentation has in its general appearance a meroblastic character, 



1890.] Zoology. 679 

recalling to a slight degree Metschnikoff's, 2 PL XIV., Fig. 5. The 
result of this yolk segmentation is to divide the egg into a number of 
yolk cells, in the center of each of which there is a nucleus with its 
thin layer of protoplasm. 

(2) The result of migration of the products of egg and nuclear seg- 
mentation is the formation of a blastoderm at first on one side of the 
egg, the cells of which are smaller and less charged with yolk than 

traces of regularity. At one pole are numbers o\ poorly-defined small 
cells, while at the other the cells are greatly larger and fewer in 
number. The blastoderm thus formed produces a lighter spot on one 
side of the egg, which strikingly resembles the primitive cumulus of the 
Arachnids. With the formation of this blastoderm the secretion of 
the blastodermhaut (amnion of Packard, deutovum of my former 
paper 3 ) begins. 

(3) In from eight to eleven days after impregnation (the period 
varies in eggs of the same lot) a small circular pit appears in the center 
of the primitive cumulus. This I regard as the blastopore. This soon 
becomes triangular and then elongates, while on the next day a 
second cloud appears behind the first, but connected with it. At first 
the second cloud is smaller, but it rapidly attainse quality with the prim- 
itive cumulus, and soon surpasses it. During this process the outlines 
become indistinct, more so than in Balfour's 4 PI. XIX.. Fig. 1, 
which in other respects, except in length, agrees well. During this 
process the blastopore increases in length backwards, in the shape of a 
shallow groove (primitive groove), the enlarged anterior end of which 
continues to mark the original site of the first appearance of the 
structure. This primitive groove runs back into the posterior cloud 
and fades out behind. A second lighter area has. now become promi- 
nent along the margins of the blastopore and its posterior continua- 
tion, produced by the proliferation, as shown by sections, of meso- 
dermal cells from the margins. These wander in between the rest of 
the blastoderm (ectoderm) and the yolk (entoderm) cells which occupy 
the interior. Gastrulation produces no entoderm. 

(4) In fifteen days this primitive groove has become less distinct, 
through the flattening of its walls ; while the germinal area, now out- 
lined by the limits of the extension of the mesoderm, has become di- 
vided by the appearance of a transverse groove into cephalic and post- 

2 Zeitschr. f. Wis*. Zool., XXI, 1871. 

3 Quarterly Jour. Micros. Set., XXV., 1885. 



68 The American Naturalist. [July, 

oral plates, the anterior being smaller and more sharply limited than 
the other. In twelve hours more a second groove appears behind the 
first, cutting off a narrow ridge, the first post-oral somite. At this 
stage the embryo is readily comparable with Metschnikoff 's PI. XVII, 
Fig. 3, except in the following particulars: The two ends of the 
embryo are more nearly equal, the single somite developed is much 
shorter, and the median groove is fainter and extends into both cephalic 
and caudal plates. Successive somites are added by budding from the 
caudal plate until the number six is reached. The embryo now closely 
resembles Balfour's PL XIX, Figs. 3a and 3*, except that it covers 
far less of the surface of the egg, the first somite is separate from the 
cephalic plate, the primitive groove extends across the somites, its 
anterior end terminating at the mouth, while posteriorly it runs into 
the caudal plate : the caudal plate is much smaller than in Balfour's 
figure. 

(5) Just after six somites are formed, paired thickenings, the rudi- 



; of legs, arise near the outer margn 



of each. Then six 



[ have seen no traces of Osborn's semicircular 

(6) Almost simultaneously with the outgrowth of the legs, paired 
thickenings for the nervous system appear. There are a pair of 
these in each somite of the body, while three pairs appear in the ceph- 
alic plate. A few days later a series of six pairs of segmentally 
arranged sensory thickenings arise outside of the legs, and extend in a 
line from the cephalic lobes backwards, as briefly described by Patten. 5 
These have different fates. The first pair gives rise to the median 
ocelli of the adult ; the second to a peculiar sense organ as yet unde- 
served, occurring on the thin skin just in front of the first pair of 
appendages; the third soon disappeares; the fourth forms the "dorsal 
organ " of Watase, which persists longer than the third ; the fifth gives 
rise to the paired compound eyes ; while the sixth is evanescent. At 
first these are all similar and are plainly sensory. These organs are 
connected with each other and with the brain by a longitudinal nerve, 
which takes an undulating course between the organs and the bases of 

(7) There is a precocious separation of ectoderm and entoderm 
(yolk cells) during the formation of the blastoderm. Blastopore and 
primitive groove produce no invagination of entoderm cells, trie 
entoderm retains its primitive character as a solid mass of large yolk 
cells until after the caudal spine appears. The yolk cells are not true 



1890.] Zoology. 68 1 

vitellophags. They metabolize the yolk which is contained in each, 
but the cells themselves are directly converted into the lining epithe- 
lium of the mid gut. By this process a lumen is formed, first at the 
anterior end. The stomodeal-mesenteric wall is fast to break through : 
the opening into the proctodeum appears much later. The procto- 
deum is very short, not extending far from the anus. 

(8) In embryos at the time of hatching the Sternal artery has arrived 
at the condition found in the adult scorpion. It consists of a tube 
lying on the upper surface of each half of the oesophageal nerve ring. 
Not until much later than my studies have gone does it attain the in- 
vesting character of the adult. 

(9) Packard's " brick-red gland " is of mesodermal origin. It con- 
tains in its interior the cavity of the fifth post-oral somite. Its inner 
end is terminated by a thin layer of flattened epithelium. It soon be- 
comes folded on itself, and the region of the bend grows rapidly for- 
ward. The outer limb of the fold becomes in turn folded at four points, 
and these new bends grow out in each body segment, giving rise to the 
lobes characteristic of the organ in the adult. With the folding 
numerous fusions of the walls occur, followed by perforations, giving 
rise to the peculiar anastomosing structure of the adult organ. 

These points, so briefly summarized, go far, I think, toward the sup- 
port of that view which would recognize a close relationship between 
Arachnids and Limulus, while at the same time they serve to remove 
the Merostomata more widely from the Crustacea.— J. S. Kingsley, 

A Review of Some of the North American Ground Squir- 
rels of the Genus Tamais.— By J. A. Allen.— Bull. Am. Mas. Nat. 
Hist., Vol. III.— This paper is a revision of the " Tamais asiaticus" 
group of a former monograph of the genus Tamias, made necessary by 
the accumulation of a variety and quantity of new material during the 
last five years. It is a valuable contribution to mammalian literature. 

The material in hand seems to require the provisional recognition of 
not less than twenty-four forms, of which thirteen are here for the first 
time described. These twenty-four forms fall into several more or less 
well-marked groups, as follows : 

1. The hindsii group, consisting of (1) T. hindsii, (2) T. townsendii, 
(3) T. macrorhabdotis, (4) T. sencx, (5) T. quadrimaculatus, (6) T. 

2. The dorsalis group, consisting of (1) T. dorsalis, (2) T. obscurus. 

3. The umbrinus group, consisting of (1) T. umbrinus, (2) T. 
cimereicollis, (3) T. bulleri. 



682 The American Naturalist. LJuiy, 

4. The quadrivittatus group, consisting of (1) quadrivittatus, (2) 
T. luteiventris, (3) T. affinis, (4) T. neglectus, (5) T. borealis, (6) 
possibly also T. gracilis. 

5. Theminimus group, consisting of (1) 7 1 . minimus, (2) 71 consobri- 
nus,(3) T.pictus. 

6. The f rater group, consisting of (1) T. f rater, (2) 7: amcenus. 

T. speciosus is a rather isolated species, more closely resembling T. 
frater than any other form. T. asiaticus has no close affiliation with 
any of the American forms. 

A table of measurements, a "key" giving the salient features of 
the various forms of Tamias, and a diagram indicating the status, re- 
lationships, and lines of probable intergradation, accompany the paper, 
and make it a complete exposition of the group considered up to date. 



PHYSIOLOGY. 
Functions of Central Nervous System of Invertebrates. 

— Steiner 1 endeavors to determine experimentally what ought to be 
regarded as the the brain of those invertebrates that possess a supra- 
cesophageal ganglion, oesophageal commissure, and ventral ganglia. 
He regards the brain as characterized by the presence of the general 
motor centre in connection with at least one of the nerves of the 
special senses. In the crustaceans (Astacus, Carcinus, and Maja) 
removal of one-half of the supra-cesophageal ganglion, or cutting of 
the oesophageal commissure, caused circular movements toward the un- 
injured side. This indicates the presence of the general motor centre 
in the ganglion, and since it also gives origin to the nerves of the higher 
senses, the author regards it as the brain of the crustaceans. Experi- 
ments on insects (Blatta, Blaps, Carabus, Geotrupes, Musca, Vespa, 
Pieris, Papilio), and on myriapods (Julus), gave similar results. In 
molluscs (Pterotrachea, Pleurobrachea, Aplysia) destruction of even the 
whole of the supra-cesophageal ganglion did not affect the movements, but 
the latter ceased as soon as the pedal ganglion was destroyed. In 
Octopus, after destruction of the dorsal ganglion, the movements took 
place normally, but only after stimulation, never spontaneously. This 
ganglion hence appears to perform the part of a cerebrum instead of a 
whole brain. Among annelids (Ophelia, Eunice, Diopatra, Nephthys) 
cutting the oesophageal commissure caused disturbance of movement. 

Centralb.f. Physiologie, Bd. IV., p. 180, 1890. 



In the author's sense, then, the supra-cesophageal ganglion is a proper 
brain only in the arthropods ; in the molluscs and annelids it is only 
a sense centre. In arthropods, especially crustaceans, evidence was 
obtained of a crossing of the nerve-paths in the sub-cesopbageal gang- 
lion, analogous to the decussation of the pyramids in the medulla of 
vertebrates. 

Cerebral Localization.— The well-known statistician, Bertillon, 
was deaf in his left ear from his tenth year, and was also left-handed. 
Manouvrier 2 publishes the results of a detailed examination of his 
brain. The right superior temporal convolution (position of centre of 
hearing) was narrow, straight, and poorly developed, while that of the 
other side was broad, winding, and provided with secondary sulci. In 
accordance with the presence of left-handedness, the speech centre 
was to be looked for upon the right >ide: :wd accordingly Broca's 
convolution on that side was considerably more developed than upon 
the left. Bertillon, therefore, " spoke with his deaf hemishere," which 
must be regarded as an unfavorable relation, and with this must be 
associated the difficulty of speech from which he suffered in life. The 
right sight centre was especially strongly developed, which is regarded 
by the author in the light of a compensation for the poor sense of 
hearing. The results go far to confirm the localization theories. 



ENTOMOLOGY. 

The Black Harvest Spider.— In a lot of Phalangiidae, received 
from Mr. Lawrence Bruner, and collected at Lincoln, Nebraska, I 
found a number of specimens of the species described by Say and 
Wood as Phalangium nigrum. Its characters at once place it not only 
out of the genus in which it is at present retained, but also out of the 
sub-family Phalangiince, as it belongs to the Sclerosomatina, being the 
first species of this sub-family to be recognized in our fauna. It ap- 
parently falls into the genus Astrobunus Thorell, and hence should be 
known as Astrobunus nigrum Say. 

The literature of this Harvest Spider is quite limited. Originally 
described in 1821 by Thomas Say, 1 who reported it as "not uncom- 
mon in the Carolinas and Georgia," it received no further mention 

2 Bull. d. I. Soc. d. Psychologie Physical., 1889, p. 24. Cf. Centralblatt f. Physiologie, 
IV, p. 180, 1890. 

1 Jour. Phila. Acad., VI., pp. 66-67. Compl. Writings, II., p. 14. 



684 The American Naturalist. [July, 

until 1868, when Dr. H. C. Wood again described it 2 from specimens 
collected in Nebraska and Texas. Bibliographical references to it 
have also since been published by Professor L. M. Underwood 3 and 
myself. 4 

It is a little strange that this species does not occur in collections of 
Phalangiidae from North Carolina and Alabama, kindly sent me by 
Professor Geo. F. Atkinson. As already noted, Say says it is not un- 
common in the Carolinas and Georgia. Dr. Wood says of his Texas 
and Nebraska specimens : " The form just described has been recog- 
nized as P. nigrum Say, but as there are some slight disagreements 
with the description of that authority, and the localities are widely 
separated, it is possible that it is a distinct species." My specimens 
are undoubtedly the form described by Wood, and if another species 
should be discovered in the region mentioned by Say — agreeing with 
his brief description and differing from the Western form — the latter, 
of course, would have to be re-named. 

This species may be described as follows : 

Male (plate).— Body, 6 mm. long; 3.5 mm. wide; Palpi 4 mm. 
long. Legs, I., 11 mm. ; II., 18 mm.; III., 11 mm. ; IV., 17 mm. 

Black : Ventrum of cephalothorax (including coxae), trochanters, 
and base of femora, brown. In some specimens the apical portion of 
the legs and more or less of the ground color of the dorsum is brown- 
ish black. Dorsum thickly studded with small hemispherical black 
granules or tubercles. Segmentation of abdominal scutum indicated by 
faint impressed lines. Eye eminence longer than high ; not canalicu- 
late ; covered with black tubercles like those on the dorsum. Palpi 
black, except coxal joint, which is brown ; all the joints slightly 
arched ; furnished with more or less scattered tubercles and spinose 
hairs. Mandibles blackish. Legs short, robust, granulate. Ventral 
surface of abdomen brownish black, granulate. Genital organ " slen- 
der, proximally sub-cylindrical, then flattened and slightly expanded, 
then rapidly expanded into a broad, somewhat circular, very thin, alate 
portion, then suddenly contracted and bent at an obtuse angle, end- 
ing in a very fine point." 5 

Female. — Body, 9 mm. long; 5 mm. wide. Legs, I., n mm. ; II., 
20 mm. ; III., 11 mm. ; IV., 19 mm. Besides its larger size, it differs 
from the male in having less black on the ventral surface, which is 

2 Communications Essex Institute, VI., pp. 34-35. 



rsgo.j Entomology. 685 

cinnamon rufous, spotted with black; mandibles brown, black above; 
and the outer margins of the dorsum smooth, without the black tuber- 
cles which form a large, distinct, quadrangular, plate on the middle of 
the abdomen, and a transverse plate on each of the three posterior 
segments. The smooth margins are dark brown. 

Described from eight males and one female collected at Lincoln, 
Nebraska. The species is well illustrated, both natural size, and with 
the parts magnified (at Plate XXIV), the drawings for which have been 
prepared for my assistant, Miss Freda Detmers. — Ci.arknce M. Wkf.d. 

Explanation of Plate. 

Fig. i. Astrobunus nigrum Say, male, natural size. 

Fig. 2. Parts of same, magnified : a, dorsal surface of body ; b, eye 
eminence, side view ; c, eye eminence, front view ; d, palpus, side view ; 
e, claw of palpus, side view. 

The Live Oak Caterpillar.— In a recent number of Zoe, a new 
biological journal published at San Francisco, H. H. Behr adds an- 
other insect to the list of those which the English sparrow indirectly 
protects. He says : " There exists around our bay a moth, Phrygan- 
idia californica, which lives exclusively on live oak, though I have 
lately found some stray larvae on Quercus lobata. When, in 1853, I 
first found the caterpillar of this species I considered it a great prize, 
so rare was the little thing. Gradually the insect became less rare, 
and as soon as a sufficient number of shot-guns were placed in the 
hands of boys who shot little birds, I had ample opportunities to fill 
the empty spot in my collection that for years had only the male of the 
species on a pin. 

"I have counted four generations of the insect in one summer. 
Nevertheless they did not endanger the life of the trees inhabited by 
them. There existed still a sufficient number of insect-feeding birds 
to decimate the four broods, especially a species of titmouse, then 
rather common in our surroundings, and very frequent in Marion 
county, which took care of the eggs and the adult caterpillars. This 
bird managed in some way to escape destruction by the shot-gun ; but 
then the English sparrow was introduced by some well-meaning but im- 
perfectly instructed people. The sparrow soon drove away the titmouse. 
The titmouse no more decimated the Phryganidia egg and larva, at 
both of which the sparrow looked with a contemptuous smile. The 
Phryganidia multiplied in mathematical progression ; the leaves of the 
live oaks, for instance, at San Rafael, disappeared four times a sum- 



686 The American Naturalist. ■ [July, 

mer ; some trees survived, other succumbed ; and so the introduction 
of the English sparrow destroyed our California live oaks. The best 
proof of this is that the destruction coincides with the spreading of the 
sparrow. ' ' , 

Bibliography of Economic Entomology. — The first three 
parts of the Bibliography of the More Important Contributions to 
American Economic Entomology, which has been in preparation by 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture since 1882, have just been issued. 
They comprise the writings of B. D. Walsh (Part I.) ; Walsh and 
Riley (Part II.), and C. V. Riley (Part III.) ; there being in the first 
385 entries, in the second 479, and in the third 1556. The work has 
been prepared by Dr. Samuel Henshaw, and bears evidence of having 
been carefully done. It is accompanied by a very complete index, 
which will be appreciated by every working entomologist. 

Entomological Notes.— The current number of the Transactions 
of the American Entomological Society (Vol. XVII., No. 1) contains 
two valuable papers by Dr. G. H. Horn on the North American species 
of Heterocerus and Octhebius ; a similar discussion of the species of 
Dendroctonus by Dr. W. G. Dietz ; descriptions of three new species 
of North American Odonata, and notes on three others, by Philip H. 
Calvert ; descriptions of a number of new species of Agrotis, by John 
B. Smith ; and a valuable paper by H. F. Bassett on new species of 
Cynipidae. 

Prof. G. F. Atkinson's excellent paper on Nematode Root-Galls 
(Heterodera radicold) has been republished in the Journal of the 
Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society (Vol. VI., pp. 81-130). 

In the same journal (pp. 134-147), Prof. W. L. Poteat presents some 
interesting notes on the architectural and feeding habits of a tube- 
building spider (Atypus niger Hentz). 

Mr. E. A. Schwarz has published (Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, Vol. 
!•> PP- 237-247) a n important paper on the Myrmecophilous Coleoptera 
found in temperate North America. A list of the beetles and their 

Prof. J. B. Smith has published, as Special Bulletin K, of the New 
Jersey Experiment Station, an extended report upon the cranberry 
insects of that State. 

Bulletin No. 1 of the Colorado Biological Association contains a 
valuable paper on the Hymenoptera of Colorado, by William H. Ash- 



1890.] Archeology and Ethnology. 687 

mead. This is a part of the natural history survey of the State under- 
taken by the Association, and the paper is based largely upon material 
furnished by the Secretary, Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell. Three new- 
genera are characterized, viz., Neolaraa, of the family Bembecidae ; 
Microbracon, of the Braconidae, and Dolichopselephus, of the Ichneu- 
monidse. Sixty-seven new species are described, the descriptions of 
forty-one of which were drawn up from single specimens. The hymen- 
opterous fauna of the State, so far as it is now known, includes 33 
families, 247 genera, and 897 species. 



ARCHEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

On the Use of the Phonograph Among the Zuni Indians. 
—Ever since I began my work with the phonograph as a means of pre- 
serving the language of the American Indians, I have looked forward 
with great interest to a visit to some of those tribes which still remain 
in approximately the same condition that they were when first visited 
by white men. Such tribes it is almost impossible to find now in the 
confines of the United States. But there are some which have been 
very little changed. 

I have been particularly anxious to make observations among the 
Pueblo Indians, which still possess many interesting features of great 
antiquity. Of all the Pueblos, except possibly the Moquis, the Zufii- 
ans, or A'sheewee as they are called in their own tongue, have been 
least changed from their original condition by contact with Europeans. 
Living at a distance from the railroad, inhabiting isolated regions diffi- 
cult of access, these people have preserved the ancestral traditions and 
customs in their primitive form. In many ways they offer an unparal- 
lelled opportunity for the study of the religious and secular celebra- 
tions of Pueblo Indians, slightly modified from the olden time. 

A previous visit to Zufii, in the summer of 1889, had inspired in me 
a wish to attempt to record on the cylinders of the phonograph the 
songs, rituals, and prayers used by these people, especially in those 
most immutable of all observances, sacred ceremonials. I was par- 
ticularly anxious to record the songs connected with the celebration of 
the mid-summer dances, which occur at or near the summer solstice. 
By the help of Mrs. Hemenway, of Boston, it was possible for me, in 
the interest of the Hemenway Expedition, to visit Zuni Pueblo at this 
time, and I have been fortunate enough to take on the phonograph, 



688 The American Naturalist. [July, 

from the lips of the Zufiians, a series of records illustrating the songs 
used in their sacred and secular observances. An extended paper, with 
illustrations of the dances, has been prepared for publication, and will 
be printed as soon as the music can be written out by an expert from 
the cylinders of the phonograph. Although I prefer not to publish 
my final contribution until the illustrations are prepared from my pho- 
tographs, a brief notice of some of the phonographic records which I 
have may not be without interest. 

One of the most interesting of the songs sung at this dance, which is 
called the Kea' kok' shi or good dance, is that of the Ko ko. This song 
I took directly from the lips of one of the participants in the dance. I 
have reason to believe that this song is improvised each year, as the 
music this summer is quite different from that of a year ago. I was 
told by the Zufiians before the dance that they did not know what the 
song was to be, and that no one knew except the participants. There 
is, however, a general resemblance, yet still great variety, in all these 
" Koko songs," and I have indelibly taken on phonographic cylinders 
as many as possible for a comparative study at a more favorable 
opportunity. 

The possibility that the songs of the Ko ko were originally imitations of 
the wind blowing down the fireplace or around the house, is a fascina- 
ting idea which hardly seems capable of proof or the contrary. There 
are often strains in the Ko ko songs that remind one of the wind, and 
it is right appropriate that such imitations should occur in dances 
instituted for rain, which is ordinarily associated with the wind. At 
this place it may be well to mention the fact that there is introduced 
into the dance an implement to imitate the wind. On the entrance of 
the Ko ko into the Pueblo, and during the dances, the clowns or other 
persons, generally the clowns, have a small stick fastened to a buckskin 
thong, which they whirl about in a circle, making the sound of the 
wind. This implement, which is the exact counterpart of the " bull 
roarer," so well known to boys in some English communities, is called 
the wind. I cannot discover that it is used in the sacred ceremonies to 
frighten the women and children, or those who do not take part in the 
dance. Sometimes it is even used as a plaything by the Zufii boys. 
In Australia an instrument almost exactly similar is used in sacred 
ceremonies to frighten those who do not take part, or to let them 
know that exercises are in progress, for which purpose its use was not 
unknown among the ancient Greeks. 

Four days before the dance, on the afternoon before the departure 
of a delegation of priests to offer feather plumes at the " Sacred 



.1890.] Arcluzology and Ethnology. 689 

Lake," Tay jay po une, a ceremony takes place in the Pueblo, which 
may be called the " Ducking of the Clowns." This ob* 
known to the Zunians as the Dumachimche, from the words of the 
song by the Ko ye a mashi, or mudhead clowns, on whom, in the 
course of the celebration, water is poured from the housetops by the 
squaws. This song has internal evidence of antiquity, and I am told 
by the Indians that both song and ceremony is very ancient. Al- 
though a musical critic might not find in it great beauty, M an 
undoubted specimen of ancient aboriginal music it is iery interesting. 
I shall comment on the meaning of the Dumachimche in another place. 
when the ceremony will be described at length. 

A survival of the old practice of communal hunting still exists in 
some of the Pueblos in the so-called rabbit hunt. Se\< 
hunts have taken place during my residence in Zuni. It ha> 
me that it is a semi-religious observance connected with summer 
dances, and I have therefore taken records of the song and prayer 
used by the hunters for future study. 

While my observations have been particularly directed to the lin- 
guistic features of the solstitial dances in summer, I have not wholly 
neglected the great wealth of other material all about me for linguistic 
studv by means of the phonograph. 

The well-known celebration called the Sha' la 'ko, at which the Zuni 
house is consecrated, is the occasion of an elaborate ceremonial, in 
which figures a song or chant and a prayer, said to be very ancient. 
I have never witnessed the celebration of the Sha' la 'ko, but have 
been able to obtain the chant and prayer from one of the natives. 
This capture had to be made secretly, unknown to the other Indians 
It was found necessary to take it late at night, in a room darkened 
with blankets at the windows to prevent suspicion, and sentinels sta- 
tioned about the house to warn us of the approach of intruders. On 
those conditions only was it possible to get the Indian to chant the 
Sa' hla 'ko on the phonograph. It is now, however, Pe— X 
recorded in the wax, and can be reproduced at pleasure, or what is 
of more importance to philological study, can be written out ana 
studied at leisure under better conditions. I am told that , : ■ ne 
to impossible to get any of the Zunians to sing the Sha la ko out ot 
Zn and as the celebration regularly comes in November, a record 
of it in Julv is a fortunate acquisition. Certain of their winter songs 
01 in ju y because to do it prevents the corn 

they wJlno, s.ng in summ er became o p ^ ^ ^ 

from growing. I do not know wnciuw 
Sha' la 'ko is one of these.' 



690 The American Naturalist. > [July, 

The phonographic record to which I look forward with the greatest 
hope is that of a Zuni ritual to which writers have from time to time 
referred. This ritual, which has been designated by the dignified title 
of a Zuni Epic, is of considerable length, and is regarded with great 
reference by the Zuni people themselves. Haluta, the reciter of it at 
the time of its delivery, is said to be regarded as a most sacred per- 
sonage, and when, prior to its recital, he is brought into the Pueblo 
his feet, it is said, are not allowed to touch the ground. It is thought 
probable that a phonographic record of the ritual would be an addition 
to our knowledge of Zunian mythology. 

The extracts from this ritual, which are freely translated from memory 
by Mr. Cushing in his interesting paper on Zuni Fetishes, indicate that 
it is a valuable account of the mythological history of the race. He 
had not at his command an instrument to record the words of those 
portions of the " Kaklan " which he heard, and consequently was un- 
able to give it in the original diction in which it is given before the 
members of certain priesthoods, to whom alone it is recited. He says 
that many of the words are in old Zuni, not understood at present. 
The records which I have are good enough to enable me to write out 
the ritual, which, however, at the present state of my knowledge ot 
the language I am unable to translate. With the help of those who 
understand the language, as well as English, I have no fear but that in 
my final paper I can publish a translation of the ritual as told by 
Haluta on the cylinder of the phonograph. 

I have, after several failures, been able to get this recital on the pho- 
nograph,' where it fills a long series of cylinders. Before the value of 
this record, both linguistic and mythological, can be appreciated, it 
must be carefully written out and studied. This will take a long time, 
as many of the words are old Zunian, and the task of extracting the 
meaning from the ritual will found to be a difficult one. A permanent 
preservation of it is, however, a step in the interpretation, and when 
once indelibly fixed on phonographic cylinders its true character and 
significance can be investigated. 

One of the most interesting of the Zuni songs is that of the hunters. 
This song has many beautiful parts in it, and outside of its interest in 
the study of the customs of the hunters, is well worth preserving as a 
specimen of aboriginal music. I have thought it worthy of a place in 
my collection, and with it I have also preserved certain of the prayers 
to the fetishes used in the hunt, some of which have been written out 
and translated by Mr. Cushing. The harvest which a study of the 
hunting customs of the Zufiians offers is great, and the collection of 



i89o.] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 691 

data bearing on this subject is highly important, since the decrease in 
game may on as New Mexico is more and more thickly settled, and 
the hunting ceremonials be more or less modified as time goes on. 

I have not encountered in my experience in taking records with the 
phonograph any very great difficulty among the Zunians. Their real 
impressions of the instrument it is very difficult to divine. One of them 
asked if a person was hidden in the machine, and another thought 
the phonograph bewitched. Indians are so stolid that it is very diffi- 
cult to discover what impression such a novel instrument as the phono- 
graph really makes. They are so accustomed to incomprehensible 
machines used by Americans that this last triumph of inventive genius 
affects them no more than many others which might be mentioned. 
Certainly they are not afraid of it, and there is no difficulty in getting 
them to talk into the instrument. The great difficulty in getting them 
to repeat their sacred songs and prayers does not come so much from 
their fear of the instrument as of secularizing what is sacred to them. 
They will readily respond with any of their secular songs, or with 
those sung in public, but those belonging to the secret ceremonials of 
the Estufa they will not divulge. — J. Walter Fewkes, Zuni, New 
Mexico, July jt/i, 1890. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

Biological Society of Washington.— May 31. —The following 
communications were read : Characteristics of the Halosauroids or 
Lyopomes ; Dr. Theo. Gill. Exhibition of Specimens of New Spe- 
cies of North American Mammals ; Dr. C. Hart Merriam. Coultorella 
a New Genus of Composite; Dr. J. N. Rose. Organisms in the St. 
Peter's Sandstone; Prof. Joseph F. James.— Frederic A. Lucas, 
Secretary. 

Natural Science Association of Staten Island.— May 8, 
1890.— The following paper by Mr. Chas. W. Long was read : Staten 
Island Fire Flies.— No one will have failed to notice the abundance 
on Staten Island of the beetle commonly known as the firefly. As it 
is seen in early summer, in the words of Longfellow : 

" Flitting through the dusk of evening, 

it constitutes one of the peculiar charms of our latitude. It has been 
described by many a poet as well as naturalist, and those who have 



692 The American Naturalist. [July, 

watched it through a warm June night will not wonder that the natu- 
ralist, like Mr. Silas Wegg, may be tempted to "drop into werse." 
No prose can perfectly represent the mazy evolutions of its flight, but 
the following from the pen of Mr. Philip Gosse will be found the most 
accurate : " They fly slowly, and as they fly, emit and conceal their 
light at intervals of two or three seconds ; making interrupted lines of 
light through the air, gleaming slowly along for about a yard, then 
suddenly quenched, and appearing again at the same distance ahead." 
He, like Longfellow, compares the light to candles in the woods. In- 
deed he says though told what they were, at every one that appeared, 
the same idea would come across his mind, but the comparison is not 
so apt with us, for we rarely see them singly, and it rather seems as if 
they were stars moving through the bushes, or twinkling in some deep 
valley as we look into it from the hills above. They resemble the stars, 
too, in the thought of infinite number they suggest. It would be a 
hopeless task to count the number one can see in a single summer 
night. And considering the countless summer nigh;s that have elapsed 
since the first firefly appeared on the globe (fossil Lampyridae are found 
in Miocene rocks) the total of all the motions that they have made 
since then may well suggest a number approaching to mathematical 
infinity. 

Apart from their beauty, our fireflies possess a great interest from the 
entomologist's point of view, for we find in them some characters spe- 
• cialized to an extraordinary extent. It is unfortunate that among the 
nine or ten species represented on Staten Island, of which I append a 
descriptive list, the special sexual characters are not developed as fully 
as in the Southern species and in the English " glow worm." In the 
latter, the light organs of the female reach their highest point and she 
is destitute of wings, while the male possesses normal wing power and 
very large eyes; clearly indicating the relation of the characters to the 
reproduction of the species. The light organs of the male are feeble, 
being useless as an attraction to the female, able only to crawl slowly 
in the grass. The same characters are found in some of our Texan 
species, but the only approach to it among the Staten Island species is 
in Photinus scintillans, our most abundant "firefly," of which the 
female is wingless. The eyes, however, and the light organs are 
equally developed in each sex. 

The antennae also present some curious forms, none more so than 
those of Phengodes plumosa, a southern species whose occurence on 
Staten Island was discovered by Mr. W. T. Davis, to whom I am 
indebted for my specimen. Here the antennae consist as usual of 



1890.] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 693 

eleven linear joints, from each of which proceed two branches, as long 
as the entire antenna;, curved and fringed both sides with long hair. 
The branches become shorter toward the outer extremity, and the 
effect is very similar to a white ostrich plume. The females of this 
and all the species of Phengodes are unknown. Beyond these charac- 
ters, the fireflies resemble the general coleopterous form. It is not 
difficult to catch and examine one, for they frequently rest on a stalk of 
grass, continuing to give out the intermittent yellow gleam, thus guid- 
ing one to the spot. In the hand the insect will be found to consist, 
seen from above, of the thorax in front, a semicircular piece orna- 
mented with rosy patches and a black spot, and two " elytra," parallel 
yellowish pieces, comprising the greater part of the dorsal aspect. 
Beneath will be found the head, concealed from above by the hood- 
like thorax, with biting jaws ; the six legs possessed by all beetles ; and 
the abdomen, divided into segments, from the last three proceeding 
the light which gives the family its name and renown. The light may 
be watched, throbbing and pulsating, as the small creature silently tells 
that it, like its captor, lives and breathes. If it be crushed, the light 
still continues for a time, but gradually dies away. In the dried speci- 
mens these segments are cream colored. The physical cause of the 
luminosity in fireflies is unknown. Dr. Leconte cites some partially 
successful experiments to isolate the actual luminous substance by Dr. 
T. L. Phipson and others, and the name " Noctilucine " has been 
applied to it, and its existence stated in varied forms of marine life, in 
Myriapoda and in putrid fish, but I am not aware that positive results 
have been reached. 

The larvae of these insects are also somewhat luminous, and are 
found in the grass in summer. They are carnivorous, and are to be 
reckoned among the beneficial insects. 

The description of the firefly is taken particularly from the species 
common in gardens, and the flight of that insect (P. scintiUans) is also 
described, and as Mr. Davis has mentioned to me that the larger 
species have a more rapid flight, it is proper to so state here to guard 
against error. 

This list of our species includes all known to me from the neigh- 
borhood of New York, and Phengodes is new to the fauna of the 
vicinity. Being the result of the observations of two persons only, it 
would be hazardous to represent it as complete, particularly in view 
of the warm and sandy character of the southern end of the island, 
where we may hope to find additions to our list. They may be 
sought by jarring the leaves and branches of shrubbery where they 
remain during the day. 



LIST OF THE SPECIES OF SUB-FAMILY LAM 

Head more or less covered by the hood-like tho 
Head completely covered ; 2d joint of antennae sn 



Antennal joints very broadly compressed ; color 
black; sides and apical margin of thorax ful- 
vous, .28-.44 ins. 1. Lucidota atra. 
Antennal joints not broadly compressed ; 

Eyes small; color black; thorax fulvous, with 
disk and sides black; last dorsal segment in 
male rounded, .28-. 54 ins. 2. Ellychnia corrusca. 

Eyes small ; last dorsal segment in male bisinuate 

Prothorax with black disk and reddish yellow 

sides, .25 ins. 3. Pyropyga nigricans. 

Prothorax with black disk and edge, .25 ins. 

4. Pyropyga decipiens. 
Eyes large; prothorax subcarinate; elytra with 
wide side margin ; 
Elytra black, margin and suture yellow ; thor- 
ax like No. 2, .30-. 50 ins. 5. Pyractomena angulata. 
Eyes large ; prothorax not carinate ; elytra with- 
out wide margin ; 
Larger species ; female elytra long like male, 

• 3 6 *-5 2 ms - 6 . Photinus pyralis. 

Smaller species ; female wingless, elytra short, 
.2 2-. 3 2 ins. 7. Photim, 

Head only partially covered ; 2d joint of antennas 
not transverse, as long as 3d. 
Color dull yellow; prothorax red on disk, with a 
dark medial stripe, elytra dull yellow, more or 
less striped with black, .42-.60 ins. 8. Photuris pennsylvanica. 
Head exposed ; antennae plumose ; 

Elytra subulate, color testaceous, .50 ins. 9. Phengodes plumosa. 

The length of the insect in iooths of an inch is indicated before the 
name. The species numbered 4 and 5 are northern insects and rare 
with us, and No. 9 is, as stated above, a southern species. The light 
organs are more feeble in 1 to 5, and more strongly developed in 6 to 
8, which are the common " fireflies." 



!89o.] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 695 

A preliminary list oi the mosses of Staten bland, compiled bv Mrs. 
N. L. Britton, was presented, which will be published as an extra. 

Mr. Arthur Hollick showed dried specimens of Clematis ochroleuca, 
collected during the past month at Richmond, which is a new locality 
for this interesting plant, or perhaps only an extension of the previously 
known localities on Todt Hill and at Egbertville. It was in great 
abundance, accompanied, as usual, by Cerastium anr/isc, var. oblon- 
gifolivm in dense clusters, particularly where the serpentine had been 
exposed. Mr. Hollick also showed staminate catkins <>t Sa//.v fragi/i.w 
from a tree in Richmond, which were Pi- and tn-furcated. This pecu- 
liar state of the catkins of this willow was noted some years since on 
a tree at Prince's Bay (See Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, VI., 312), and it is 
not unlikely that it may be looked for in other places. 

Mr. L. P. Gratacap presented a block of Potsdam sandstone, beau- 
tifully ripple-marked, from the drift at the base of the bluff on the 
shore at Tottenville. Also clay ironstone containing plant remains 
and nodules of pyrite from the same locality, and lignite from the clay 
beds near Kreischerville. 

Mr. Ira K. Morris read a paper upon " Some Old Staten Island 
Springs." 

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 

1889. -Report of the Committee on Anatomical Nomenclature, 

of the members of the Committee have given to the subject intrusted 
to them as much time as their regular duties would permit. They 
agree upon one point, viz., the advantages, other things being equal, 
of mouonyms (single word terms) over polynyms (terms consisting of 
two or more words). Before making specific recommendations or 
presenting a final report, the Committee think it advisable that they 
and other anatomists should have an opportunity of discussing at lei- 
sure the simplified nomenclature which they are informed is employed 
in certain treatises which will be published during the coming winter. 
They therefore ask to be continued. 

Burt G. Wilder, Chairman. 
Harrison Allen, 
Frank Baker, 



i. That the adjectives dorsal and ventral be employed in- place of 
osterior and anterior as commonly used in human anatomy, and in 
ilace of upper and lower as sometimes used in comparative anatomy. 

2. That the cornua of the spinal cord, and the spinal nerve-roots, 
>e designated as dorsal ami re ntral rather than as posterior and anterior. 

3. That the costiferous vertebrae be called thoracic rather than dorsal. 

4. That the hipp ampus m Ik < I 1 d / r . t 1 s ' < impus ma- 

tlie /< >is I'andii, t *~ . he insula A' •'. iiii 1 a 
ia mater and ,////-,? w<?Av. respec lively pia and di/ra." 
Signed by all the members. Joseph Leidy, Chairman. 

Harrison Allen, 
Frank Baker, 
Thomas B. Stowell, 
Burt G. Wilder. 
Thomas Dwight was added to the committee. 

The Committee desire frank and full expressions of opinion from 
dentine and medical journals, from individuals who receive copies, 
.nd from any others who are interested in the subject. 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 
The Alvarenga Prize, of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, 
consisting of one year's income of the bequest of the Sefior Alvar- 
enga. of Lisbon, has been awarded to Dr. R. W. Philip, of the Vic- 
toria Dispensary for Consumption and Diseases of the Chest, Edin- 
burgh, for his Essay on Pulmonary Tuberculosis, which will be pub- 
lished by the College. 

Entomological Club, A. A. A. S.— The Entomological Club 
of the A. A. A. S. will meet at Indianapolis, August 20, at 9 a. m. 
There should be a large attendance of entomologists at this meeting, 
especially of those in the West. The officers are : Professor A. J. 
Cook, President, and F. M. Webster, Secretary, and both are doing all 
in their power to make the meeting a success. Professor Cook writes : 
"Please urge a large attendance from both Canada and the United 
States. All are invited to be present, and to bring or send papers. - ' 



THE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST 

Vol. XXIV. AUGUST, 1890. ^ 

THE EXTINCT SIRENIA. 



THE Sirenia occupy an especial place in the mammalian econ- 
omy, which is only shared by the seals. They are denizens 
of the coasts of the sea and its branches, and of the larger rivers. 
Their present distribution differs from that of the seals in that it 
especially includes the tropics, where seals are rare ; and excludes 
the polar regions, where seals abound. Extinct forms occur, 
however, in all the northern temperate regions that have been 
explored, and there is no reason to doubt that the order was of 
world-wide distribution during the early and middle parts of 
Casnozoic time. 

The derivation of the Sirenia is shrouded in mystery. They 
have evidently diverged from land mammals of primitive placental 
type, and have become specialized in accordance with their 
peculiar modes of life, and have in many respects degenerated. 
Rudiments of pelvis and posterior limbs are present in most of 
them, and they are especially large in some species of the extinct 
genus Halitherium. Part of such a pelvis from South Carolina 
is represented in Plate XXV, Fig. 6. The dentition has become 
more and more reduced, till the enamel layer is lost in Halicore, 
and the teeth have all disappeared in Rhytina. The least gen- 
eralized form is Prorastomus Owen, of which remains of a single 
species (P. sirenoides) have been found in the late Caenozoic beds 
of certain islands of the West Indies. Here the dentition is 
stated by Lydekker to be : I. f ; C. \ \ M. f ? . 



The families of this order are the following : 
Incisors present in normal number; canines pres- 
ent ; molars numerous, rooted, and enamel- 
covered ; Prorastomidce. 
Incisors, in less than normal number ; no canines ; 
molars in normal number, rooted, and enamel- 
covered ; Halitheriida. 
No incisors ; molars present, covered with enamel, 

and in increased number ; Manatida. 

Incisors present ; molars prismatic, without enamel, 

and in reduced number ; Halicoridm. 

Teeth none ; Rhytinidce. 

The Prorastomid.« includes but the one genus, Proras- 
tomus Owen, and this the single species P. sirenoides Owen. 
This is a highly interesting form, having a dentition inter- 
mediate between that characteristic of other members of the 
order and the typical mammalian formula. This is especially 
true in the normally constituted incisor and canine teeth. The 
molars are, like those of the manatees, cross-crested grinders, 
and in larger number than that normal to mammalia generally. 
The single species has been found in beds of uncertain but 
probably Eocene age in the West Indian Island of Jamaica. 

The greater number of extinct Sirenia belong to the Hali- 
theriid,e, and they occur alike in the old world and in the new. 
The genera are as follows : 

Incisors I ; molars ? ; Dioplotherium Cope. 

Incisors \\ molars 6 or 7, the last superior 
the most complex ; symphysis decurved, com- 
pressed ; Halitheriwn Kaup. 
Incisors \ ; premolars, 3 ; molars, 4, the last 

superior reduced, simple ; Miosiren Dollo. 

Incisors { ; molars ? ; symphysis long, not de- 
curved, cylindric; Arioplonassa Cope. 
The incisors in the first three genera are tusk-like ; in the last 
they are in the lower jaw, with short root, and are easily shed. 
Six or seven species of Halitherium are known from the Miocene 
and Pliocene beds of Western and Southern Europe. The 



iS^o.] 



The Extinct 



r> 99 



IT. schinzii Kaup from the lower Miocene of Germany (Fig. i<?) is 
about as large as the manatee, while the H.forrcstii Capellini is 
much larger, and is from the lower Pliocene of Italy. The Miosircn 
kockii Dollo is known from a skeleton from the Miocene of 
Belgium. It was rather larger than the manatee, and was 
nearest to the Halitheria. The principal difference is seen in 




Fig 



the reduced last superior molar tooth, which shows indications 
of the reduction in number which took place in the dugong 
(Fig. lb). The largest species supposed to belong to the family 
is the Ham pe, frum New Jersey, which is 

known from a large superior tooth only. The dentine of this 
tooth has regular transverse ridges, which are also traceable in 
a Halitherium (//. capgrandi Lart), and it is covered by a layer 
of cementum. As the molar teeth are unknown, the reference 
of this animal to this family remains uncertain. The most primi- 



yoo The American Naturalist. [August, 

tive form of the Halitheriidae known is the genus Dioplotherium 
Cope, with two superior incisors. D. manigaultii is a large 
species which was found near Charleston, S. Carolina, by Dr. G. 
Manigault of that place (Plate XXV). The first incisor lacks the 
distal expansion of that of Halitherium. The molars are unknown. 
Another and still more remarkable form has been discovered 
in the phosphatic deposits of South Carolina. This is the ' genus 
Anoplonassa Cope, in which the symphysis of one of the jaws is 
much elongated, is semi-cylindrical, and is not decurved as in the 
other members of the family. The premolar and molar teeth 
are shed at maturity, leaving indistinct traces, except, perhaps, the 
anterior incisor, which is represented by a large, shallow alveolus, 
and is perhaps not shed (Fig. 2). The 







being inserted deep into mud in order to draw thence mollusca 
or other kinds of food. But one species is known, the Anoplo- 
nassa forcipata Cope. It is by no means certain that it belongs 
here, and it may be a Cetacean. 

The Manatim: are remarkable for the number of their molars. 
In the genus Manatus there are eight in the permanent dentition, 
and a ninth anterior tooth, which is early shed. These molars 
are all alike, and with two transverse crests in the upper jaw and 
three in the lower. There is a minute incisor in the upper jaw, 
which is shed early. Besides the three living species of Mana- 
tus but few extinct species are known. Teeth resembling those 
of the Floridan species have been found in the Charleston de- 
posits, and have been named by Leidy M. fossilis. A form 
from the Eocene of Egypt has been named by Owen Eotherium 
egyptiaaim. Filhol does not distinguish the molars from those of 
Manatus as to their structure, but their number is unknown. 



^ifp^fi 




Halkore tfi/^on^ Cuv 



i8qo.] The Extinct Sirenia. 

Fossil Halicorid^e are unknown, except some bones of ^ 




Fig.; 
ight side ; 2, from above, a, F 
d, frontal ; t, molar; /, zygomat 

late Tertiary age found in Australia. In the existing genus the 
dental formula is I. \; C. %; M. f, and the molars are prismatic 
and of cylindric or oval section, as in some Edentata. (Plate 
XXVI.) The Rhytinimj are represented thus far by the typical 
genus and species only, the R. gigas Zimm., which dwelt on 
the coasts of Behring Sea up to a late period of human history. 
It is one of the large species of mammalia exterminated by man, 
and its bones are found in considerable abundance on Behring's 
Island, Commander's Island, etc. Nearly complete skeletons are 



702 The American Naturalist. [August, 

preserved in the Museums of St. Petersburg, London, and Wash- 
ington. 

of descent of the Sirenia may be expressed as fol- 




Plate XXV. — Dioploth? . . Three-eighths natural 

ize. Figs. 1-4, part of premaxillary bone with incisor alveoli , and I. 1 in 
ilace ; 1 outside ; 2 inside ; 3 front ; 4 from below ; a alveolus of external 
ncisor. Original ; from type in Museum of Charleston, S. C. Figs. 6-7, 
s innominatum of unknown Sirenian, from Charleston. Reduced. 

Plate XXVI. — Halicore dugong Cuv. Skeleton, from Cuvier. 



THE CONCRESCENCE THEORY OF THE VERTE- 
BRATE EMBRYO. 



(Continued from page 629.) 

Blastodermic Vesicle with Two Layers. — Of this stage we have 
several descriptions; for the rabbit by Kolliker (Grundriss, p. 89), 
Hensen, 24, C. Rabl, 44, 141, as well as the older accounts by 
Bischoff, 6, and Coste, 14, and the brief mention by Heape in 
Foster and Balfour's Embryology, 2d edition, 316-320; for the 
mole by Heape, 23 ; for the dog by BischofT, 7 ; for the cat by 
Schafer, 52; for the sheep by Bonnet, 10 ; and for several ro- 
dents as indicated in the section on inversion of the germ layers, 
P- 7". 



1890.] Concrescence Theory of the }'ertebrote I'.mbryo. yo^ 

The two-layered stage is found in the rabbit about seven, in 
the sheep about thirteen days after coitus. The dimensions for 
the sheep are about 4 mm. for the greatest diameter and 2-3 mm. 
for the lesser diameter. 

The two layers form each a closed sack ; the embryonic 
shield is well marked as a round spot less translucent than the 
walls, elsewhere. The outer layer has everywhere a distinctly 
epithelial character; in the region of the shield its cells are col- 
umnar with spherical nuclei ; in the rabbit the cells arc low, and 
the nuclei lie nearly at one level (lor a g< 

PI. xxi, Fig. 49); in the sheep the cells are taller, and the nuclei 
are at various levels ; in the rople and in various rodents there 
are several layers apparently, but perhaps in them 

shield there is an abrupt change to a very thin layer, with widely 
expanded cells; consequently in the region of the shield the nu- 
clei are close set, while outside the shield they are wider apart. 
The change at the edge of the shield is at first less abrupt, but 
at the present stage is very marked. A similar difference exists 
in the inner layer: although its cells are very much thinned out 
everywhere, yet the layer is slightly thicker in the region of the 
shield ; the nuclei of the inner layer are everywhere somewhat 
flattened, and they are larger and farther apart than the 
nuclei of the outer layer, a difference which is very obvious in 
surface views, both during this and the next following stages. The 
inner layer has an epithelial character in the region of the shield, 
but further away the cells move apart, and being connected by 
processes resemble embryonic connective tissue (Bonnet, 10, 192; 
Hensen, 24, Figs. 15 and 11B on Taf. vn ; E. Van Beneden, 2). 
The relations are illustrated by the accompanying Fig. \j t 
representing the shield in the sheep at thirteen days, and of a 
vesicle measuring 4 mm. by 2 mm. ; at the left of the figure the 
layers are folded back over the shield. 

The next changes which occur are principally those of growth, 
both of the vesicle as a whole and of the embryonic shield* 
which also begins to arch up ; the vesicle and shield both become 
oval ; usually the oval shield lies lengthwise, but in the deer, as 



704 The American Naturalist. [August, 

shown by Bischoff, it lies transversely of the vesicle. The size of 
the shield is quite nearly uniform among the placented mammals 
in which it has been studied, but the size of the vesicle varies ex- 
tremely ; especially noteworthy is the excessively rapid elonga- 






tion in ungulates (pig, sheep, goat, and deer) ; in the sheep, for ex- 
ample, it trebles or sextuples its length in less than a single day 
after the shield appears. The next step is the appearance of a 
middle layer, at least in sheep (Bonnet, 10, 192-196, //, 42), 
which shows in the fresh specimen as a slight turbidity of the 
vesicular walls just outside the edge of the shield, while in the 
region of the shield there is no middle layer whatever. Sections 
show that the new layer consists of loosely scattered cells con- 
nected by anastomosing processes. It is everywhere absolutely 
distinct from the outer layer, but merges at many points with the 
inner layer. From this connection Bonnet concludes that the 
middle layer is derived from the inner layer by what must be 
called a process of delamination. So far as known to me, noth- 
ing analogous to this middle layer has yet been observed other 
mammals. The next important step, again according to Bonnet, 
10, 195, is the appearance of Hensen's knot, which takes place 
while the peripheral middle layer is developing. The knot is at 
first a small thickening on the under side of the outer layer ; it is 
situated on the middle line of the shield, a little nearer one end 
than the other. It is distinctly separated from the inner layer, 
but is connected with the cells of the middle layer, which have 
now developed themselves in the middle region of the shield 
also. Bonnet maintains that the knot gives off cells which con- 
tribute to the formation of the middle layer. The knot marks 
the front end of the future primitive streak. 



1890.] Concrescence Theory of the Vertebrate Embryo. 705 

The appearances in a sheep's ovum at this stage are illustrated by 
Fig. 18 of a vesicle of 12-13 davs from a sheep ; the vesicle meas- 
ured 55 mm. in length by about 1.5 in breadth, but the length of 
the vesicle is extremely variable at this stage ; the specimen had 
been stained to bring out the small close-set nuclei of the outer 
layer, and the larger, more widely-set nuclei of the inner layer. 
The upwards-arching embryonic shield, Sh, shows Hensen's knot. 
kn, and the beginning primitive streak, around the edge of the 
shield the middle layer makes an irregular shadow, mes. 

A condition of the blastodermic vesicle similar to that described 
is figured by Coste for the rabbit, by Bischoff for the rabbit 6, Taf. 
ix. ( Fig. 42, C, — for the dog f 
7, Taf. in., Fig. 28, B; and the 
gradual extension of the second 
layer is recorded for the mole by 
Heape, 23. Since it is known to 
occur in rodents, carnivora, and 
insectivora, it is probably true of 
all placental mammals that the 
one-layered vesicle becomes two- 
layered by the outgrowth of cells 
for the " inner mass " found at 
the close of segmentation ; this 
is the first step of development 
after segmentation. 

Rauber's Deckschicht has evi- 
||j " ' $ r dently great importance. It was 

fig. 18.— Central portion of a sheep's first described by him in the 
■Mdd; e ** i Hense rabbit, 45 ; and was also dis- 

biasthof; after Bonnet, 34 diams. covered by E. Van Beneden, /, 

who, however, made the blunder of considering it as the perma- 
nent ectoderm, and the true ectoderm below it as the mesoderm ; 
this error has been amply corrected by Kolliker, and is now 
admitted by Van Beneden (see Van Beneden and Julin, 4). Its 
disappearance in the rabbit has also been studied by Lieberkuhn, 
41. Balfour (Comp. Embryol, II., 219), from investigations on the 
rabbit by himself and Heape, concluded that the cells of the deck- 




706 The American Naturalist [August, 

schicht disappear by being incorporated in the true ectodermal 
layer, becoming at the same time columnar ; this view is verified 
by Lieberkiihn, ^2, 400-401. As already stated, the rodent 
modification of the deckschicht is discussed below, page 711. In 
the rabbit the deckschicht disappears before the second layer of 
cells grows completely round the vesicle. 

Blastodermic Vesicles with Primitive Streak. — The knot of Hen- 
sen becomes the front end of the primitive streak, which lengthens 
backward ; during the same period the vesicle as a whole en- 
larges ; in ruminants the enlargement is enormous and very rapid. 1 
- - - The primitive streak always lies in the 

long axis of the shield. The formation 
of the primitive streak begins with the 
union of Hensen's knot with the inner, 
layer, so that at the knot all three layers 
are actually united, — the condition origi- 
nally discovered by Hensen, 24., 268. 
? ' J The union of the knot with the inner 

layer spreads backward along the line 
which is to become the primitive streak ; 
soon the axial growth reaches the edge 
of the shield, and the streak and shield 
elongate together, the latter becoming 
Fir 1 —Embryonic shield P omtecl at its hinder end. We thus have 
of a rabbit's ovum of five days, a pear-shaped shield, with the primitive 
" streak running forward from its pointed 
m\ m"- after Koiiiker. 28 end ; the anterior end of the primitive 
diams - streak is somewhat enlarged, and the 

posterior end is considerably thickened; the three layers are 
united along the primitive streak. Figure 19 represents the 
embryonic shield of a rabbit embryo ; the shield measured 1.34 
mm. in length, and 0.85 mm. in width ; the primitive streak is a 
broad band, corresponding to the axial thickening, and extends 
about two-thirds of the length of the shield ; the middle layer, 
m', m", occupies a circular area around the hind end of the streak ; 



isgo.] Concrescence Theory of the Vertebrate Embryo. 707 

for a similar stage in the opossum see Selenka, 57, Taf. xvm., 
Fig. 6; in the mole, Heape, 23, Pl.xxvm., Fig. 12 ; in the sheep, 
Bonnet, 10, Taf. x., Figs. 39, 40. Cross sections show : the con- 
crescence of the three layers in the axis ; the greater width of the 
streak in front (to this wide anterior end of the streak the term 
Hensen's knot continues to be applied) ; and show also the 
increasing thickness of the streak posteriorly. The primitive 
groove, which is a shallow depression of the outer layer, appears 
first over Hensen's knot, and thence extends gradually backward 
along the median line of the primitive streak. A transverse sec- 
tion through about the middle of the streak at this stage in the 
mole is represented in Fig. 20, and may be considered thoroughly 




distinct, though not separated a 

Blastodern ok and Head-Process. — 

In the stage we are now considering the axial thickening 
becomes sub-divided into two parts, an anterior known as the 
head-process, (Kopffortsatz), and the true primitive streak. The 
two are distinguished by the fact that the axial thickening in the 
region of the process is separated from the outer layer, but fused 
with the inner layer, while in the region of the streak it is united 
with the outer layer. At this stage we find further that, except at 
the anterior end, /'. e. y in the ' region of Hensen's knot, the axial 
thickening of the streak is not connected with the inner layer. 
Hence cross sections may give us three different appearances, 
according to the level at which they are taken. 

The head-process was first distinguished, so far as I am aware, 
by Kolliker, 32, also (Entw. ges., 1879, p. 271). Lieberkuhn, 42, 



708 The American Naturalist. [August, 

first showed that in it appears a small longitudinal canal, the 
walls of which form the notochord. Heape, 2j, discovered that 
the hinder end of this canal opens exteriorly in the mole, and 
Bonnet, 10, made the same observation on sheep. Strahl 
describes the " process " in the rabbit incidentally in his paper on 
cloaca, 63 ; additional information is given by Bonnet, //, 65-75, 
concerning the sheep, and by C. Rabl, 44, concerning the rabbit 
Especially valuable is Fr. Carius' dissertation, 13. In the guinea 
pig, according to Carius, after the formation of the primitive 
streak, the middle layer grows out in all directions, and lies free 
between the inner and outer layers. In front of the primitive 
streak the outgrowth takes place in three divisions, one median, 
two lateral. The median outgrowth is the head-process, and it 
becomes later united with the inner layer, but at first lies entirely 
free (embryo of 13-14 days). The first indication of the forma- 
tion of a canal is an alteration of form in the cells, which elongate 
in directions at right angles to the axis of the head-process, so 
that their oval nuclei are radially placed. The change begins 
posteriorly and progresses forward ; while it is going on, the 
anterior extremity of the head-process fuses with the inner layer. 
The radial cells move apart, so that there arises a longitudinal canal ; 
subsequently the canal loses its inferior wall, so that it becomes con- 
tinuous as a cavity with the cavity of the vesicle formed by the inner 
layer. In the rabbit the head-process is always free at first, but very 
early unites with the inner layer, in which condition it was found 
by Carius, 13, 18-19, at 7^ days. 2 In the rabbit Hensen's 
knot presents at this stage a small depression (the front end of the 
primitive groove), into which a small plug of tissue projects up 
from the underlying axial, thickening (Carius, Fig. 7) ; Van Bene- 
den homologizes this with the anus of Rusconi and its plug of 
yolk matter, but inasmuch as the rabbit and bats are the only 
mammals known to have such a plug, and as the anus of Rusconi 
is necessarily at the hind end of the primitive streak, Van Bene- 

1 C. Rabl, 44, 143-145, states expressly that in the rabbit the axial thickenine is not 



been artificially separa 



wn figures suggest at c 



1890.] Concrescence Theory of the Vertebrate Embryo. 709 

den's homology seems to me utterly baseless. The relations of 
the head-process in the sheep are very much as in the rabbit, 
Bonnet, //, 65-67 ; the cells of the middle layer are at first free 
as they grow forward to form the process, but subsequently are 
found united with the inner layer. 

The head-process (cf. Lieberkuhn, jj) probably always grows, 
as is certainly the case in the guinea pig, at its hinder end and at 
the expense of the primitive streak ; it is, I think, in this manner 
that the often-noticed shortening and final disappearance of the 
streak is effected. The back growth of the process establishes 
the necessary condition for the growth of the notochord at its 
hind end. 

Homologies of the Mammalian Blastocyst. — There is at present 
no satisfactory and generally accepted interpretation of the parts 
of the mammalian blastocyst as compared with the corresponding 
stages of other vertebrates. The principal difficulties are two, 
namely: I, the development of the two-layered stage; 2, the 
identification of archenteric cavity. 

1. The two-layered stage is said to develop by an inner layer 
growing out in all directions from the inner mass of cells left at 
the close of segmentation. Now we must look on this statement 
with great suspicion, because in all other vertebrates it is the ecto- 
derm which grows over the ovum ; it is therefore improbable 
that in mammals it is the entoderm ; and, in fact, I cannot find 
anywhere any definite observations to show that it is the inner 
layer the spreading of which renders the blastodermic vesicle 
two-layered. If the current statement proves erroneous, then we 
shall gain much towards a direct comparison of mammalian de- 
velopment with that of other vertebrates. 

2. The permanent archenteric cavity arises from two sources, 
namely : the large space of the vesicle enclosed by the inner 
layer, and secondly, the so-called chorda-canal of the KopfTort- 
satz. Concerning the homologies of the latter, three views have 
been advanced: 1, it is the homologue of the tubular noto- 
chord ; 2, it is the true archenteric cavity (E. Van Beneden, j) ; 
3, it is' the blastoporic canal (Minot, 1887, Buck's Reference 
Handb., VI., p. 247). The third view is the one which I adopt. 



710 The American Naturalist. [August, 

Against" the first view it is to be urged that the tubular stage ot 
the notochord does not appear actually, but is assumed for lower 
vertebrates, because the chorda appears in them as a groove and 
as afterwards separated off, and although it is then a solid rod of 
cells it has been considered to represent an epithelial tube ; more- 
over, this stage occurs after the notochord is permanently sepa- 
rated from the entoderm, and finally the whole of the rod of cells 
(or walls of the chordal tube) participates in the formation of the 
notochord. The mammalian " chorda-canal " is a true tube, 
which the notochord is not; it fuses with the entoderm, and the 
true notochord is separated off subsequently, only the dorsal 
part of its walls produces notochordal cells. These characteris- 
tics are, on the other hand, precisely those which belong to that 
hinder portion of the archenteron which we call in other verte- 
brates the blastoporic canal ; this canal produces the notochordal 
cells from its dorsal wall ; it passes through a mass of cells, and 
lies in Sauropsida (the vertebrates nearest the mammals) above 
the archenteric cavity proper. Against the second view — E. Van 
Beneden's — that the "chorda-canal" is the archenteron, it is to be 
remarked that the archenteron is bounded above by entodermal 
cells and below by the entodermal yolk, and the representative of 
the yolk is not to be found in the lower wall of the " chorda- 
canal." Hence it seems to me clear that Minot's view is the only 
defensible one, for the chorda-canal agrees in its essential features 
with the blastoporic canal of vertebrates, and only with that 

If this homology is correct then the canal must lead into the 
archenteron ; hence the large space within the inner layer must 
be homologous with the archenteron, because the chorda-canal 
opens into it. This leaves us still entirely in the dark as to how 
the development of the mammalian entodermal canal is to be 
homologized with its development in other vertebrates. 

According to the view I have advocated, the blastoporic canal 
of mammals is peculiar in persisting for a long time as a separate 
canal above the archenteron, and then losing its lower wall along 
a considerate stretch at once ; in other vertebrates it loses in front 
as fast as it grows behind, so that it is always short. 



1890.] Concrescence Theory of the Vertebrate Embryo. ;ii 

As regards the homologies of the layers, I consider that the 
outer layer of the vesicle is ectoderm, and the thickening which 
constitutes the embryonic shield corresponds to the ectodermal 
thickening of the embryonic area in Sauropsida ; the inner layer 
and the lining of the " chorda-canal " (blastoporic) is the 
entoderm; the remaining tissue of the primitive streak and head- 
process, together with the middle layer, constitute the mesoderm. 
In order not to prejudge the question, the names of the germ- 
layers have not been used in the preceding description of the 
blastodermic vesicle. 

Inversion of the Germ-Layers in Rodents.— -In many but not all 
rodents the outer layer, Rauber's Deckschicht, of the embryonic 
shield undergoes a remarkable hypertrophy immediately after the 
close of segmentation proper ; the deckschicht, together with the 
ectoderm underlying it, becomes a plug which pushes in the other 
layers, thereby profoundly altering the topography of the ovum. 
In the mole, Heape, 23, the hypertrophy is not very great, and 
the plug disappears soon, so that there is no great change ; in 
guinea pigs, mice, and Arvicola the plug becomes very large, and 
remains for a long time. The plug is very long, and the ovum 
elongates with it, changing into an almost cylindrical vesicle 
(Selenka's Keimcylinder). The plug becomes hollow, and the 
cells corresponding to the deckschicht become separated from 
those which are to form the ectoderm of the embryo. Three mod- 
ifications of the hollowing out of the plug and of the separation 
of its two parts are known. The changes referred to are very clearly 
illustrated by Selenka, 56, Taf. xvi., in a series of comparative dia- 
grammatic figures. In the simplest case, Fig. 2 1 , the plug acquires 
a single cavity, a; the cells around the upper end, D, correspond to 
the deckschicht, and serve partly to attach the ovum to the uterine 
walls ; the cells, Ec, around the lower end of the cavity become 
the embryonic ectoderm; all the cells around the cavity, a, 
are homologous with the outer layer of the embryonic shield of 
other mammals. The cavity, c, of the vesicle is very much re- 
duced ; the inner side of the shield, i. e., of the plug, is lined by 
an inner layer, en, which gives rise to the entoderm. The outer 
layer of the vesicle is very thin, and is found to unite very closely 



712 



The American Naturalist. 






with the wails of the uterus. Hence, when the uterus is opened 
only the hollow plug and its covering of entoderm can be removed; 
as it makes a two-walled vesicle, it was considered to represent by 
itself the two-layered stage of the blastodermic vesicle. Thus it 
came that Bischoff believed that in various rodents the ecto- 
derm lies inside, the entoderm outside. Bischoff s observations, 
8, g, which have been confirmed by Reichert, ^7, are correct, but 
of the layers is apparent, not real. The actual 
homologies were not discovered until the im- 
provements in microscopic technique enabled 
Selenka, 55, 5 6, and Kupffer, j8, to make 




of 






situ, and in theii 



sections to find the true outer layer. Their 
observations removed at once the apparent 
anomaly in the position of the germ-layers. 
Their results have been in the main confirmed 
by Fraser, 20, and extended to another species 
by Biehringer, 5. 

In Mus decamanus the ectodermal cells 
early become a separate spherical mass, thus 
dividing the plug into two parts; a cavity 
appears in each part ; these two cavities soon 
vaticus, after Selenka. become confluent, and the inner layer of cells 
ectoderTn° ^cavit of nav,n S meanwhile developed, the relations 
blastodermic vesicle; become essentially identical with those in 

En., entoderm, ol., jtf us S j / / va ^ a(S) ~p[g 2 \. In MllS mUSClilltS the 

development is similar, but there is the additional 
peculiarity that the deckschicht is regularly invaginated at first, 
so as to form a small pit, into which living tissue grows. In 
Arvicola this invagination is more marked and lasts longer, but 
in both cases it is early obliterated. 

Arvicola represents the second modification mentioned above ; 
it has not only the invagination to distinguish it, but also the very 
early formation of the cavity of the plug as a fissure between the 
deckschicht and the true ectoderm cells. 

The guinea pig offers the third modification, and is characterized 
by the early complete separation of the plug into its two parts ; 



1890.] Concrescence Theory of the Vertebrate Embryo. 7 1 3 

the deckschicht remains at one end of the ovum and forms the 
trager ; it acquires an independent cavity of its own ; the ecto- 
dermal portion of the plug forms a solid spherical mass, which is 
transported to the opposite pole of the ovum ; it subsequently be- 
comes hollowed out, presenting a space, which, as the later devel- 
opment shows, is the amniotic cavity. The inner layer passes 
from the edge of the trager around the sphere of ectoderm ; if 
the two parts of the plug were connected the relations of the inner 
layer would be the same as in Mas sy/raticus, Fig. 21. 

The subsequent development of the rodents with inverted 
layers is modified in various secondary features, which it will be 
unnecessary for us to study. In all typical respects the embryonic 
development agrees with that of other mammals, even as to details. 

Blastopore. — The blastopore is the small opening which is 
situated at the end of the primitive streak, and leads into the 
archenteric cavity ; the portion of the archenteron, which is next 
the blastopore, is a narrow passage through the thick mass of cells 
which make the posterior part of the primitive streak ; this pas- 
sage is called the blastopore canal ; from its dorsal wall the cells 
arise which form the notochord. • 

While concrescence is going on the blastopore changes its 
position, being always at the end of the archenteron ; after con- 
crescence is completed the archenteron expands so as to extend 
below the primitive streak, behind the blastopore ; hence the blas- 
topore canal appears as shown in Fig. 22, like a separate tube; 
it must not, however, be forgotten that it is part of the archenteron. 

The blastoporic canal remains open in marsipobranchs, 
ganoids, amphibians, and selachians, and is well known. It is 
also found in all the amniota, but the recognition of its occur- 
rence in this group was long hindered by the fact that it does not 
exist at first as a canal. The blastopore is the opening of a tube 
through the primitive streak ; now if the cavity of this tube is 
obliterated by its walls growing together, then the primitive 
streak would become a solid mass of cells ; this is the condition 
we actually find in the amniota, Fig. 22 A; since the posterior part 
of the primitive streak is morphologically the thick walls of the 
blastopore, the homologies are not altered by the temporary ob- 



The American Naturalist. 



literation of the canal, which moreover appears as such in later 
stages. Its development has been especially studied in reptiles 




by Weldon, 66, Kupffer, 37, 39, H. Strahl, 38, 39, 60, 61, 62, 
Hofmann, in Braun Thierrich, pp. 1892- 1897, and others; it be- 
gins as a pit upon the external surface. 



Theory of the Vertebrate Embryo. 715 



Concrescence involves necessarily the gradual recession of the 
blastopore ; in most vertebrates the blastoporic canal merges at 
its front end into the main archenteric cavity, but in mammals, if 
the homologies I have drawn above be correct, the canal persists 
for a considerable period as the " chorda-canal " of German 

The blastopore is not homologous with the gastrula mouth, 
but is merely a small portion thereof; in front of it the gastrula 
mouth is closed by concrescence ; while concrescence is going 
on there will be a part of the gastrula mouth open behind the 
blastopore ; when concrescence is completed the blastopore is at 
the end of the elongated gastrula mouth, the lips of which are 
united throughout the remainder of their length. The blastopore 
is not a fixed point, being merely the opening of the closed 
archenteron, and as by concrescence the archenteron is elongated, 
in precisely the same measure the blastopore travels backward. 



AUTHORITIES CITED. 

1 . Beneden, Ed. van. La maturation de l'oeu 
premieres phases du developpement embryonnaire des mammiferes d'apres 
des recherches faites chez le Lapin. Journ. Z00L, V., 10-56, 1876. 

2. . Recherches sur 1' embryologie des mammiferes. La formation 

des feuillets chez le Lapin. Arch Biol., I., 136-224. Pis. IV.^VL, 1880. 

3. . Untersuchungen tiber die Blatterbildung den Chordakanal und 

die Gastrulation bei den Saugetieren. Anat. Anz., III., 709-714, 1888. 

4. Bexeden, Ed. Julin, Charles. Recherches sur la formation des 
annexes foetales chez les mammiferes (Lapin et Cheiroptera). Arch. Biol., 
V., fasc. 3, pp. 369-434. Pis- XX.-XXIV., 1884. 

5. Biehringer, Joachim. Ueber die Umkehrung der Keimblatter bei 
der Scheermaus {Arvicola amphibius Desm,). Arch. Anat. Physiol. Anat. 
Abth., 279-286. Taf. XVII., 1888. 

6. Bischoff, Theo. L. W. Entwickelungsgeschichte des Kanin- 
cheneies Braunschweig, 4 , pp. X., 154- 16 Taf., 1842. 

7. . Entwicklungsgeschichte des Hunde-Eies. Braunschweig, 134 

pp., 15 Taf., 1845. 

8. Entwicklungsgeschichte des Meerschweinchens. Giessen, 4 , 

pp. 56. Taf. VIII., 1852. 



The American Naturalist. 



\x., 1-106, Taf. L- 
VI., 1889. 

12. Braun, M. Die Entwicklung des Wellenpapageis {Melopsitlacus 
undulatus Sh.) Thiel I.-II. Arb. zool., zool. Inst. Wiirzburg, V., 161-204 ; 
205-341 Taf. VIII.-XIV., 1882. 

13. Carius, Fr. Ueber die Entwicklung der Chorda und der primitiven 
Rachenhaut bei Meerschweinen und Kaninchen. 8vo, pp. 33, Taf. I. 
Marburg (Inaug. Diss.), 18S8. 

14. Coste, Jean Jacques. Histoire generate et particuliere du Devel- 
oppement des corps organises. 4 , L, II. (une fascicule,) 1859. Atlas 
folio, 50 PI. Paris. Victor Masson, 1847. 

15. Disse, J. Die Entwicklung des mittleren Keimblattes im Hiihnerei. 
Arch. f. mikr. Anat., XV., 67-94. Taf. V., 1878. 

16. . Die Enstehung des Blutes und ersten Gefasses im Hiihnerei. 

Arch. f. mikr. Anat., XVI., 545-592. Taf. XXVI.-XXVIII., 1879. 

17. Duval, M. Etudes sur la ligne primitive de V embryon du poulet. 
Ann. Sci. Nat., 7 Ser. VII., Art. 7 48 pp.. Pis. XIII.-XVIII., 1878. 

18. . Dela formation du Blastoderme dans 1' oeuf d' oiseau. Ann. 

Sci. Nat. Zool., XVIII., Ser. 6, 1-208, Pis. I.-V., 1884. 

19. Etudes histologiques et morphologiques sur les annexes des embryon 
d' oiseau. Robin's Jour. Anat.et Physiol., XX., 201-241, PI. IX. -XI I., 1884. 

20. Fraser, A. On the Inversion of the Blastodermic Layers in the 
Rat and Mouse. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, XXXIV., 43Q-437, 1883. 

21. Gasser, E. Ueber den Primitivstreif bei Vogelembryonen. Sitzb. 
Ges. Befdrd ges. Naturw. Marburg. 100-103, 1877. 

22. . Der Primitivstreifen bei Vogelembryonen (Huhn and Gans). 

Schriften Ges. Befbrd. ges. Naturw. Marburg., II., 1-98. Taf. I.-X., 1879. 

23. Heape, Walter. The development of the mole {Talpa europed). 
The formation of the germinal layers, and development of the medullary 
groove and notochord. Q.J M. S., XXIII., 412-452, PI. XXVIII.-XXXI. 
Studies Morph. Lab. Cambridge, II., 29-75, PL VI.-IX., 1883. 

24. Hensen, Victor von. Beobachtungen ueber die Befruchtung und 
Entwickelung des Kaninchens und des Meerschweinchens. Zeitschr. 
Anat. Entwick., I., 211-213 ; 353-423. Taf. VII.-XIL, 1876. 

25. His, Wilhelm. Untersuchungen uber die erste Anlage des Wirbel- 
thierleibes. Die erste Entwickelung des Hiihnchens im Ei. Leipzig, 237 
pp., 12 Taf., 1868. 



1890.] Concrescence Theory of the Vertebrate Embryo. 717 

27. . Ueber die Bildung der Haifischenembryonen. Zeitsch. f. Anat, 

u. Entwick., II., 108-124. Taf. VII., 1877- 

28. . Neue Untersuchungen iiber die Bildung des Hiihnerembryo. 

I. Arch. f. Anat. u. Phys., Anat. Abth., 1 12-1S7. Taf. V.-VI., 1877. 

29. . Die Lehre von einem Bindesubstanzkeim (Parablast), Ruck- 

blick nebst Besprechung einiger neuerer entwicklungsgeschlichtlicher 
Arbeiten. Arch. f. Anat. u. Phys., Anat. Abth., 12-108, 1882. 

Bebriitung, Sitzb. Akad. Wiss., LXXX., Ill Abth., 316-329. Taf. I., 1879- 

31. . Untersuchungen iiber die Bliitterbildung am Huhnerkeim. 

Archiv. f. mikr. Anat., XX., 174-211. Taf. X.-XII., 1882. 

32. Kolliker, A. Ueber die Chordaholle und die Bildung der Chorda 
beim Kaninchen. Sitzb. Wiirzburg Phys. Med. Ges.. 2-9. 1883. 

33. Kollmann, J. Gemeinsame Entwickelungsbahnen der Wirbelthiere. 
His, Arch., 279-306. Taf. XII., 1885. 

34. Kupffer, C. Untersuchungen iiber die Entwicklung des Harn- u. 
Geschlechts-systems. Arch. f. mikr. Anat., II., 473-489- Taf. XXIV., 1866. 

-jc. . Beobachtungen iiber die Entwicklung der Knochenfische. 

M. Schultze's Arch. f. mikr. Anat., IV., 209-272. Taf. XVI.-XVIII., 1868. 

,6. . Die Gastrulation an den Meroblastischen Eiern der Wirbel- 
thiere und die Bedeutung des Primitivstreifens. Arch. f.. Anat. u. Phys., 
Anat. Abth., 1-28, 139-154. Taf. I.-IV., VIII.-IX , 1882. 

37. . Ueber active Betheiligung des Dotters am Befruchtungsacte 

bei Bufo variabilis und vulgaris. Sitzb. Munch. Acad., XII., 608-618, 1882. 

38. . Das Ei von Arvicola arvalis und die Verineintliche Umkehr 

der Keimblatter an demselben. Sitzb. math.-phys. Klasse, Munchener 
Akad., 621-637. 1 Taf., 1882. 

39 . . Die Gastrulation an den Meroblastischen Eiern der Wirbel- 
thiere und die Bedeutung des Primitivstreifs. Fortsetzung. Arch. f. Anat. 
u. Physiol., Anat. Abth., 1-40. Taf. I.-IL, 1884. 

41. Lieberkuhn, N. Ueber die Keimblatter der Saugethiere. Gratula- 
tionschrift zur 50-jahrigen Doctor-Jubelfeier des Herrn Hermann Nasse. 
Funzigjahe Doctor-Jubelfeier Herrn Hermann Nasse. Marburg, 4 , 26 pp. 
1 Taf., 1879- 

42. . Ueber des Chorda bei Saugethieren. Arch. f. Anat. u. Phys., 

Anat. Abth., pp. 399-438- Taf. XX.-XXI., 1S82. 

43 . . Ueber die Chorda bei Saugethieren. Fortsetzung, Arch. Anat. 

Phys., Anat. Abth., pp. 435-452- Taf. XIX.. 1884. 

44. Rabl.C. Theorie des Mesoderms. Morph. J. B., XV., 113-250. Taf. 
VII.-X., 1889. 

45. Rauber, A. Die erste Entwickelung des Kaninchens. Sitzb. Leip- 
zig nat. forsch. Ges., 103, 1875- 



4 6. . Primitivrinne und Urmund. Beitrag zur Entwicklungsgeschichte 

des Hiihnchens. Morphol. Jahr., II., 550-576. Taf. XXXVII.-XXXVIIL, 
1876. 

47. Reichert, C. B. Beitrage zur Entwickelungsgeshichte des Meer- 
schweinchens. Abhand. k. Akad. Wiss., Berlin, 97-216, 1862. 

48. Ruckert, J. Ueber die Anlange des mittleren Keimblattes und die 
erste Blutbildung bei Torpedo. Anat. Anz., II. (4) 97-H2; (6) 154-176' 
1887. 

49. Ryder, J. A. Development of the Silver Gar {Belone longirostris), 
with observations on the genesis of the blood in embryo fishes, and a com- 
parison of fish ova with those of other vertebrates. Bull. U. S. Fish. 
Coram., I., 283-335. PI- XIX.-XXI., 1881. 



51. . On the formation of the embryonic axis of the 

embryo of the blastoderm. American Naturalist, XIX., 614-615, 1885. 

52. Schafer, E. A. Description of a mammalian ovum in an early 
condition of development. Proc. Roy. Soc, XXIV., 399~403- PL X., 
1876. 

53. Schwarz, I 
der Wirbelthiere. 
XII.-XIV., 1889. 

54. Semper, Carl. Die Verwandschaft beziehungen der gegliederten 
Thiere, III., Strobilation und Segmentation. Semper's Arbeit, zool., zool. 
Instit. Wiirzburg., III., 115-404. Taf. V.-XV., 1876. 

55. Selenka, E. Studien iiber Entwicklungsgeschichte der Thiere, 1 
Heft. Keimblatter und Primitivorgane der Maus. Weisbaden, Kreidel 4 , 
pp. 32. Taf. IV., 1883. 

56. . Studien iiber Entwicklungsgeschichte der Thiere, III., Die 

Blatterumkehrung im Ei der Nagethiere. Wiesbaden, Kreidel, 4 , pp. 99- 
Taf. XI.-XVL, 1884. 

57. . Studien iiber Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere, Heft. IV., 

Das Opossum {Didelphys virginiand), 1 Halfte, 4 , pp. 101-132. Taf. IX., 
1886. 

58. Strahl, H. Ueber den Canalis-myelo-entericus der Eidechse. 
Marburger Sitzb., 37-41, 1880. 

59. . Ueber die Entwicklung der Allantois der Eidechse. Marburger 

Sitzb., 47-49. l88 °- 

60. . Zur Entwicklung des canalis-myelo-entericus der Eidechse. 

Marburger Sitzb., 54-55, 1880. 

61. . Beitrage zur Entwicklung von Lacerta agilis(aus dem anatom- 

ischen Institute zu Marburg). Arch. f. Anat. u. Phys., Anat. Abth., 242- 



l89 o.] History of Garden Vegetables. 7*9 

62. . Beitrage zur Entwickelung der Reptilien. His, Arch., Anat. 

Abth., pp. i-43- Taf. I., 1883. 

63. . Zur Bildung der Cloake des Kaninchenembryo. Arch. Anat. 

Phys., Anat. Abth., 156-168. Taf. IV., 1886. 



Primitivstreifen bei der Entwicklung der Hi 
XXXIV., 159-178. Taf. X.-XI., 1869. 

65. . Archiblast and Parablast. Arch. f. Mikr. Anat. XXII., 1-77. 

1883. 

66. Weldon, A. B. Note on the early development of Lacerta muralis, 
Q.J. M. S., XXIII., 134-144, Pis- IV.-VI.. 1883. 

67. Whitman, C. O. The Embryology of Clepsine. Quarterly Journ. 
Microscop. Science, N. S., XVIII.. Pis. XII.-XV., 1878. 

68. . A rare form of the blastoderm of the chick, and its bearing on 

the question of the formation of the vertebrate embryo. Q. J. M. S. , XXIII.. 
N. S., pp. 375-397. Pis. XXIV.-XXV., 1883. 

69. Zumstein, J. J. Ueber das Mesoderm der Vogelkeimsscheibe (Huhn 
und Ente), 8 vo., p. 56. Bern (Inaug. Diss.), 1887. 



THE HISTORY OF GARDEN VEGETABLES. 



(Continued from page 646.) 

skirret. Stum sisarum L. 

THIS plant seems to have been unknown to the ancients; cer- 
tainly no mention can be found of an umbillifer with 
grouped and divergent roots, the peculiarity of the Skirret alone 
among European cultivated plants of this order. In the six- 
teenth century the name siser was applied to the carrot as well as 
to the Skirret, as by Camerarius 1 who describes siser, the sisaron 
of the Greeks, as a correct Skirret, and under siser alterum, Ital- 
ian carota bianca, German gierlin, Spanish cliirivias, French 



chervy or girollt 



r blanche, as a carrot, and other illu 



trations of this period and earlier might be given. Fuchsius 2 in 



-20 



The American Naturalist. 



1542 figures the Skirret, as does also Ruellius 3 in 1550, Tragus 4 
in 1552, and many others after this time, and it was well known 
in Europe as a plant of culture at this period. It perhaps came, 
says Decandolle, 5 from Siberia to Russia, and from thence into 
Germany. It is not named by Turner 6 in 1 538, but is in 1 55 I, 7 and 
in 1 5 70 the Adversaria gives the English name as scyrret. It was 
in American gardens in 1775. 8 There are no varieties described. 

The modern names of the Skirret are : In France, chervis, 
chirouis, giroles ; in Germany, Zuckerwurzel ; in Flanders, 
suikerwortel ; in Denmark, sukkerrod ; in Italy, sisaro ; in Spain, 
chirivia tudcsca ; in Portugal, cherivia ; 9 in Scotland, cmmmock;™ 
in India, cheena aloo ; xx in Japan, muskago nisin sjakuna} 2 

The ancient names, as given by J. Bauhin, 13 are : For Germany, 
gier/in, gierlen, geyerlein, gorlin, gcrliu, klingci, rublin, garten 
rapunzel, zam rapitiizel, klcin morellen, klingel mohren, girgele, 
girgehn, and, above all others, sucker wurtzcl ; in Belgian, 
suycker wort el en, serillen; in French, esthervis, chervits, chervy, 
gyroles ; in Italy, sisaro ; in Spain, chcrivias, chirivias, chirimas ; 
in English, scyrret. 

snails. Medicago scutellata All. 

This plant is not edible, but like the caterpillar-plant is grown 
on account of the singular shape of its seed-vessels. It was in 
Belgian and German gardens preceding 1616, 14 and in American 
gardens in 1863 or before. 15 

Called in France, limacon ; in Germany, schnirkel-sehnecke, 
schneckenklee ; in Spain, earacoi. 16 



> Decandol 


le. Orig. Des PI. Cult., 31. 


» Turner. 


Libellus, 1538. 


> Bauhin. 














. Book of theGard., II., 229. 




Ind. Handbook of Gard. 


'Thunberg. Jap., 118. 


> J. Bauhin 


,. Hist., 1651, III., pt. 2, 154. 




is. Pempt., 16x6, 575. 


»Burr. Fi 


eld and Gard. Veg., 1863, 398. 


«Vilmorin. 


Les PI. Pot., 321. 



1 890.] History of Garden Vegetables. 721 

soja beax. Soja hispida Moench. 

This leguminous plant, although popular in eastern countries, 
can scarcely be expected to obtain a foot-hold in European or 
American gardens. According to Bretschneider, 17 a Chinese 
writing of 163-85 B. C. records that Shen nung, 2800 B.C., 
sowed the five cereals, and another writing of A. D. 127-200 ex- 
plains that these five cereals were rice, wheat, Panicum italiattn, 
P. miliaceum, and the Soja. The same are also mentioned in the 
" Classics." The use of this bean as a vegetable is also recorded 
in authors of the fifth, fourteenth, and sixteenth centuries. The 
first mention of Soja that I note is by Kaempfer» u who was in 
Japan in 1690, and in his account of his travels he gives con- 
siderable space to this plant. It also seems to be mentioned by 
Ray 19 in 1704. It is much cultivated in China and Cochin- 
china. 20 There are a large number of varieties, — "as many as you 
have of beans," as a Japanese friend informed me. Seed was 
brought from Japan to America by the Perry Expedition on its 
return, and were distributed from the U. S. Patent Office 21 in 
1854. I have since then received some of the seed from the 
South under the name of the cow-pea. In France the seed re- 
ceived distribution in 1855. 22 In 1869 Martens 23 describes thir- 
teen varieties. 

The Soja Bean is called in France, soja, pois oleagineux de la 
Chine ; in Germany, soja-bohne ; 2i in Japan, daidsu or mame, 
the send miso z 25 in China, yeoii-tcou'}* 

In some of its varieties this bean may be found useful for for- 
age purposes, or perhaps for field culture. 

sorrel. Rumex sp. 

The Sorrels are much used in many parts of Europe, but they 

do not seem to be popular in English-speaking countries. A 

17 Bretschneider. Bot. Sin. , 75, 78, 5 2 . 59- 

19 Ray. Hist. Suppl., 1704, 438. 

20 Loureiro. Fl. Cochinch.. 441. 

21 U. S. Pat. Of. Rept., 1854, XV. 
72 PaiHieux. Le Soya, 1881, $. 

43 Martens. Die Gartenbohne, 1869, 103-5. 
M Vilmorin. Les PI. Pot., 549. 
15 Thunberg. Jap., 282. 



The American Naturalist. 



[August, 



number of species have been brought under culture, but the 
varieties referred to Rumex acetosa, R. montanus, and R. scutatas 
are now the only ones described by Vilmorin as under European 
vegetables. 

Rumex acetosa L. 

This species is very extensively used in France, and has four 
varieties. 26 It was formerly much cultivated in England for its 
leaves, which were used as spinach or in salads, and are agreeably 
acid. It is mentioned in nearly all the earlier botanies, and by 
Gerarde 27 in 1597, as under culture in England, who also figures 
the blistered variety. It is spoken of in nearly all the later wri- 
ters on garden subjects, and was in common use in 1 807, 2S but in 
1874 is said to have been for many years entirely discarded, the 
French Sorrel having usurped its place. 29 The broad-leaved form 
was in American gardens in 1806. 30 This plant is in great 
favor with the northern natives, as the Laplanders, 31 the Hebride- 
ans, 32 etc., and in its varieties is largely cultivated. 

The common sorrel, sorrel, ox green sauce™ is called in France, 
oseille commune, aigrette, oseille longue, surelle, surette, vinette ; 
in Germany, Sauerampfer, Sauerling ; in Flanders and Holland, 
zuring ; in Denmark, almindelig syre ; in Italy, acetosa, acetina, 
erba perpetua ; in Spain, acedera, agrella ; in Portugal, azedas ;* 
in Greece, xunethra, zinitra, oxalithi; u in the Mauritius, oseille ; x 
in India, oovlaeeta c/iooka. 36 



Rumex scutatus L. 
5 species is mentioned in England by Gerarde 27 in 1597, 
does not indicate its general cultivation ; he calls it oxalis 



McMahon. Am. Gard Kal., 

1 Lightfoot. Fl. Scot., I., i 9 i.' 
*/«"•■ <>/4r>-., II., 379. ' 

3 Johnson. Useful PI., 232. 



1890.] History of Garden Vegetables. 723 

franca seu romana. It is more acid than the preceding species, 
and has displaced it largely from English culture. It is men- 
tioned by many of the early botanists, and is under extensive 
culture in continental Europe. 37 It was in American gardens in 
i8o6, 30 butis now scarcely cultivated, as would seem from its 
absence from our seed lists. 

French sorrel™ round-leaved sorrel™ buckler-shaped sorrel™ or 
Roman sorrel 31 is called in France, oseille ronde, petite oseille ; in 
Germany, romischer sauerampfer ; in Italy, acetosa romana, 

Rumex montanus Desf. 

This species occurs in French gardens under two varieties, the 
green-leaved and the crimped-leaved. The wild form, R. ari- 
f alius L., is often met with in France. In 1 863 Burr 40 describes it 
among American garden esculents. In India it is said by 
Firminger 41 to be an excellent ingredient to use abundantly in 
soups, and to serve to impart a peculiarly fine flavor to omelettes. 

Mountain sorrel* or maiden sorrel™ is called in France, 
oseille vierge, oseille sterile ; in Italy, acetosa vergine. 26 
Rumex alpinus L. 



A species sometimes grown 



France, but which does not 



appear to have entered American culture. It was grown in 
England by Gerarde in i 5 97 for use in "physicke," and is de- 
scribed as cultivated there in Miller's Dictionary, 1807. It is 
eaten as a herb in China. 42 

Pyrenean sorrel™ is called in France, oseille des Alpes, osedle 

des Pymees. , , _ 

Rumex pulcher L. 

This species is said to be planted in gardens in France for use 
as a pot-herb, but the leaves to become very hard in summer. 
It is, however, scarcely to be considered a garden plant. 

» Mcintosh. Book of the Gard., II.. 139. 

38 Vilmorin. The Veg. Gard. , 526- 

39 Mawe. Gard., 1778- 



724 The American Naturalist. [August, 

Rumex sanguineus L. 
This weed of waste and cultivated grounds of America is men- 
tioned, under the name Bloodwort, by Josselyn, 44 about the middle 
of the seventeenth century, as introduced. As Gerarde 45 in 1630 
says it was sown in his time for a pot-herb in most gardens, and 
as Ray 46 in 1686 also says it was planted in gardens as a vege- 
table, we may believe that it was in former use in colonial gardens 
in Massachusetts. Its use is as a spinage, and for this purpose 
the leaves of the wild plant are occasionally collected at the 
present time. 

Bloody-veined dock is the name under which the wild plant is 
now known. 

southernwood. Artemesia abrotanum L. 
This aromatic plant is inconsiderably cultivated for its agree- 
able taste and tonic properties. 47 To some people its fragrance is 
very grateful. It is cultivated in most parts of China for the use 
of the young shoots made into cakes with meal. 48 It was appar- 
ently known to the ancients, but the references are not as clear 
as might be. It was described as under cultivation by the 
herbalists of the sixteenth century, and Turner 49 in 1538 gives 
its English name as Suthernwoode. In 1859 Gray 50 says it is 
found in some American gardens. 

Southernwood, called in Anglo-Saxon, scethrenewudu or suthern- 
wude, 51 is called in France, aurone, aurone des jardins, aurone 
male, citronelle, garde-robe, herbe royale, vrogne ; in Denmark, 
ambra ; in Italy, abrotano, abrotino ; in Greece, pikrothanos ; 
in Egypt, semsak, or msczk, or meskeh ; 5l in China, yin-chin-hau^ 
spinage. Spinacea oleracea L. 
This plant was unknown to the ancient Greeks and Romans, 
but appears to have been early used by the Arabs, and by the 



49 Turner. Libellus, 1538. 

50 Gray. Man. of Bot., 1859, a 

51 Pickering. Ch. Hist., 258. 



1890.] History of Garden Vegetables. 725 

Moors carried to Spain, from which it gradually spread to the 
rest of Europe. 52 The first notice I find is its occurrence in 
China in the seventh or eighth century, 53 and one of its names is 
Po-ssv-ts'ao, Persian herb. 54 In the Nabathean agriculture in 
Spain, in the twelfth century, it is called by Ibn-a!-aieein< the 
prince of vegetables. 55 Albertus Magnus, 56 who lived in Bavaria 
in the thirteenth century, describes the spinaehia with spiny 
seed. Ammonius, 57 a Bavarian physician writing in 1539, says it 
was mentioned by Avicenna, an Arab author born in Persia in 
981, and is perhaps the aspenach of Serapio, another Arab 
author of the same period. In 1536 Ruellius says it was called 
spinacia in France, and spinaehia by the modern Greeks. In 
England it is mentioned by Turner 58 in 1 538, who calls it Atrip/ex 
hispaniensis of some, spinaehia of the English. It was new in 
Italy in 1558, according to Matthiolus. 59 We thus find its pres- 
ence universal in Europe in the early part of the sixteenth 
century. Indeed its use has become for some time so extended 
as to supplant many other vegetables formerly grown as pot 
herbs. 

Two races are now known in our gardens ; the one with 
prickly seed, and the other with smooth seed. These have been 



Spinacia spinosa Moench. 

Spinaehia. Alb. Mag., 13th Cent., Jessen Ed., 563 ; Fuchsius, 
1542, 666, cum ic; Dod., 1616, 619, cum ic. 

Binetsch, Spinat, Spinacia. Roszlin, 1550, cum ic. 

Olsns hispaniens. Trag., 1552, 32 5, cum ic. 

Spinacia. Matth., 1570, 342, cum ic ; Lob. Obs., 1576, 129, 
cum ic, 1 591 ; ic, 1591,1., 257; Lugd., 1587, 544, cum ic. ; Ger., 
1597, 260, cum ic 

52 Targioni-Tozzetti. Hort. Trans., 1854, 148. 

54 Bretschneider. On the Study, etc., 16. 

55 Heuze. Les PI. Alim., I., IV. 

56 Albertus Magnus. De Veg., Jessen Ed., 1867, 563. 



726 The American Naturalist. 

Spanachum. Cam. Epit, 1586, 245, cum ic. 

: .7 hortense alterum, sen spin win s< mint spin, Si 
Phytopin., 1596, 183. 

Spinachia mas. J. Bauhin, 165 1, II., 964, cum ic. 
Spinacia oleracea L. var. A. Lin. Sp., 2d ed., 1456. 
Epinard d'Angleterre. Vilm., 1883,203. 
Large Prickly or Winter Spinage. Vil., 1885, 533. 



Spinacia inermis Moench. 

Spinachia nobilis. Tragus, 1552, 324. 

L ipa hum In rtcit u pinoso. Bauh, 

Phytopin., 1596, 184. 

Spinacia II. Ger., 1597, 260. 

Spinachia fcemina. J. Bauh., 165 I, II., 964. 

Spinachia semine non pungente ; folio major e rotundiore. Ray, 
1686, 162 ; Chabr., 1677, 303 cum ic. 

Spinacia glabra. Mill . Diet., 1733. 

Spinacia oleracea, L. var. B. Lin. Sp., 1762, 1456. 

Epinards a graine ronde. Vil., 1883, 204. 

Round-Seeded Spinage. Vil., 1885, 534. 

Spinage was in American gardens in 1 806. 60 There is but one 
variety of the prickly-seeded described by Vilmorm, 61 and five of 
the smooth-seeded form. 

Spinage is called in France, epinard; in Germany, spinat ; in 
Flanders and Holland, spinazie ; in Denmark, spinat; in Italy, 
spinaccio ; in Spain, espinacia ; in Portugal, espina/re ; 61 in Nor- 
way, spinat. 62 

In Arab, sebanakh, 63 tcektera^ ispanaj™ isfanadsch, 66 esbanach ; 
in China, po-ling, po-ts'aipo-ssv-ts'ao ; 67 in Hindustani, sag-paluk ; 
in Persia, ispanaj^ 



4 Forskal. Fl. ^Eg.— Arab., XCIII. • 

5 Birdwood. Veg. Prod, of Bomb., 69, 
« Decandolle. Geog. Bot., 846. 



1890.] History of Garden Vegetables. jzy 

SQUASH, PUMPKIN, AND GOURD. 

The Squash. 
The word squash seems to have been derived from the Ameri- 
can aborigines, and in particular from those tribes occupying the 
northeastern Atlantic coast, and seems to have been originally 
applied to the summer squash, as by Wood" when he says, " In 
summer, when their corn is spent, isquotusquashes is their best bread ; 
a fruit much like a pumpkin." Roger Williams • writes the 
word "Askutasquash, — their vine apples, — which the English, 
from them call squashes ; about the bigness of apples of several 
colors." Josselyn 70 gives also a new form to the word, writing 
"Squashes, but more truly squ ///< ■ s ;:■ rshes, a kind of mellon 
or rather gourd; for they sometimes degenerate into gourds. 
Some of these are green ; some yellow ; some longish, like a 
gourd ; others round, like an apple ; all of them pleasant food, 
boyled and buttered, and seasoned with spice. But the yellow 
squash — called an apple squash (because like an apple), and 
about the bigness of a pome water — is the best kind." This 
apple squash, by name at least, as also by the description so far 
as applicable, is even now known to culture, but is rarely grown 
on account of its small size. 71 Van der Donck, after speaking of 
the pumpkins of New Netherlands (1642-53), adds, "The natives 
have another species of this vegetable peculiar to themselves, 
called by our people quaasiens, a name derived from the abo- 
rigines, as the plant was not known to us before our intercourse 
with them. It is a delightful fruit, as well to the eye on account 
of its fine variety of colors, as to the mouth for its agreeable 

taste It is gathered early in summer, and when it is 

planted in the middle of April, the fruit is fit for eating by the 
first of June. They do not wait for it to ripen before making 
use of the fruit, but only until it has attained a certain size. They' 
gather the squashes, and immediately place them on the fire 
without any further trouble." 72 In 1683 Worlidge rs uses the 

68 Wood. New Eng. Prosp., Pt. II., c. 6. 



n Burr. Field and Gard. Veg., 1863, i 
n Quoted from A. Gray, Am. Jour, of 
73 Systema Horticulture, byjj. W. Gei 



72S The American Naturalist. [August, 

word squash, saying, " There are lesser sorts of them [pompeons] 
that are lately brought into request that are called squashes, the 
edible fruit whereof, boyl'd and serv'd up with powdered beef, is 
esteemed a good sawce," and Kalm 74 in his Travels says distinctly 
that " The squashes of the Indians, which now are cultivated by 
Europeans, belong to those kind of gourds which ripen before 
any other." These squashes of New England were apparently 
called sitroules by Champlain 75 in 1605, who describes them "as 
big as the fist." Lahontan 76 in 1703 calls the squashes of 
southern Canada citroidlles, and compares with the melon, which 
indicates a round form. 

These " squashes," now nearly abandoned in culture, would 
seem to be synonymous, in some of their varieties at least, with 
the macock of Virginia and the Virginian watermelon described 
in Gerarde's Herbal 77 as early as 162 1. 

The Perfect Gem Squash, introduced in 188 1, seems to belong 
to this class, and is very correctly figured by Tragus in 1552, 78 
who says they are called Mala indica, or in German Indianisch 
opffel, and occur of four colors, saffron yellow, creamy white, 
orange, and black. He also gives the name Summer opffel, which 
indicates an early squash, and the names stucco de Syria and zucco 
de Peru, which indicate a foreign origin. To identify this 
claimed recent introduction as synonymous with Tragus' Cucumis, 
sen zucco marinus may seem rather improbable. The Perfect 
Gem and Tragus plant have the following points in common : 
Fruit of like form and size ; so also the leaf, if the proportions 
between leaf and fruit as figured may be trusted ; seed sweet in 
both ; color alike, " Quae Candida foris and quae ex pallido lutea 
sunt poma." The plants are runners in both. Compare also 
with the description of the Maycock, and it appears to be the 
same in all but color. A curious instance of survival seems to 
be here noted, or else the regaining of a lost form through atavism. 



I8 9°-J History of Garden Vegetables. 729 

A careful comparison with the figures and the description 
given would seem to bring together as synonyms : 

Cucumis marinns. Fuchs., 1542,699; Roszlin, 1550. 116. 
Cucumis vel zuccc marinns. Trag., 1 5 52, 835. 
Q/curbita indica rotunda. Lugd., 1587, I., 116. 
Pepo rotundus minor. Dod., 161 6, 666. 
Pepo minor rotundus. Bodaens, 1644, 783. 
Cucurbitc folio aspero, she zuccha. Icon., IV., Chabr., 1673 
130. 

The Maycock. Ger., 1633,919. 
The Perfect Gem, 1881. 

The distinctions between the various forms of Cucurbits seem to 
have been kept in mind by the vernacular writers, who did not 
use the words pumpion, gourd, etc., as synonyms. Thus in 1535 
Cartier 70 mentions as found among the Indians of Hochelega, 
now Montreal, " pompions, gourds." In 1 586 Heriot* mentions 
in Virginia " pompions, melons, and gourds," and Captain John 
Smith 81 pumpions and macocks ; Strachey, 82 who was in Virginia 
in 1610, mentions macocks and pumpions as differing. " Pum- 
pions and gourds " are Jiamed by Smith 83 for New England in 
1614. In 1648, at the mouth of the Susquehanna, mention is 
made of " symnels and maycocks." 84 

The word squash in its early use, we may hence conclude, ap- 
plied to those varieties of Cucurbits which furnished a summer 
vegetable, and was carefully distinguished from the pumpkin. 
Kalm ** in the eighteenth century distinguishes between pump- 
kins, gourds, and squashes. The latter are the early sorts; the 
gourd includes the late sorts useful for winter supplies ; and the 
pompion or melon, the latter name and contemporary use giving 
the impression of roundness and size ; and Jonathan Carver m 
soon after gives indication of the confusion now existing in the 

™ Cartier. Pink. Voy., XII., 656. 
•" Pink. Voy., XII., 59 6. 



730 The American Naturalist. [August, 

definition of what constitutes a pumpkin and a squash when he 
says, " the melon or pumpkin, which by some are called squashes," 
and he names among other forms the same variety, the crook- 
neck, or crane-neck as he calls it, which Kalm classed among 
gourds. 

At the present time the word squash is only used in America, 
gourds, pumpkins, and marrows being the equivalent English 
name, 87 and the American use of the word is so confusing that it 
can only be defined as applying to those varieties of Cucurbita 
which are grown in gardens for table use, while the word pump- 
kin applies to those varieties grown in fields for stock purposes, 
and the word gourd to those ornamental forms with a woody rind 
and bitter flesh, or to the Lagenaria. 

This class of Cucurbits belongs to Cucurbita pepo, Cogn. in 
in DC. Monog., II., p. 545. 

Other forms distinctively known at present as squashes are 
added in proper sequence. 

The form of Cucurbit now so generally known as Bush or 
Summer Squash is correctly figured in 1673 by "Pancovius, 88 under 
the name of Melopepo clypeatus Tab. What may be the fruit 
was figured by Lobel 89 in 1591, and by Dodonseus M in 1616, 
and similar fruit with the vine and leaf by Dalechamp in 1587, 91 
Gerarde 92 in 1597, Dodonaeus in 1616, and by J. Bauhin 93 in 
165 1. By Ray 94 in 1686 it is called in the vernacular "The 
Buckler or Simnel-Gourdy This word cymling or cymbling, in 
use at the present day in the Southern States for the Scalloped 
Bush Squash in particular, I find used in 1648 in "A Description 
of New Albion," but spelled Symnels. Jefferson 95 wrote the 
word " cymling." In 1675, Thomson, in a poem entitled New 
England's Crisis, uses the word " cimnel," and distinguishes from 



1890.] History of Garden Vegetables. 731 

the pumpkin. Whence the origin of the word I find no clue, but 
it was very possibly of aboriginal origin, as its use has not been 
transferred to Europe. In England it is called Crown Gourd and 
Custard Marrow ; in the United States generally the Scalloped 
Squash, from its shape ; or locally, cymling or pattypan, — this latter 
name derived from the resemblance to a crimped pan used in the 
kitchen for baking cakes. It was first noticed in Europe, so far 
as I can ascertain, in the sixteenth century, and has the following 
synonymy : 

Cucurbit* laciniata. Lugd., 1587, I., 618. 

Melopepo latior clypeiformis. Lob., ic, 1591, I., 642. 

Pepo maximum clypeatus. Ger., 1597, 774. 

Pepo latus. Dod., 16 16, 666. 

Pepo latiorus fructus.. Dod., 1616, 667. 

Cueurlnta clypeiformis she Siciliana mclopepon latus a nonmdlis 
vocata J. B., 165 1, II., 224. (First known to him in 1561.) 

Melopepo clypeatus. Pancov, 1653,^920. 

The Buckler or Simnel-Gourd. Ray., Hist., 1686, L, 648. 

Summer Scalloped. 

This forms belongs to the Cucurbita melopepo, Lin. sp., ed. 2, 
p. 1435, C. pepo, Cogn., I.e. 

The Bush Crookneck is also called a squash. Notwithstanding 
its peculiar shape and usually warted condition, it does not seem 
to have received much mention by the early colonists, and to 
have escaped the attention of the pre-Linnean botanists, who 
were so apt to figure new forms. The most we know is that 
Summer Crooknecks appeared in our garden catalogues in 1828, 96 
and it is perhaps referred to by Champlain in 1605. It is now rec- 
ommended in France rather as an ornamental plant than for 
kitchen use. 97 This form belongs to Cucurbita pepo Naudin, 
Ann. Sc. Nat, Ser. 4, V., 6, p. 29. 

The Winter Crookneck squash seems to have been first recorded 
by Ray, 98 who received the seeds from Sir Hans Sloane and 
planted them in his garden, and this was the variety now known 

97 Vilmorin. Les. PL Pot., 1883, 184. 



73 2 The American Naturalist. [August, 

as the Striped. It has apparently been grown in New England 
from the earliest times, and often attains a large size. Josselyn " 
refers to a Cucurbit that may be this, the fruit " longish like a 
gourd," the very comparison made by .Ray. Kalm 10 ° mentions a 
winter squash in New Jersey called " crooked neck," and Car- 
ver m speaks of " crane-necks " being preserved in the West for 
winter supply. A sub-variety, the Puritan, 102 answers to Bever- 
ley's I03 description of a form which he calls Cushaw, an Indian 
name recognizable in the Ecushaw of Heriot, 1586. This form 
was grown at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station in 
1884 from seed obtained from the Seminoles of Florida, and ap- 
pears synonymous with the Neapolitan, to which Vilmorin applies 
the French synonym of Courge de la Florida. 

This form of squash belongs to Cucurbita moschata, Cogn., I.e., 
p. 546. 

The Pine Apple squash, in its perfect form, is of a remarkably 
distinctive character, on account of its acorn-shape and regular 
projection. As grown, however, the fruit is quite variable, and 
can be closely identified with the Pepo indicus angulosus of Ge- 
rarde, m and is very well described by Ray loe in 1686. This 
variety was introduced in 1884 W Landreth, and, as I am in- 
formed, the seed came originally from Chili. It is a winter squash, 
creamy white when harvested, of a deep yellow at a later period. 
It belongs to Cucurbita pepo, Cogn., I.e. 

The Turban squash is easily recognized by its special form, to 
which it is indebted for its name. In France this is classed with 
the Giravmons, and one of its trivial names is Citraville iroquoise. 
It is possibly the Chilian mamillary Indian gourd of Molina 106 in 
1787, described as with spheroidal fruit with a large nipple at the 
end, the pulp sweet and tasting like the sweet potato. In 1856 

99 Josselyn. Rar., 89. 



History of Garden \\ 



755 



Naudin 107 describes Le Turban Rouge, and Le Turban Nouveau du 
Bresil, the latter of recent introduction from South America. Its 
description accords with the Cucurbita ctyfetfortms tubcroso and 
vermcoso, seen by J. Bauhin ws in 1607. The Zapillito, from 
Brazil, advertised by Gregory in 1880, and said by Vilmorin to 
have reached France from South America about [866, resembles 
the Turban squash in shape. This evidence, such as it is, points 
to South America ;is the -tailing point of this form. 

It belongs to Cucurbita maxima, Cogn.. I.e. 

The squashes of our markets, par excellence, are the Marrows 
and the Hubbard, with other varieties o( the succulent stemmed. 
These found representation in our seed catalogues in 
the variety called Com. Porter's Valparaiso, and which was 
brought from Chili shortly after the war of 1812. In the New 
England Farmer, Sept. II., 1824, notice is made of a kind of 
melon squash or pumpkin, of moderate size, from Chili, a few seeds 
being received in Boston, and which is possibly the Valparaiso. 
The Hubbard squash is said by Gregory, its introducer in 1857, 
to be of unknown origin, but to resemble a kind which was 
br< >ught by a sea captain from the West Indies. The Marb'ulicad, 
also introduced by Mr. Gregory and distributed in 1867, is said 
directly to have come from the West Indies. The Autumnal 
Marroiv or Ohio was introduced in 1832, and exhibited at the 
rooms of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

This class is to be referred to Cucurbita maxima, Cogn., I.e., 
and does not appear in any of the figures or descriptions of the 
herbalists, so far as we can ascertain, except as hereinafter noted 
for Lobel. 

The Pumpkin. 

The word pumpkin is derived from the Greek pepon, Latin 
pepo. In the ancient Greek it was used by Galen as a com- 
pound to indicate ripe fruit, as sukuopepona, ripe cucumber, as 
also by Theophrestus peponas, and Hippocrates sikuon peponia. 110 

108 J. Bauhin. Hist. 1651, II. , 227. 

110 See Bodasus a Stapel. Theoph., 1644, 781. 



734 The American Naturalist. [August, 

The word pepo was transferred in Latin to large fruit, for Pliny 111 
says distinctly that " cucumeres," when of excessive size, are 
called "pepones." By the commentators the word pepo is often 
applied to the melon. Fuchsias 112 in 1542 figures the melon 
under the Latin name pepo, German pfeben ; and Scaliger 113 in 
1566, Dalechamp 114 in 1587, and Castor Durante 113 in 16 17 
apply this term pepo or pepon likewise to the melon. The 
derivatives from the word pepo appear in the various European 
languages, as follows : 

Belgian: pepoenem, Lob. Obs., 1576; pompoen, Marcg., 1648, 
Vilm., 1883. 

English : pepon, Lyte, 1586; pompon, Lyte, 1586 ; pompion, 
Ger. 1597; pumpion, J. Smith, 1606 ; p?nnpkin, Townsend, 1726. 

French: pompons, Ruel., 1536; pepon, Dod. Gal., 1559. 

Italian : popone, Don, 1834. 

Swedish : pumpa, Tengborg, 1 764 ; pompa, Webst. Diet. 

In English the word melon and million was early applied to the 
pumpkin, as by Lyte in 1586, Gerarde in 1597 and 1633, and by 
a number of the early narrators of voyages of discovery. Pump- 
kins were called gourds by Lobel in 1586, and by Gerarde in 
1597, and the word gourd is at present in use in England to em- 
brace the whole class, and is equivalent to the French courge. 
In France the word courge is given by Matthiolus in 1558, and 
Pinaeus in 1561, and seems to have been used as applicable to 
the pumpkin by early navigators, as by Cartier in 1535. The 
word courge was also applicable to the Lagenaria in 1536, 1561, 
1586, 1587, 1597, 1598, 1617, 1651, 1673, 1772, and is now 
shared with the pumpkin and squash in 1883. 

Our earlier travelers and historians often recognized in the 
pumpkin a different fruit from the courge, the gourd, or the melon. 
Cartier, on the St. Lawrence in 1584 discriminates by using the 
words "gros melons, concombres, and courges 35, " 116 or in a 






3 Scaliger. In Lib. de Plan 

4 Hist. Gen. Lugd., 1587, ! 
» Castor Durante. Herb. Pi 



translation " pompions, gourds, cucumbers." 1,r In i 586 a French 
name for what appears to be the summer squasli is given by Lyte 
as concombre marin. With this class we may interpret Carrier's 
names into " gros melons " pumpkins, " concombres " summer 
squashes, and " courge " winter crooknecks, as the shape and 
hard shell of this variety would suggest the gourd or Lagenaria. 
In 1586 Heriot, in Virginia, 118 names " macokner, according to 
their several forms, called by us pompions, melons, ami gourds, 
because they are of the like forms as those kinds in England 
In Virginia such of several forms are of one taste, and very good, 
and do also spring from one seed. They are of two sorts : one is 
ripe in the space of a month, and the other in two months.'' 
Heriot apparently confuses all the forms met with with the ma- 
cock, which, as we have shown in our notes on squashes, appears 
identical with the type of the Perfect Gem Squash, or the Cucu- 
mis martinis of Fuchsius. The larger sorts may be his pompi- 
ons, the round ones his melons, and the cushaw type his gourds, 
for, as we shall observe, the use of the word pompion seems to in- 
clude size, and that of gourd, a hard rind. Acosta m indeed 
speaks of the Indian pompions in treating of the large-sized 
fruits. Capt. John Smith. : in his Virginia, separates his pumpi- 
ons and macocks, both planted by the Indians amongst their 
corn, and in his description of New England in 16 14 speaks of 
pumpions and gourds. This would seem to indicate that he had 
a distinction in his mind, and we may infer that the word pom- 
pion was used for the like productions of the two localities, and 
that the word gourd in New England referred to the hard-rind or 
winter squashes, for Master Graves m refers to Indian pompions, 
Rev. Francis Higginson 121 to pompions, and Wood 122 to pom- 
pions and isquouter-squashes in New England soon after its 
colonization, and Josselyn 123 about the same period names also 



• Cartier. 


Pink. Voy., XII 


,656. 




Pink. Voy., XII. 


.596. 




Nat. and Mor. H 


• 




Va. Pink. Voy., XIII., 33. 


1 Mass. 


Hist. Soc. Coll., t 




2 Wood. 






3 Josselyn. Rar., 89, 120. 





73^ The American Naturalist. 



[August, 



gourds, as quoted in our notes on the squash. Kalm, 124 about the 
middle of the eighteenth century, traveling in New Jersey, 
names " squashes of the Indians," which are a summer fruit, 
" gourds," meaning the winter crookneck, and " melons," 
which we may conclude are pumpkins ; Jonathan Carver 125 in 
1776 of the melon or pumpkin, called by some squashes, and 

for 



says tr 


e smaller sort 


s are for summer use, the crane-neck f 


winter 


use, and nam 


2s the large oblong, and in 1822 Woods 


speaks 


of pompons, 


or pumpions, in Illinois, as often weighir 



from 40 to 60 lbs. 

The common field pumpkin of America is in New England 
carried back traditionally to the early settlement, and occurs 
under several forms, which have received names which are usually 
quite local. Such form-varieties may be tabulated alphabetically, 
as below as taken from Burr : 

Canada. Form oblate. 14 in. diam., 10 in. deep. Deep 
orange yellow. 

Cheese. Flattened. 16 in. diam., 10 in. deep. Deep reddish 

Common Yellow. Rounded. 12 in. diam., 14 in. deep. 
Clear orange yellow. 

Long Yellow. Oval. 10 in. diam., 20 in. deep. Bright 
orange yellow. 

Nantucket. Various. 18 in. diam., 10 in. deep. Deep green. 

The Canada Pumpkin is of an oblate form inclining to conic, 
and is deeply and regularly ribbed, and when well grown of com- 
paratively large size. It is somewhat variable in size and shape, 
however, as usually seen. We think we are justified in the fol- 
lowing synonymy : 

Cucurbitce indiance and peregrincz. Pin., 1561, 191. 

Cucurbita indica, rotunda. Lugd., 1587, I., 616. 

Pepo rotundas compressm melonis effigie. Lob. Obs., 1576, 
365; ic, 1591,1., 642. 

(?) Pepo indiaim minor rotundum. Ger., 1597,774. 

«*Kalm. Trav.,i 77 o, .,140,347. 
im Woods. Illinois Country, 122. 



1890.] History of Garden Vegetables. 737 

Pepo silvestris. Dod., 16 16, 668. 

Melopepo. Tourn., 17 19, t. 34. 

Canada Pumpkin. Vermont Pumpkin. 

Cheese Pumpkin. Fruit much flattened, deeply and rather 
regularly ribbed, broadly dishing about cavity and basin. Varies 
somewhat widely in the proportional breadth and diameter. 

Melopepo covipressus alter. Lob. ic, 1591,1., 643. 

Pepo maximus compressus. Ger., 1597,774. 

Cucurbita genus, sire Melopepo compressus alter, Lobelio. J. B., 
165 I, II., 266. 

Large Cheese. Fessenden, 1828; Bridgeman, 1832. 

This variety, says Burr, was extensively disseminated in the 
United States at the time of the American Revolution, and was 
introduced into New England by returning soldiers. 

Common Yellow Field. Fruit rounded, a little deeper than 
broad, flattened at the ends, rather regularly and more or less 
prominently ribbed. 

Cucurbita indica. Cam. Epit., 1586, 293. 

Melopepo teres. Lob. ic, 1591, I., 643. 

Pepo maximus rotundus. Ger., 1597, 773. 

Cucurbita aspera, Icon. I. J. B., 165 I, II., 218. 

Cucurbita folio aspero, zucha. Chabr., 1673, 130. 

Common Yellozo Field Pumpkin. 

Long Yellow. Fruit oval, much elongated, the length nearly 
or often twice the diameter, of large size, somewhat ribbed, but 
the markings less distinct than those of the Common Yellow. 

Cuaanis Turcicus. Fuch., 1542,698. 

Melopepo. Roszlin, 1550, 116. 

Pepo. Tragus, 1552,831. 

Cucurbita indica I onga. Lugd., 1587, I., 617. 

Pepo maximus oblongus. Ger., 1597.773- 

Pepo majer oblongus. Dod., 1 6 16, 635 ; Bodaeus, 1644, 782- 

Cuourbita aspera, Icon. II. J. B., 165 1, II., 218. 

Cucurbita folio aspero, sucha. Chabr., 1673, 130. 

Long Yellow Field Pumpkin. 



73 8 The American Naturalist. 






The "Jurumu Lusitanus Bobora " of Marcgravius 127 and Piso 128 
would seem to belong here, except for the leaves, but the figure 
is a poor one. 

These forms we have just mentioned have all that something 
in their common appearance that at once expresses a close re- 
lationship, and to the casual observer does not express differences. 
We now pass to some other forms also known as pumpkins, 
but to which the term squash is sometimes applied. 

The Nantucket Pumpkin occurs in various forms under this 
name, but the form I refer to, and of which I have examined 
specimens, belongs to Cucurbita pepo, Cogn. 1. c, and is of an 
oblong form, swollen in the middle and indistinctly ribbed. It is 
covered more or less completely with warty protuberances, and is 
of a black green color when ripe, becoming mellowed toward 
orange in spots by keeping. It seems closely allied to the Courge 
Sucriere du Bresil of Vilmorin. It is not the Cuucrbita verrucosa 
of Dalechamp, 1587, nor of J. Bauhin, 165 1, as in these figures 
the leaves are represented as entire, and the fruit as melon-formed 
and ribbed. 

In 1884 there appeared in our seedsmen's catalogues, under the 
name of Tennessee Sweet Potato Pumpkin, a variety very dis- 
tinct, of medium size, pear-shape, little ribbed, of a creamy white 
striped with green color, and the stem swollen and fleshy. Of 
its history I have ascertained nothing, but it bears a quite strong 
likeness in shape to a tracing of a piece of " pumpkin " pottery 
exhumed from the Western mounds, and sent me by Lucien 
Carr, connected with the museum at Cambridge, Mass. In 
Lobel's history, 1576, and in his plates, 1591, appear figures of a 
plant which in both leaf and fruit represents fairly well our 
, variety ; and these figures are of interest as being the only ones I 
have yet found in the ancient botanies which represents a fruit 
with a swollen herbaceous stem. I think I am justified in the 
following synonymy : 

Pepo oblongus vulgatissimus . Lob. Obs., 1576, 365. 

Pepo oblogus. Lobel, ic, 1 591, I., 641. 

Tennessee Sweet Potato Pumpkin. 



1890.] History of Garden Vegetables. 739 

A quite numerous series of pumpkins are known to our seeds- 
men's catalogues, and some of a form quite distinct from those 
here noticed, but I have not as yet sufficiently studied these so 
as to form an opinion. I think, however, that much may be yet 
learned through the examination of quite complete sets of varie- 
ties within each of the three described species of Cucuibita which 
furnish fruits for our consumption. Notwithstanding the ready 
crossings which are so apt to occur within the ascrib 
there yet seems to exist a permanency of types which is simply 
marvellous, and which would seem to lend countenance in the 
belief that there is a need of a revision of the species, and a 
closer study of the various groups or types which appear to have 
remained constant during centuries of cultivation. 

If we consider the stability of types, and the record of varia- 
tions that appear in cultivated plants, and the additional fact that 
so far as determined the originals of cultivated types have their 
prototype in nature, 129 and are not the products of culture, it 
seems reasonable to suppose that the record of the appearance of 
types will throw light upon the country of their origin. From 
this standpoint, we may hence conclude that, as the present types 
have all been recorded in the Old World since the fifteenth cen- 
tury, and were not recorded before the fourteenth and succeed- 
ing centuries, there must be a connection between the fact of the 
discovery of America, and the fact of the appearance of pump- 
kins and squashes in Europe. 

The Gourd. 

The word gourd is believed to be derived from the Latin 
curcurbita, but it takes on various forms in the various European 
languages. It is spelled gozvrde by Turner in i$z%, gourde by 
Lobel in 1576, and gourd by Lyte in 1586. In France it is 
given as courgen and cohurden by Ruellius in 1536, but appears 
in its present form, courge, in Pinaeus, 1561. Dalechamp used 
coucourde'm 1587, a name which now appears as cougourde in 

129 See A Study of the Dandelion. AM. Nat., Jan., 1886. 
See History of Celery. AM. NaT., July, 1886. 

See A Study in Agr. Botany. Proc. of the Soc. for Prom, of Agr. Sc, 1886. 
See History of the Currant. Trans, of West N. Y. Hort. Soc. 



740 The American Naturalist. [August, 

Vilmorin. The Belgian name appears as cauwoord in Lyte, 
1586; and the Spanish name, calabassa, with slight change of 
spelling, has remained constant from 1561 to 1864, as has the 
succa of the Italians and the kurbs of the Germans. 

The lagenaria is but rarely cultivated in the United States, 
except as an ornamental plant, and as such shares a place with 
the small hard-shelled cucurbita which are known as fancy 
gourds. In some localities, however, under the name of sugar 
trough gourd, a lagenaria is grown for the use of the shell of the 
fruit for the purposes of a pail ; and what is worthy of note, this 
type of the fruit does not exactly appear in the drawings of the 
botanists of the early period, nor in the seed catalogues of Europe 
at the present time. In the Tupi Dictionary of Father Ruiz 
de Montaga, 130 1639, among the gourd names are " iacvi-gourd, 
like a great dish or bowl," which may mean this form. When 
we examine descriptions, this gourd may be perhaps recognized 
in Columella's account, " Sive globosi corporis, atque utero 
minium quae vasta tumescit," 131 and used for storing pitch or 
honey ; yet a reference to his prose description 132 rather contra- 
dicts the conjecture, and leads us to believe that he only describes 
the necked form, and this form only seems to have been known 
to Palladius. 133 Pliny m describes two kinds, the one climbing, 
the other trailing. Walafridus Strabo, 135 in the ninth century, 
seems to describe the plebeia of Pliny as a curcurbita, and the 
cameraria as a pepo ; the former apparently a necked form, and 
the latter one in which the neck has mostly disappeared, leaving 
an oval fruit. Albertus Magnus, 136 in the thirteenth century, de- 
scribes the cucurbita as bearing its seed " in vase magno," which 
implies the necked form. The following types are illustrated in 
the various herbalists which I have in my library : 

130 Quoted by Gray and Trumbull, Am. Jour, of Set., May, 1883, 372. 



'Palladius. Lib. IX., c. 9. 
'Pliny. Lib. XIX., c. 24. 

5 Walfridus Strabo. Hortulus in Mao 

6 Albertus Magnus. Jessen Ed„ 1867,1 



1890.] History of Garden Vegetables. 

I. Cucurbita oblonga. Fuchs., 1542,370. 
Cucurbita plebeia. Roszlin, 1550, 115. 
Cucurbita. Trag., 1552, 824. 
Cucurbita longa. Cardanus, 1556,222. 
Cucurbita. Matth., 1558, 261 ; Pinaeus, 1561, ic 

Epit, 1586, 292. 

Cucurbita sive zuccha, omnium maxima anguina. I 
1576, 366 ; ic, 1 59 1, I., 644. 

Cucurbita cameraria longa. Lugd., 1587, I., 615. 

Cucurbita anguina. Ger., 1597, 777. 

Cucurbita oblonga. Matth., 1598, 392. 

Cucurbita longior. D od. , 1 6 1 6 . 

Zucca. Castor Durante, 16 1 7, 488. 

Cucurbita anguina longa. Bodaeus, 1644, 784. 

Cucurbita longo, folio molli,flore albo. J. Bauh., 165 1 
Chabr., 1673, 129. 

Ceurge massue tres longue. Vilm., 1883, 190. 

Club Gourd. 

II. . Ruellius frontispiece, 1536. 

Cucurbita minor. Fuch., 1542, 369. 

Cucurbita. Trag., 1552, 824 ; Matth., 1558, 261 ; C 
1586, 292. 

Cucurbita marina. Cardan, 1556, 222. 

Cucurbita lagenaria. Lob. Obs., 1576, 366 ; ic, 155 
Matth., 1598, 393. 

Cucurbita cameraria. Lugd., 1587,1,615. 

Cucurbita lagenaria sylvestris. Ger., 1597, 779. 

Cucurbita prior. Dod., 1616,668. 

Zucca. Cast. Dur, 16 17, 488. 

Courge pelerine. Vilm., 1883, 191. 

Bottle Gourd. 

III. Cucurbita calebasse. Tourn., 17 19, t. 36. 
Courge siphon. Vilm., 1883, 190. 

Dipper Gourd. 

IV. Cucurbita major. Fuchs., 1542, 368. 
Cucurbita cameraria. Roszlin, 1550, 115. 
Cucurbita. Tragus, 1552, 824; Matth., 1358, 261. 



742 The American Naturalist. [August, 

Cucurbita cameraria major. Lugd., 1587, I., 616. 

Cucurbita lagenaria. Ger., 1597,777. 

Cucurbita major sessilis. Matth., 1598, 393. 

Cucurbita lagenaria rotunda. Bodaeus, 1644, 784. 

Cucurbita latior, folio molli,flore albo. J. Bauh., 165 1, I., 215 ; 
Chabr., 1673, 129. 

Sugar Trough Gourd. 

V. Cucurbita. Matth., 1558, 261 ; Lugd., 1587, I., 615. 

Courge plate de corse. Vilm., 1883, 191. 

This classification, it is to be remarked, is not intended for 
exact synonymy, but to represent the like types of fruit-form. 
Within these classes there is a wide variation in size and propor- 

Whether these lagenaria existed in the new world before the 
discovery by Columbus, as great an investigator as Gray 13r con- 
siders as worthy of examination, and quotes Oviedo for the 
period about 1526, as noting the long and round or banded, and 
of all the shapes they usually have in Spain, as much used in the 
West Indies and Terra Firma for carrying water, and indicates 
that there are varieties of spontaneous growth as well as those 
under cultivation. The occurrence, however, of the so-called 
fancy gourds of the Cucurbita pepo species, of hard rind, of 
gourd shape, and often of gourd bitterness, renders difficult the 
identification of species through the uses. The relation of the 
voyage of Amerigo Vespucci, 138 1489, mentions the Indians of 
Trinidad and of the coast of Paria as carrying about their necks 
small dried gourds filled with the plant they are accustomed to 
chew, or with a certain whitish flour ; but these records might as 
well be made from the Cucurbita pepo gourds as from the 
lagenaria gourds. The further mention that each woman carried 
a cucurbita of water might seem to refer to gourds. Acosta U9 
speaks of the Indians of Peru making floats of gourds, for 
swimming, and says : " There are a thousand kinds of Calebasses ; 
some are so deformed in their bigness that of the rind cut in the 



•w«-- 



. Jour, of S 



IlisU , 



midst and cleansed, they make as it were, baskets to put in all 
their meat, for their dinner ; of the lesser, they make vessels to 
eat and drink in," etc. Bodaeus' ,t0 quotation, in Latin, reads 
differently in a free translation : " They grow in the province of 
Chili to a wonderful size, and are called capallas. They are of an 
indefinite number of kinds ; some are monstrous in their immense 
size, and when cut open and cleaned, furnish various vessels. 
Of the smaller they most ingeniously make cups and saucers." 
In 1624 Bodaeus received from the West Indies some seed which 
bore fruit " quae humanum crassitudinem and longitudanem 
superaret," which fully justifies Acosta's idea of size.. The 
Anonymous Portugal of Brasil ul says : " Some pompions so big 
that they use them for vessels to carry water, and they hold two 
pecks or more." Baro U2 in 1647 also speaks of " Courges and 
calebasses si grandes and profondes qu'elles servent comme de 
magazin," and Laet 143 mentions " Pepones tarn vastae, ut Indi- 
genae iis utantur pro vasis quibus aquam aggerunt." These 
large-sized gourds were not, however, confined to America. 
Bodaeus, as we have noted, grew fruits deformed in their bigness, 
to use Acosta's term, from West Indian seed, and Cardanus lii says 
he has seen gourds (for he gives a figure which is a gourd) 
weighing 80 and 1 22 lbs. ; Bauhin 145 records the club gourd as 
sometimes three feet long, Ray m as five or six feet long, and 
Forskal U7 the bottle gourd as 18 inches in diameter. These 
records of size are all, however, of a date following the discovery 
of America, and the seed of these large varieties might have 
come from American sources, as is recorded in one case by 
Bodaeus. 

The gourd is of old world origin, for water-flasks of the 
lagenaria have been found in Egyptian tombs of the twelfth 



3 Bodaeus a Stapel. Theophrastus, 1644, 784. 



p. 1310. Quot 



1 Forskal. Fl. JEgypt— Arab., 



744 The American Naturalist. [August, 

dynasty, or 2200 to 24OO years B.C., 148 and they are described by 
the ancient writers. That the gourd reached America at an early 
period, perhaps preceding the discovery, 149 we cannot doubt, for 
Marcgravius notes a cucurbit with a white flower, and of lagen- 
arian form, in Brazil in 1648 ; 150 but there is not sufficient evi- 
dence, so it seems to us, to establish its appearance in America 
before brought by the colonists. What the calabazas were which 
served for water-vessels, and were apparently of considerable 
size, we can at present but surmise. It is possible that there are 
varieties of Cucurbita pepo not yet introduced to notice that would 
answer the conditions. It is also less possible that gourd-shaped 
clay vessels might have been used, and thus recorded by not 
over-careful narrators as gourds. In 1595, Mendana, on his 
voyage to the Solomon Islands, saw "Spanish pumpkins " 151 at 
the islands of Dominica and Santa Cruz, or according to another 
translation, 152 " pumpkins of Castille." It would seem by this 
reference that, whether the " calabaza " of the original Spanish 
referred to gourds or pumpkins, it did not take many years for 
this noticeable class of fruits to receive a wide distribution, and 
it might further imply that Mendana, setting forth from the 
western coast of America, discriminated between the American 
pumpkin, or pumpkin proper, and the Spanish pumpkin or 

148 Schweinfurth. Nature, Jsm. 31, 1883, 314. 



The Notes of Some of Our Birds. 



THE NOTES OF SOME OF OUR BIRDS. 



T^HIS lively, tireless singer, running rapidly after inst 
tops of the forest trees, singing as he goes, is he 
hours in a day and more days in the season than any c 
There is no difficulty in di-tingui-diing him, — the bird < 
hear and so hard to see. The clear, high tones o( his 
are a constant repetition of a few triplets, but so ingen 




This illustration, containing the substance of the red-eyed 
vireo's song, has much in common with the music of other 
birds. The nest is after the fashion of the oriole's, hanging, as I 
have found it, beneath the fork of small beech limbs, five or six 
feet from the ground. It is a nice little pocket, as the cow-bird 
well knows. 



I had very little acquaintance with this bird, and knew nothing 
of his singing, till I sought him for study in a sunny nook near 
the entrance of the beautiful cemetery at Lynn. There a pair 
spent the season, giving me frequent opportunities to listen to the 
singer. His song was brief, plain, and without variation, and I 
supposed it to be the family song ; but, to my surprise, though I 
have heard indigo birds sing many times since, not one of them 
sang that first song, the only one I have been able to copy. 




The conclusion, then, was that the key was F. In the repeti- 
tions the last two tones were added about one time in six ; just 
often enough to keep in mind the true key, which, by the con- 
stant use of sharp 4, might be lost sight of. 

The form, then, was as follows : 



This little visitc 
fervor in the hot 



ang frequently and earnestly ; with most 
n-day sun, when the birds generally were 



The partridge is said to be a general inhabitant of North America, 
but, familiar as I have been with almost all parts of Vermont for 
more than thirty years, I have only seen one quail in the state, 
and he was evidently a " tramp." I heard him just at night, the 
first day of July, 1884. Did not get sight of him till the next 
morning, when he came out into the sun, stood on the top rail 
of a fence, warmed himself, and whistled his spirited, forceful 
tune, his solid little body swelling and throbbing at every note, 
especially when he rose to 







hat he 



After the performance he stood, evidently listening; for a reply; 
none came, and, without another note, he disappeared, to be seen 

The partridge is about one-half the size of our grouse, and 
resembles it in plumage and style of flight It seems a little 
strange that the time of incubation should be four weeks, while 
the grouse and the domestic hen sit only three weeks. A 
nest that I found in Iowa in 1S74 — on the ground — seemed 
rather small and too deep, the sixteen eggs being piled one upon 
another for three layers, at least. I was told that they were all 
sure to hatch. 

Our eastern partridge are plump, fine-looking birds, but there 
are two varieties in California, the "mountain" and the "valley 
partridge," more beautiful than ours. 



T^ICTION and the newspapers form the staple of the reading of 
the American people. Serious books which treat of matters 
of fact have fewer readers ; and exact or scientific books fewer 
still. In the estimation of some people this is an unfavorable 
state of affairs, and speaks ill for our intellectual condition. We 
take a somewhat different view of it. The newspapers treat 
mainly of matters of fact, and they are only worthy of complaint 
when they give undue prominence to trivial matters, and to the 
evil that men do, and not enough to those events which make 
for human development and progress. This criticism may be 
justly applied to many newspapers. Also there is fiction and 
fiction. A class of French fiction, which has imitators in other 
countries, on pretence of being " realistic," is evil and only evil, 
and should be, in our estimation, like the " Kreutzer Sonata " of 
Tolstoi, excluded from the mails. But much fiction is instructive, 
both in the facts of human character and in those of nature, and 
is of great utility as conveying much truth, sugar-coated, to the 
unsuspecting reader. Besides, were fiction abolished the number 



748 The American Naturalist. [August, 

of readers would be greatly diminished. Fiction, in fact, is the 
pioneer of the intellectual life, and many persons, more's the 
pity, never get beyond it. Without it, they would never get so 
far. But many readers of fiction do better. Interest in a thou- 
sand subjects is suggested, especially history, biography, geogra- 
phy, metaphysics, social science, and what not. Some who 
begin by scoffing at science remain to pray at her shrine. And 
it is quite possible that society will ere long have a surfeit of 
fiction. Froth and sponge serve as an inflator of the mental 
stomach for a time, but they are apt to generate a taste for some- 
thing more solid as time passes on. In fact, mankind at large 
will, ere long, begin to suspect that the raw material of reality 
out of which the frail structures of fiction are built, must be of as 
much interest as are its products. On a little inspection they will 
find that truth is really stranger than fiction, as has been often 
said, and that there is an inexhaustible supply of it. From 
being readers of Balzac and Zola, they will become subscribers 
to and readers of the American Naturalist. 



RECENT BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS. 



gen. Separat-Abdruck aus dem Zoologischen Anzeiger, No. 306, 1889. Osteologische 
Notizen iiber Reptilien. Separat-Abdruck Zoologischen Anzeiger, No. 298, 1889.— Die 
Systematische Stellung von Dermochelys Blainv. Sonderabdruck aus dem Biologischen 

Bean, T. H.— Description of a new Cottoid Fish collected by the U. S. Fish Com. 
Ext. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XII., 1890. 

. Notes on Fishes Collected at Cozumel, Yucatan, by U. S. Fish Commission, 

with Descriptions of New Species. Ex. from Bull. U. S. Fish Commission, Vol. VIII. 
From the author. 

Becker, G. F.— Silicic Acids. Ext. Am. Jour. Set., Vol. XXXVIII., 1889. From 

Boettger, O.— Die Entwicklung der Pupa-Arten des Mittelrheingebiets in Zeit 
und Raum. Separat-Abdruck aus den Jahrbuchen des Nassauischen Vereins fur Natur- 
kunde, Jahrgang 42, 1889. 



9o.] Recent Books and Pamphlets. 

Bridge, T. W.— The Air-Bladder and Weberian Ossicles in the Siluridse. 
oc. Roy. Soc, Vol. XLVI. From the author. 
BRINTON, D. G— Aims and Traits of World- Language. Ext. Werners Voic 

BROWN, H. P.— The Commercial Efficiency of the Leading Systems of I 
ghting. 

ange, and Other 1 \[. Rusk . 

Bush, G. G.— History of Education in Florida. Bureau of Education, Cir. < 

e Geological Society America. From J 
-Contributions to the Geologv of th< 
jeLab. Nat. Hist., Vol. II., 1889. 

1 Rothliegenden c 



British Columbia. Extract Geol. Mag., 1889. 
Dawson, \v„ and D P. Penhallo\y._< 

Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. I., pp. 311-334, 

Declaration of Principles of the Society of In 
Doederlein, L.— Bericht iiber die Zoologis. 

1886 bis 1889. Naturhistorisches Museum der Sta 



riptions of two New Species. Ext 
aboratory. The Fishes of Cortes 



Ffavkf.s, J. \V.— Statement of Plans for the Establishment of a Fresh-Water Aqua- 
1 1 — ber die Stellung von Stringops, der Papageien, und von Jynx. 



75° The American Naturalist. [August, 

Head, F H.— Shakespeare's Insomnia. From the author. 

Hector, J.— On the Fossil Reptilia of New Zealand. Ext. Proc. Wellington 
Philos. Soc, 1873. From the author. 

Hill, R. T.— Relation of the Uppermost Cretaceous Beds of the Eastern and 
Southern U. S. Ext. Am. Jour. Sci., Vol. XXXVIII., 1889. 

HORN, G. H.— Reply to C. V. Riley on Platypsyllus. 

HOWES, G. B. -Additional Observations upon the Intranarial Epiglottis. Ext. 
Jour. Anat. and Physiol , Vol. XXI 1 1 . From the author. 

Jones, C. E.— Education in Georgia. Circulation of Information, No. 4, Bureau of 

Kalousek, J.— Die Koniglich Bohmische Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften in Prag. 
Jahresbericht der Konigl. Bohm. Geschellschaft der Wissenschaften fur das Jahr., 1889. 

Keiser, E. H.— On the Combustion of Weighed Quantities of Hydrogen, and the 
Atomic Weight of Oxygen. Ext- Am. Chem. /our.. Vol. X. From the author. 

Lawrence, G. N.— A New Name for the Species of Sporophila from Texas. Ext. 

Auk, Vol. V.— Description of a New Species of Bird of the Genu's Catharus, from 
Ecuador. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1887. 

Langley, S. P.— Report of the Smithsonian Institution for the year ending June 
30, 1889. 

LEBOUCQ, H.— De la Soudure Congenital de Certains os du Tarse. Ext. Bull, d 
l'Acad. Royal de Medecine de Bruxelles, 1890. 

Ober Nagelrudimente au der Fotalen Flosse der Cetacean und Sirenier. Sonder- 

LECHE, W.— Dr. H. G. Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs Wis- 
senschaftlich Dargestellt in Wort und Bild. Sechster Band. V. Abtheilung. 

Leyden Mus., Vol. XII. From the author. 

List Publications Johns Hopkins University. 

Macalester College Contributions, No. 6. Notice of a Rare Washington Portrait ; 
also Descriptions of Some Copper Relics of the T. H. Lewis Collection. 

MALLERY, G.— Israelite and Indian. Ext. Pop. Sci. Monthly, 1889. From the 

Fourteen New Species and One New Genus of 

No. 1. From U. S. Dept. Agri. 

Miller, S. A.— North American Geology and Palaeontology. From the auth 
Mourlon, M.— Surle Gisement des Silex Tallies Attribuer a 1' Homme Tei 

aux Environs de Mons. Ext. Bull, de l'Acad. Roy. de Belgique, Tome XVII., 



MYSTROM, E.— Orn en 


Monstros Form al 


• Coitus scorpius 


Lin. B 


;h,r- Ti 




ngar, Band 1 










Newberry, J. S.— Sketch of Pres. 




. Barnard, LL.D., 


S.T.D. 


, L.H.D. 


print from Necrology Report of the Uni 


versity Convocation of th 




of New 


July 9-11,1889. 












. The Oil-Field 


of Colorado. Ext 




, Qman 


'crly, Vo 


No. 2 , Jan., 1889. 












. The Laramie 












Western N. Y. Exts. Tran 


3. N. V. Aca< 













and Fossil 


Plants of the Triassic Ro< 


:ks of N 


few Jorse; 



Recent Literature. 


751 


hes of North America. Monograph U. 


S.Geol. Survey, 


Persons : A Philosophical View of the I 


.aw of Corpora- 


Beitragen iiber 



Prevention of Swine Plague by Inoculation. From F. S. Billing 

Report Arkansas Geol. Survey, 1888. 

Report Brooklyn Ethical Association, i888-'8q. 

Report of the Curator Harvard Mus. Comp. Zool., 188S-80. 

Report of the California State Mineralogist for the year ending C 

Report of the Germantown Science and Art Club at the Tenth / 

Reports of Sub-Committees of the International Congress on 

Report of the Trustees of the Australian Museum for 1889. 
RENEVIER, E.— Philippe de la Harpe, Sa Vie, et ses Travaux Sci 

. Observations upon the Osteology of the Orders Tubinare: 

Ardeinse. Ext. Journal Comp. Med. and Surg., 1889. 



the Position of Chamsea in the System. Reprint Journc 

1 Laboratory of Biological Research of the Brooklyn Institut 
..—History of Education in North Carolina. Bureau of I 



iliu Geologic*, 1882-83, No. 4- 
Ext. Journal Mycology, 1889. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 
Eimer on Evolution. 1 — This a 

English-speaking countries at a time 

being read, and it serves as a source 01 cvn 

of the interesting question which they dis 

taken a broader view of the field than is done by that large 

biologists whose knowledge is limited by the use of 

and he is therefore in possession of a class of 

1 Organic Fvolution as the Result of the Inheritance of Acquired Characters, Accord- 



the views of 
ridence on the opposite s 
'rofessor Eimer 






f Organic Growth, by G. H. Theodor Eimer, Professor of Zoology a 
atomy at the University of Tubingen. Translated by I. H. Cunnn 
5.E. London : MacMillan & Co., and New York, 1890. 8vo, pp. A 



752 The American Naturalist. [August, 

escape the researches of the histologists and embryologists. While 
using the many important and essential facts brought to light by the 
latter class of investigators, he has not neglected researches which do 
not require the mechanical appliances which give a somewhat factitious 
value to the pursuits of microscopy and telescopy. Prof. Eimer is 
already well known througfi his important investigations on the dis- 
tribution and origin of color-markings in insects and reptiles ; his 
discussion, of the variations of the wall lizard of Europe (Lacerta 
muralis) being a model of this kind of work. From these and similar 
researches on the variations in the colors of caterpillars, and imagines 
of various Lepidoptera, he has shown conclusively that col 
are not promiscuous or fortuitous, but follow certain definite directions. 
This result is in entire harmony with those derived from similar studies 
which I have made on the coloration of certain snakes, and of which 
I have published, especially the case of the North American Ophibolus 
doliatus. 2 The author then proceeds to discuss the effects of physical 
agencies as causes of variations, as light, temperature, humidity, etc. 
Of the effects of use and disuse he says (p. 153) : " It is a self-evident 
physiological fact that practice or use strengthens and improves the 
organs of the body, while disuse causes them to deteriorate." He 
then adds: "That characters acquired through use or disuse are in- 
herited, and must therefore aid in the formation of new species, can be 
proved mere easily than any of the propositions I am maintaining. If 
I were to bring together all the facts which could be used as evidence 
on this point, I should never come to the end of them, for I should 
have to refer to all the facts of anatomy and physiology. But I intend 
to show in particular that use a] 
the formation of new permane: 
tion, for even this I hold to be a physiological necessity." Accord- 
ingly, the author cites many facts in support of this view. Among 
these he relates some interesting cases of the inheritance of mutilations 
and abnormalities. 

Considerable space is devoted to the question of the origin and 
transmission of mental characteristics, and here especially Prof. Eimer 
shows himself an acute observer and thinker. His residence has 
grounds attached to it, where he has been accustomed to have under 
his eye animals both domestic and wild, and his observations on the 
habits of these are highly interesting. He coincides in opinion with 
most observers on this subject, that mental habits are readily trans- 
mitted by inheritance, and his observations on young chickens and 
other birds are very instructive. 



Prof. Eimer takes occasion frequently to criticise the opinions of 
Prof. Weismann. The following is a sample of this polemic : 

"In the paper previously mentioned, 'Retrogression in Nature.' 
Weismann replies with greater detail and precision than on previous 

made by me — to his theory on account of the facts of the degeneration 
of organs in consequence of disuse. 

"Starting from the proposition that 'the adaptation of living 
beings, in all their parts, depends on the process of natural selection.' 
he infers that this adaptation must be maintained by the same means 
by which it was produced, and that it most ■gain ditt] 
as this means, natural selection, tails to act. 

"In other words, he says: Through natural selection alone forms 
have come to be what they are. By the continuation of natural selec- 
tion only are they maintained in their present state, 
ceases, they of necessity retrograde. But selection with i 
particular organ obviously ceases as soon as that organ 
necessary ('the reverse side of natural selection'); its 
therefore, produces the degeneration of organs. 

" It is, according to my view, self-evident that the cessation of 
natural selection can as little cause the retrogression of an organ as 
natural selection can cause it to develop. Selection is, I must ever 
repeat, no physiological factor which could produce any thing new, 
or whose cessation could annul anything existing. Organs are pro- 
duced by external stimuli, or by use acting upon the material given in 
a given case, with the aid of general and of sexual selection." 

In this position the author is in entire harmony with the views of 
the Neo-Lamarkian school in America and England ; and he supports 
it with an array of facts which fill a great part of the 435 V*g es 
which comprise the volume. We regret that he has not been appar- 
ently acquainted with the opinions entertained by his co-workers on 
this side of the Atlantic, as he might have derived some facts of use 
to him. To paleontology, that mine of evidence for the evolutionist, 
he makes but little reference ; and, in fact, this subject has not been 
within the scope of his researches, which have been so abundant in 
other directions. 

With respect to the cause of variations, he adduces the following 



" Oscar Schmidt points out further that numerous [other] cases 
sponges have been described by Haeckel and himself, in which I 
organisms are beginning to change into new species by the disappe 



754 The American Naturalist. [August, 

ance of certain forms of skeletal structures. And I am able to add 
that in the markings of animals — e.g., butterflies— characters every- 
where degenerate whose present or former use cannot be discerned, 
which ire must regard as non-essential. 

' ' Weismann supposes that even in those cases in which adaptation 
is not demonstrated it is really present. But such an assumption 
belongs to the domain of faith. 

" We ought, on the contrary, to say : We know that definite stimuli 
must produce an effect on or in the organism ; that they must give rise 
to definite changes of form, definite character, whether these be use- 
ful to the organism or not. 

"When we maintain this we take our stand, not on mere assump- 
tions, but on physiological facts. Normal physiology and pathology 
in like measure speak for us with the weight of all their fundamental 
truths. 

"Thus there is certainly a physiological basis for the belief that the 
above-described variations of the sponge-skeleton are simply to be as- 
cribed to changes of external, i.e., of nutritive conditions, of the 
material composition of the body." 

The translator has performed an excellent service. We cannot but 
agree with him in some remarks in his preface as to the editorial con- 
duct of the English periodical Nature. He complains of the exclusion 
of articles which do not coincide with the views of the editor of the 
department of Natural His-tory. On this we observe that such ex- 
clusions, no doubt, often occur, but though it may not be commended 
as judicial, it is within editorial right. But mutilation or alteration of 
articles, as is sometimes practiced by that periodical, is clearly not 
within editorial right, and to this practice exception may be still more 
fairly taken.— E. D. Cope. 

Geddes and Thompson on the Evolution of Sex. 1 — In 
this book we have a systematic resumS of what is known on the subject 
of sex, with inferences which appear to the authors reasonably to flow 
from the facts. The work is divided into four "books," viz.: 
I. Male and Female ; II. Analysis of Sex,— organs, tissues, cells J 
III. Processes of Reproduction ; IV. Theory of Reproduction. The 
work done in this direction has been very large in the last few 
years, and the time was ripe for the presentation to the public of just 
such a work as the present. The subject is not only intrinsically 
interesting, but it has the closest relation to the general question of 

1 The Evolution of Sex. By Prof. Patrick Geddes and J. Arthur Thompson. 8vo, 



i89o.] Recent Literature. - ; ; 

evolution. Further, the essential nature of sex-character has the 
greatest practical bearing on human affairs, and its thorough compre- 
hension cannot fail to be of great utility to society. In fact. Mich 
knowledge is the one thing needful to regulate the unbridled fancies 
of the uneducated mind which attempts to deal with the subject, and 
which has produced innumerable absurdities since the human inia-ina- 

The authors have produced a book which has not only scientific 
but literary merits, and many of ate the artist 

as well as the thinker. The more delicate puts of the subject are 
handled with a tact that cannot give offence to persons ,- 
site views, ; and a judicious reserve is maintained in the 
unsolved social problems, with the discission of which the volume 

The fundamental character of sex-diversity is demonstrated, and is 

traced in the characteristic peculiarities of the germ-cells 
as at present existing. The superior activity of the male cell (sperm* 
tozooid), with its expenditure of energy in segmentation so long as 
material for its nutrition is accessible, is taken as reflected into the 
male character generally. The large, inactive female cell (ovum), 
abounding in nutritive material, which is ready for active functioning 
on the accession of male energy, is thought to be reflected more or 
less in the general habit of the female. The facts in evidence which 
sustain this position are as numerous as are the phenomena of life, 
and a large number of them are recorded in the present work. The 
views of the" authors are more expressly stated in the following extracts : 

" Without multiplying instances, a review ofihe animal kingdom, or 
a perusal of Darwin's pages, will amply confirm the conclusion that 
on an average the females incline to passivity, the males to activity. 
In higher animals it is true that the contrast shows rather in many 
little ways than in any one striking difference of of habit, but even in 
the human species the contrast is recognized. Every one will admit 
that strenuous, spasmodic bursts of activity characterizes men, especi- 
ally in youth, and among the less civilized races ; while patient con- 
tinuance, with less violent expenditure of energy, is as generally asso- 
ciated with the work of women. 

"For completeness of argument two other facts, which will after- 
wards claim full discussion, may here be simply mentioned: («). At 
the very threshold of sex-differences we find that a little active cell or 
spore, unable to develop of itself, unites in fatigue with a larger, more, 
quiescent individual. Here, at the very first, is the contrast between 



male and female. (b). The same anthithesis is seen when we contrast, 
as we shall afterwards do in detail, the actively' motile, minute male 
element of most animals and many plants with the larger, passively 
quiescent female cell or ovum. 

" While it is easy to point to the general physiological import of large 
size and the reverse, physiology is not yet far enough advanced to afford 
firm foot-hold in dealing with the details of secondary sexual char- 
acters. It is only possible to point out the path which will eventually 
lead us to their complete rationale. This path will appear less vague 
if reverted to after some of the succeeding chapters have been grasped. 
The point of view is simple enough. The agility of males is not a 
special adaptation to enable that sex to exercise its functions with 
relation to the other, but is a natural characteristic of the constitutional 
activity of maleness; and the small size of many male fishes is not an 
advantage at all, but simply again the result of the contrast between the 
more vegetative growth of the female, and the costly activity of the 
male. So, brilliancy of color, exuberance of hair and feathers, activity 
of scent-glands, and even the development of weapons, are not, and 
cannot be (except ideologically), explained by natural selection, but 
in origin and continued development are outcrops of a male as 
opposed to a female constitution. To sum up the position in a para- 
dox, all secondary sexual characters are at bottom primary, and are 
expressions of the same general habit of body (or to use a medical 
term, diathesis), as that which results in the production of male ele- 
ments in the one case, or female elements in the other. 

" Three well-known facts must be recalled to the reader's mind at this 
point ; and firstly, that in a great number of cases the secondary 
sexual characters make their appearance step by step with sexual 
maturity itself. When the animal, be it bird or insect, becomes em- 
phatically masculine, then it is that these minor out-crops are ex- 
hibited. Thus the male bird of paradise, eventually so resplendent, is 
usually in its youth comparatively dull and female-like in its coloring 
and plumage. Very often, too, whether in the wedding-robes of male 
fishes or in the scent-glands of mammals, the character rises and wanes 
in the same rhythm as that of the reproductive periods. It is impossi- 
ble not to regard at least many of the secondary sexual characters as 
part and parcel of the sexual diathesis,— as expressions, for the most 
part of exuberant maleness. Secondly, when the reproductive organs- 
are removed by castration, the secondary characters tend to remain 
undeveloped. Thus, as Darwin notes, stags never renew their antlers 
after castration, though normally of course they renew them each 



2890.] Recent Literature. ;:; 

breeding season. T:.e reindeer, where the horns occur 00 the female 

the male still renews the growth. This, however, iru:< 
that the originally sexual characters have become organised into the 
general life of the body. In sheep, antelope 
modifies or reduces the horns; and the sami 

glands. The parasitic Crustacean Sacculina hat been shown by 
Delage to effect a partial castration of the cral» 
and the same has been observed by Giard in oth 

cases an approximation to the female form of appendage has been ob- 
served. Lastly, in aged females, which hav< 
in reproduction, the minor peculiarities of tin 
and they become liker males, both in structure and ha] 
the familiar case of ' crowing hens.' 

" From the presupposition, then, of the intimate connet 
the sexuality and the secondary characters (which is 
where allowed), it is possible to advance a step further. Thus in re- 
gard to color, that the male is usually brighter than the female is an 
acknowledged fact. But pigments of many kinds are physiologically 
regarded as of the nature of waste products. Such, for instance, is 
the guanin, so abundant on the skin of fishes and some other animals. 
Abundance of such pigments, and richness of variety in related series. 
point to preeminent activity of chemical processes in the animals that 
possess them. Technically expressed/ abundant pigments are ex- 
pressions of intense metabolism. But predominant activity has been 
already seen to be characteristic of the male sex ; these bright colors, 
then, are often natural to maleness. In a literal sense animals put on 
beauty for ashes, and the males more so because they are males, and 
not primarily for any other reason whatever. 

"We are well aware that, in spite of the researches of Krukenberg, 
Sorby, MacMunn, and others, our knowledge of the pigments is still 
very scanty. Yet in many cases, alike among plants and animals, pig- 
ments are expressions of disruptive processes, and are of the nature of 
waste products, and this general fact is at present sufficient for our 
contention, that bright coloring or rich pigmenting is commonly a 
natural expression of the male constitution. For the red pigment so 
abundant in tee female cochineal insect, which appears to be of the 
nature of a reserve and not a waste product, and for similar occur- 
rences, due exception must be made. 

" In the same way, the skin-eruptions of male fishes at the spawning 
eason seem more pathological than decorative, and may be directly 



75 8 The American Naturalist. [August, 

connected with sexual excitement. One instance of a way in which 
the reproductive maturity is known to effect a by no means obviously 
related result may be given. Every field-naturalist knows that the 
male stickleback builds a nest among the weeds, and that he weaves 
the material together by mucous threads secreted by the kidneys. The 
little animal is also known to have strong passions ; it is polygamous 
in relation to its mates, and most pugnacious in relation to its rivals. 
Professor Mobius has shown that the male reproductive organs (or 
testes) become very large at the breeding season, and that they press in 
an abnormal way upon the kidneys. This encroachment produces a 
pathological condition in the kidneys, and the result is the formation 
of a mucous secretion, somewhat similar to what occurs in renal dis- 
ease in higher forms. To free itself from the irritant pressure of this 
secretion the male rubs itself against external objects, most con- 
veniently upon its nest. Thus the curious weaving instinct does not 
demand nor find rationale in the cumulative action of natural selection 
upon an inexplicable variation, but is traced back to a pathological 
and mechanical origin in the emphatic maleness of the organism. The 
line of variation being thus given, it is of course conceivable that 
natural selection may have accelerated it. 

"So, too, though again the physiological details are scanty, the 
superabundant growth of hair and feathers may be interpreted, in 
some measure, through getting rid of waste products, for we shall see 
later how local katabolism favors cell multiplication. Combs, wattles, 
and skin excresences point to a predominance of circulation in the 
skin of the feverish males, whose temperatures are known in some 
cases to be decidedly higher than those of females. Even skeletal 
weapons like antlers may be similarly interpreted ; while the exag- 
gerated activity of the scent-glands is another expedient for excreting 

"In regard to horns, feathers, and the like, in association with vigor- 
ous circulation, two sentences from Rolph may be quoted: 'The 
exceedingly abundant circulation which periodically occurs in the at 
first soft frontal protuberances of stags admits and conditions the 
colossal development of horn and ensheathing velvet. ... In the 
same way the rich flow of blood in the feather papillae conditions the 
immense growth of the feathers, . . . and the same is true of hairs, 
spines, and teeth.' 

" Some of the even subtler differences between the sexes are of interest 
in illustrating the general antithesis. Thus in the love-lights of the 
Itahan glow insect (Luciola) the color is said to be identical in the 



. 



two sexes, and the intensity is much the same. That of the female, 
however, who is in other respects rather male-like in her amatory 
emotions, is more restricted. It is interesting further to notice that 
the rhythm of the light in the male is more rapid, and the flashes are 
briefer, while that of the female is longer, and the flashes more distant 

literally illumined index of the contra the sexes* 

"We are now in a better position to criticize 'Mr. harwin's theory. 
On his view, males are stronger, handsomer, or more emotional, 
because ancestral forms happened to become so in a slight degree. In 
other words, the reward of breeding success gradually perpetuated and 
perfected a casual advantage. According to the present view, males 
are stronger, handsomer, or more emotional, simply because they are- 
males,—/. <?., of more active physiological habit than their mates. In 
phraseology which' will presently become more intelligible and con- 
crete, the males live at a loss, are more katabolic— disruptive changes 
tending to predominate in the sum of changes in their living matter 
or protoplasm. The females, on the other hand, live at a profit, are 

whence, indeed, the capacity of bearing offspring." 

Thus it is evident that the authors of the present work hold the 
tenets of the Neo-Lamarkians in maintaining the direct influence of 
physical causes as producing variation, and ;n the belief that acquired 
characters are inherited. The reasons for the adoption of these views 
are often stated, and with a good deal of force. The reasons why 

evolution, are also clearly set forth. 

In the last chapter the question of population raised by Malthus is 
considered. Writing in a country which is. so long as the unequal 
distribution of land continues, fully populated, the authors admit the 
necessity for some method of restraining the increase of families. I hey 
consider the propositions of the Neo-Malthusians for limiting the 
increase bv various artificial measures, and decide in favor of a dif- 



They obsei 



- 



sought after is not merely a controlled 
but regulated married lives. Neo-Malthusianism 



might secure the former 



less mechanical methods, and 



there is no doubt that a limitation of the family would often increase 
the happiness of the home ; but there is danger lest, in removing its 
become increasingly organic. We would 
ethical rather than a mechanical 



760 The American Naturalist. [August, 

1 prudence after marriage ; ' of a temperance recognized to be as bind- 
ing on husband and wife as chastity on the unmarried. , . . We 
need a new ethic of the sexes ; and this not merely or even mainly as 
an intellectual construction, but as a discipline of life ; and we need 
more. We need an increasing education and civism of women,— in 
fact, an economic of the sexes very different from that nowadays so 
common, which, while attacking the old cooperation of men and 
women because of its manifest imperfections, but offers us an un- 
limited and far more mutually destructive industrial competition 
between them instead. . . . And while our biological studies of 
course for the most part only point the way towards deeper social 
ones, they afford also one luminous principle toward their prosecu- 
tion,— that thorough parallelism and coincidence of psychical and 
material considerations, upon which moralist and economist have 
been too much wont to specialize." 

The authors do not state clearly what their "new ethic" is to be, 
excepting that it is to be based on a thorough recognition of the 
basis of biologic fact which underlies the problem. They are evi- 
dently not in sympathy with the entrance of women into either 
industrial or political competition with men, nor do they see in the 
present position of woman anything more than the natural outcome 
of natural evolution. "Instead of men and women merely laboring 
to produce things, as the past economic theories insisted, or competing 
over the distribution of them, as we at present think so important, a 
further swing of economic theory will lead us round upon a higher 
spiral to the direct organic facts. So it is not for the sake of produc- 
tion or distribution, of self-interest or mechanism, or any other idol of 
the economists that the male organism organizes the climax of his life's 
struggle and labor, but for his mate ; as she, and therefore he, also, for 
their little ones. Production is for consumption ; the species is its 
own highest, its sole essential product. The social order will clear 
itself as it comes more in touch with biology." 



Geography and Travel. 



General Xotrs. 



GEOGRAPHY AND TRAVELS. 
Mexico. — In a communication made to the Academy of Natural 

placed on record his barometric determinations of the h 

four loftiest summits of the Mexican Republic— < »ri/.aba, Popocatepetl, 
Ixtaccihuatl, and the Nevado de Toluca. From these it would appear 
that considerable corrections will have to he made in geographies of 
the recorded heights of these far-famed giants of the South. All the 
observations were made by means of a carefully tested aneroid barome- 
ter, and the data computed from almost simultaneous observations 
made at the Mexican Central Observatory of the City of Mexico, and 
from barometric readings made at the sea level at Vera Cruz. The 
The equable condition of the atmosphere at the time these observa- 
tions were made rendered the possibility of the occurrence of possible 
errors of magnitude almost nil. 

Height of Popocatepetl.— The height of Popocatepetl, com- 
monly accepted as the highest peak, was recorded by Alexander 
von Humboldt in 1804 as 17,720 feet. Several measurements have 
been made since the date of the grigonometrical observations of 
the distinguished German traveler, and with results varying trom 
17,200 feet to somewhat over 18,000 feet. Professor Heilprin's 
measurements give 17,523 feet, or 200 feet less than the estimate of 
Humboldt, as corrected by his astronomical associate, Oltmanns. The 
significant fact, however, pointed out, that while geographers have 
almost universally accepted Humboldt's determinations and figures, 

been made possible through the leveling of the Mexican Railway, 
which was constructed a few years since. These show that the esti- 
mate of the elevation of the City of Mexico (7,470 feet) and of the 
adjoining plateaus, which have served as a basis for most of the angle 
measurements of the mountains, have been placed 123 feet too high. 
Allowing for this excess, a striking correspondence is established 
between the early measurements and those obtained in the spring of 
the year by the Philadelphia expedition. 



The American Naturalist. 



The asc 




of the peak was made 


on the 


1 6th and ] 


; 7 th< 


>f Ap 


ril by 


Professor 


Ik 


ilprin 


and Mr. F. C. 


Baker, 


the rin 


1 of 


the c 




being 


reached at 


ii 




clock on the moi 


rning of the ] 


: 7 rh. 


and 


the culmi- 


nating poi 


nt« 


■arlyii 


1 the afternoon of the sar 


neday 


. Li 


ttle d 


ifficul 


tywas 



re. The snow field 
was found to be of limited extent, and not more than from five to ten 
feet in depth, and was virtually absent from the apex of the mountain. 
The surprisingly mild temperature of the summit, 45 degrees Fahren- 
heit, rendered a stay of several hours in cloudland very delightful. 

The Mountain of Orizaba. — With regard to the elevation of 
what is commonly supposed to be the second highest summit of the 
Mexican Republic, the peak of Citlaltepetl or Orizaba, the results of 
Professor Heilprin's determinations show more marked variations from 
those of most of the earlier investigators, and more particularly from 
those of Humboldt. The latter determined the height of the moun- 
tain, by means of angles taken from near the town of Jalapa, to be 
17,375 feet, while a still earlier determination by Ferrer, in 1796, and 
recorded in the transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 
gave 17,879 feet. The latter estimate has been generally adopted by 
German geographers, and Humboldt himself has considered it more 
nearly representing the truth than his own measurement. The Mexi- 
can geographers, on the other hand, have adopted the measurement of 
Humboldt, or that which was obtained by the National Commissions of 
1877, and which indicated a height of 17,664 feet. 

Professor Heilprin, with three of his scientific associates and eleven 
guides, made the ascent of the mountain on the 6th and 7th of April, 
or ten days before the ascent of Popocatepetl. The last camp, at a 
height of some 13,000 feet, was left shortly before five o'clock in the 
morning of the second day, and after a difficult and continuous strug- 
gle of twelve hours through loose boulders, sand, and a much cut-up ice 
cap, the party — or rather the fragment which succeeded in holding 
out — finally reached the rim of the crater. 

A photograph was here obtained of the depression which marks the 
summit of this most symmetrical cone of the North American conti- 
nent. Professor Heilprin's measurement, which was made at a point 
about 120 feet below the apex of the cone, indicates a total height of 
the mountain of 18,206 feet, or some 325 feet in excess of the measure- 
ment of Ferrer, and upwards of 800 more than that of Humboldt. 

The equal conditions of the atmosphere under which the measure- 
ments of both the peaks of Orizaba and Popocatepetl were made, and 



1890.] Geography and Travel. 763 

the fact that the two measurements were made with the same instru- 
ments, after an interval of only ten days, appear to leave but little 
room for doubt that the latter determination is within close limits the 
correct one. There thus seems no question but that the first place 
among Mexican volcanoes must be accorded to the " Star Mountain." 

The sense of excessive fatigue which marked the ascent of this 
mountain as compared with that of Popocatepetl was considered in 
itself a sufficient index of the much greater elevation. Messrs. Winner 
Stone and F. C. Baker, two of Professor Heilprin's associates, were 
compelled to desist from the final attack upon the mountain when not 
more than some 300 feet below the summit. Mr. Le Houtillier's 
strength failed him at an elevation of about 14,000 feet. 

As upon Popocatepetl, the snow cap upon Orizaba, although arising 
2,400 feet, or nearly half a mile, above the summit of the highest peak 
of the Alps, was a comparatively insignificant development. Only a 
quarter of an hour was passed on the crest of the mountain when the 
difficult descent through the numerous seracs of the ice was made. 
The camp was reached at a little after eight o'clock in the evening, 
thus completing a remarkable round of mountain-climbing of fifteen 
successive hours. 

The views from the slopes of the mountain are described as being 
surpassingly grand, far exceeding anything that Professor Heilprin had 
hitherto seen in his travels. Far off to the west the giants Popo- 
catepetl and Ixtaccihuatl were clearly outlined against the sky at a 
distance of about 100 miles, while to the east and south the eye wan- 
dered over a seemingly endless expanse of plateaus and lowlands, 
penetrating through a series of successive cloud-planes. 

Ascent of Ixtaccihuatl.— The ascent of the third highest peak 
of the Republic, Ixtaccihuatl, was made on the 27th of the same 
month on which the two other ascents above noted were also made. 
In its general features, this mountain differs broadly from the two 
peaks before mentioned. Although the remains of a volcano, it no 
longer presents either the symmetry or conical outline of its more 
famous rivals. A strong, flowing crest, covered with a heavy deposit, 
* some 75 or 100 feet in thickness, of snow and ice, serves readily to 
distinguish the familiar " White Woman " of the plain of Auahuac. 

Above what is now the highest point there at one time arose the 
crater wall, but the destruction through natural causes of the summit 
has completely obliterated all traces of both the crater and wall. The 
heavy cap of snow, a true Jim, or neve, feeds one or more glaciers 
which descend the western slopes. Across one of these glacial ice 



764 The American Naturalist. [August, 

sheets, whose nature was now for the first time made known to the 
Mexicans, the dangerous ascent was accomplished. Huge crevasses 
at short intervals barred the progress of the march, but the point, esti- 
mated to be about 75 yards below the summit, was reached about 10.30 
o'clock in the morning. Two impassable crevasses, cutting the crest 
of the mountain at right angles, prevented a nearer approach to the 

Professor Heilprin's measurements determined the height of this 
mountain to be 16,962 feet, or from 800 to 1.300 feet above that which 
is accorded to it by Mexican geographers. This determination, on 
the other hand, accords very closely (within n feet) with the very 
careful, but now generally overlooked, trigonometrical measurements 
made in 1857 by Sonntag, under the auspices of Baron von Miiller. 

It is difficult to account for the low value of the height of this 
mountain given by Humboldt and the Mexican geographers, in view 
of its close proximity to Popocatepetl. So nearly do they appear of 
equal height that the eye at first fails to distinguish which of the two 
summits is the highest. German geographers, however, in a few cases, 
have adopted Sonntag's measurements, neglecting, however, as in the 
cases of Popocatepetl, to make allowances for the error, in this case 
of 125 feet, which is indicated by the leveling of the Mexican Railway. 

The temperature on the summit of Ixtaccihuatl was found to be 
much lower than on either of the other peaks, being 32 degrees 
Fahrenheit. 

Ascent of Nevada de Toluca.— The fourth highest summit of 
the Republic, the Nevado de Toluca, was ascended by Professor 
Heilprin and Mr. Baker on the 25th of April. This mountain, owing 
to its lesser elevation, has a much easier ascent than the others. In 
fact, it can be ascended by horseback to within about 600 feet of the 
apex. The rim of the broken crater is extremely ragged and narrow, 
descending with almost equal abruptness to the inner and outer faces 
of the volcano. At some points the crest is so attenuated that it can 
be readily straddled. This feature recalls the famous Polnischer 
Kamm of the Carpathian Mountains, which Professor Heilprin 
ascended in 1878, and from which there is obtained a precipitous* 
descent on the one side into Gallicia, and on the other into Hungary. 

The barometric determination of the Nevada de Toluca gave a 
height of M,95 2 feet , and gave approximately the mean between the 
determination of Humboldt and those of a class of students from the 
School of Engineers of the city of Toluca. 



i89o.] Geography am 


i Travel. 


In regard to the position which thi 


5 peak of 


mountains of the North American co 




that its only rival without the Mexi< 


/an domai 




parallel . 


summit is claimed both by Great 


Britain ai 


(Alaska) as their possession. 




So broadly divergent, however, are 


the results 


of this mountain that as yet it has 


been imp. 



geographers. Malespina in 1791 deterr 
angles, taken from near the position of 



The most recent carefully ronauct. d sene> 
,ose which were made bv Mr. W. H. Dall. one 



United States Coast Survey, in 1874- Ihese yieiaea results ranging 
from a little more than 18,000 to nearly 20,000 feet. The measure- 
ments were made from distances of 69, 127, 167 miles, and it is more 
than likely that the discrepancy in the results obtained is due to the 
very small angles of measurements, and to an uncertainty regarding 
the actual position of the mountain. 

The extreme variation of nearly 2,000 feet in a mountain less than 
four miles in height renders the correctness of the determinations ex- 
tremely doubtful. With little doubt Mount St. Elias is considerably 
more elevated than appears on many of the English and German maps 
(14,975 feet), but in how near it approaches the height of the Mexican 
volcanoes is still a question for future solution. The existing evidence 
seems to point to the -Star Mountain" of Mexico, the peak of 
Orizaba, with its 18,200 feet, as the culminating point of the North 
American continent.— Philadelphia Ledger. 



The American Naturalist. 



GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY. 

The Origin of the Sycamore.— The American origin of our 
sycamore was long denied by European botanists, and was'only ren- 
dered certain by its discovery in a fossil state by Prof. Lesquereux in 
a late deposit of the Mississippi valley. Specimens were sent to that 
great authority on these subjects, Dr. Oswald Heer, of Zurich, who 
could find no characters by which to distinguish the fossil from the 
living form, and who regards this as a final settlement of the question. 
But through the researches of Lester Ward we now learn that the 
genus itself, the entire type of vegetation to which the plants belong, 
is American, and that numerous and strange archaic forms of this 
type formed umbrageous forests on the shores of the great inland 
Laramie sea where the Rocky Mountains stand, and of the ocean at a 
time when it extended northward across what are now the great plains 
of the United States and Canada. (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XI.) 

The Cuboides Zone— In a paper read before the Geol. Soc. 
Am., Dec. 28, 1889, ty H. S. Williams, the author concludes, after 
a study of the Cuboides zone and the Tully limestone, that within 
narrow limits, geologically speaking, the point in the European time 
scale represented by the beginning of deposition of the Cuboides 
Schichten of Aix la Chapelle and Riidesheim, is represented in New 
York sections by the Tully limestone ; and second, that the representa- 
tive of the fauna of the Cuboides zone of Europe is seen in New York, 
not only in the Tully limestone, but in the shaly strata for several 
hundred feet above. 

Therefore, if we wish to express precise correlation in our classifica- 
tion of American rocks, the line between Middle and Upper Devonian 
formations should be drawn at the base of the Tully limestone, to cor- 
respond with the usage of French, Belgian, German, and Russian 
geologists, who include the Frasnian, Cuboides Schichten, and cor- 
related zones in the Upper Devonian. 

In discussing the subject Mr. C. D. Walcott remarked: "Prof. 
Williams' paper is of unusual interest, as he has shown very clearly 
that the theory of Huxlev that there is no homotaxial relation between 
the sub-division of the geologic systems on the American and Euro- 
pean continents is not altogether correct. This study of the Cuboides 



The Echinodermata of the Carboniferous.—' 

Echinodermata of the Missi>si r pi basin. recap:t;:latc> a- follows: 
It appears that (i) the most charai terisi . 

nating during the firei part ami the Blastoidea during the latter por- 
tion ;of the period; (a) that a large proportion 

noderms became extinct toward the close of the Ke >ku I 
theCrinoidal genera represented in the St. 1 > 
one-half of the number did not occur in the < 
among the Crinoidea in general the abrupt ami exteiwi\< 

are suggestive of decided changes in the biological ami physical con- 
ditions of environment; (5) that the faunas of the Burlington and 
Keokuk are very closely related genetic ally, the two being prat ticallv 
continuous ; (6) that if the members of the Low 

Mississippi are to be >ym hroni/ed with the tw - .i : .v -ions of the Ap- 
palachian Lower Carboniferous, the line of demarkation is far more 
apparent at the close than at the beginning of the Keokuk epoch. 

A Recent Find of Castoroides. — Interest attaches to a 
recent find of Castoroides ohioensis, since the species, though known 
since 1838, has heretofore been studied from rather meagre fragments. 
This find, which was made in Indiana is well nigh a complete skeleton. 

The parietal and occipital regions of the skull are wanting, but they 
have been well studied already. The dentition, however, is perfect, 
both above and below, and is more fully developed than in the Clyde 
skull found in 1840. The vertebrae in front of the pelvis are all 
present, except two of the dorsal and four of the cervical. The two 
most important, the atlas and axis, were found. 

The shoulder-blades, clavicles, and fore-legs, minus the feet, show an 
animal powerfully developed anteriorly. The tail is proportionally 
about as long as that of the beaver. Everything about it indicates 
that it was an important and powerful member. In the middle and 
more posterior region the transverse processes are broad, heavy, and 
bifurcate, as in the beaver, but relatively not nearly so long. If its 
tail was flat it was not so wide as that of the beaver. It was five- 
toed and plantigrade. 



768 The American Naturalist. [August, 

The fourth metatarsal is the longest and stoutest bone of the series. 
The fifth does not join to the tarsus, but articulates with the outer 
under side of the base of the fourth. It could hardly have the skele- 
ton of the foot in so many respects like that of the beaver, and not 
have been web-footed. The entire length of the foot must have 
been fully twelve inches. 

The general size and character of the skeleton sustain the conclu- 
sions of Dr. Wyman and others that the animal was "as large as a 
black bear." — Joseph Moore, Richmond, Ind. 

Geological News.— General.— H. A. Wasmuth maintains that 
in "bedded " mineral deposits no " inversion " or "overlapping" of 
the strata can take place without fracture and more or less dislocation ; 
and that, in general, the dislocations of the strata take place in one 
of two ways : either the portion of a mineral deposit on the hanging 
wall of the fracture or fault is in a lower position than the portion on 
the foot wall, or it is in a higher position. Occurrences of the former 
sort are called "transverse faults;" of the latter, "longitudinal 
faults," or overlaps. (Jour. Franklin Insti., Aug. 1887.) 

Prof. N. S. Shaler suggests that the origin of the Florida uplift is in 
all probability the same as that of the " Cincinnati anticlinal," and 
that the peculiar sand-ridges found in the lake district have been 
shaped beneath ocean waters affected by strong currents. If this 
latter theory is true, then we are compelled to believe that the eleva- 
tion of the area above the sea level took place with extreme sudden- 
ness. The problem in this field is substantially like that which we 
have in the Kame districts along the southern shore of New Eng- 
land. (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Vol. XVI., No. 7.) 

It is proposed by F. H. Knowlton (Proc. Nat. Mus., Vol XII., pp. 
601-617), in his revision of the Araucarioxylon, to separate Cordaites 
from the other Paleozoic woods ; and, in accordance with Felix's sug- 
gestion, to adopt Endlicher's name Dadoxylon for the remainder, and to 
restrict the use of Araucarioxylon to the Mesozoic and Tertiary forms. 

Cretaceous.— R. T. Hill has published an annotated check-list of 
the Invertebrate Fossils from the Cretaceous Formations of Texas. It 
comprises 2 species of Protozoa, 8 Ccelenterata, 16 Echinodermata, 5 
Bryozoa, and 59 Lamellibranchiata. 

J. S. Diller has discovered a number of sandstone dikes in the Sac- 
ramento valley in California. Their position and the peculiar way in 
which they intersect the Cretaceous sandstones and shales, their band- 
ing and the appearance and position of the biotite in the dike rock, 



1890.] Geology and Paleontology. 769 

afford conclusive evidence that these dikes record seismic movement 

during the Tertiary. (Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol I). 

G. M. Dawson proposes {Am. Jour. Set., March. 1890) the name 
Nanaimo Group instead of Dr. White's " Vancouver," I 

the equivalent of the Chico Group in the Vancouver Islau 

In the Am. Jour. Set., Oct. 1889, are some suggestions from G. H. 

Eldridge as to a method of grouping the formations o: 
Cretaceous. He proposes to include in the lower of the n 
divisions the formations of the Fort Benton and N-obara ; in the 
upper, the Fort Pierre ami Fox Hills ; tor the former no better name 

name Montana is now for the first tune pr> 
etvmologicallv objectionable, because it is lound pnm 
plains ! 

R. T. Hill does not concur in the proposed 
the Meek and Hayden sub-division of the I ;■■ 

beds lose their identity in Colorado, they appear in Texas in a manner 
which only confirms the original Nebraska section in its characters 
and succession. (Am. Jour. ScL, Dec. 1889.) 

Various widely scattered observations enable G. M. Dawson to state 
(Am. Jour. ScL, Aug. 1889) that a great earlier Cretaceous formation, 
beneath the horizon of the Dakota, is more or less continuously devel- 
oped over avast tract of country, the eastern edge of which lies to the 
east of the present line of the Rocky Mountains, from the 49th parallel 
to the Arctic Ocean, and which is represented to the west as far as 
the vicinity of the mouth of the Fraser River, the Queen Charlotte's 
Islands, and in the Yukon Valley beyond the 141st meridian, in the 
interior of Alaska. 

Mesozoic— After a thorough study of rocks from twenty-six locali- 
ties in the Connecticut valley, W. II Davis and C. S. Whittle have 
come to the conclusion that the eastern trap ranges present a uniform 
icters of extrusive sheets, while the 
consistently manifests the several characteristics 
of "an intrusive sheet. (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Vol. XVI., No. 6.) 

A recent communication from R. Lydekker to the Quar. Jour. 
Geol. Soc., 1890, contains an account of Iguanodont remains from the 
Wadhurst clay; a description of a metatarsus of a Megolausaunan 
(M. dunkeri) from the same deposit; and a note in regard to some 
vertebrae of a Sauropterygian. 



•j jo The American Naturalist. [August, 

In an address to the Cambridge Entomological Club, Jan. 10, 1890, 
Mr. S. H. Scudder gave the following brief resume of recent knowl- 
edge of Mesozoic insects : 

" The horizon has been extended of late years by the thorough 
discussion of the Bavarian insects by Deichmiiller and by Oppenheim ; 
by the careful exploitation of a new locality for Triassic insects at Dob- 
bertin, Germany, by F. E. Geinitz ; by the considerable number of 
new generic and specific types of cockroaches from the secondary rocks 
of England, described by myself; by the repeated though not 
extensive discoveries of Fritsch in Bohemia, adding interesting material 
for our very meager knowledge of Cretaceous insects ; and by the dis- 
covery at Fairplay, Colorado, of a collection of Triassic cockroaches of 
special importance." 

Palaeozoic— According to C. R. Keyes the remnants of an ex- 
ceedingly rich and varied fauna that once tenanted the littoral zones 
of a vast Carboniferous sea, are found in the vicinity of Burlington, 
Iowa. The Gastropods of the Kinderhook beds include upwards of 
fifteen genera and fifty species. But only two of the generic groups, 
Platyceras and Straparollus, have thus far been recognized in the 
Burlington strata, in which there occur eight species of the first genus 
and two of the second. (Proc. Phila. Acad. Sci., Sept. 1889.) 

S. A. Miller and F. E. Gurley have described {/our. Cm. Soc. Nat. 
Hist., April, 1890) some fine Crinoids from the Coal Measures and 
sub-Carboniferous rocks of Indiana, Nevada, and Iowa. A new family 
name, Eupachycrinidae, is made to include the genera Eupachycrinus 
and Delocrinus, each containing two new species, and Ulocrinus, con- 
taining three. The remaining 45 new species are referred to 21 genera, 
of which four are new. This paper embraces more important novelties 
than any one recently published. It is well illustrated. 

In the Quart, /our. Geo. Soc., May, 1890, two new species of 
Rhachitomous Stegocephali are described and figured by R. Lydekker, 
viz. : Macromerium scoticum, from the Carboniferous of Scotland j 
Eryops owenii, from the Karoo system of South Africa. The latter is 
the first representative of the North American Stegocephali found at 
the Cape. 

W. B. Dwight has demonstrated from fossils collected in that region 
that the Calciferous is one of the most prominent components of the 
Millerton-Fishkill limestone belt. 

Csenozoic— In a paper entitled Structure and Origin of Glacial 
Sand Plains (Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 1890) W. M. Morris states that 



his observations of the New England sand plain* are in accordance 
with the generally accepted explanations. 

E. T. Newton has recently described some Kocene siluroid fishes, 

Soc, 1889.) 

The Cernaysian Mammalia are reviewed in Proc Phil 

1890, by H. F. Osborn. The collection is in the private museum of 
Dr. Victor Lemoine, and is not thoroughly known or 
abroad, except by those who have had the good fortune to examine 
the original types. 

W. B. Clark (Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. I.) note, the strange com- 
mingling of different faunas in the Tertiary deposits of the Cape 

In a paper on Glacial Phenomena in Canada. Robert Bell discusses 
the causes of changes in level, and remarks that the elevation of the 
land still in progress in north polar regions indicates that we have passed 
the period of greatest warmth, and that a colder condition has again 
begun to creep upon us from the north. 

G. F. Wright (Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. I.) defines the Oak Knolls, 
a part of the ridge separating Lake Ontario from Lake Huron, as a 
moraine of retrocession. This ridge probably existed as a long island 
m the great glacial Lake Erie-Ontario. 

T. C. Chamberlin (Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. I.) presents some 
additional evidences bearing on the interval between the glacial 
epochs. These evidences are the trenching of the valleys of the 
Mississippi, Ohio, Allegheny, Susquehanna, and Delaware Rivers. 
The cutting of these trenches rudely measures the length of the inter- 
glacial interval. 

At a meeting of the Phila. Acad. Sci., 1888, Otto Meyer deter- 
mined a collection of fossil Tertiary invertebrates imbeded in sand 
which filled the inside of a Balanus convexus Brown, found on the 
west side of Chesapeake Ba •. The list comprises 15 Gastropoda, 8 
Lamellibranchiata, 1 Balanidae, 1 Ostracoda, 3 Foraminifera. 

R. Lydekker, in a recent paper {Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc., 1890), sub- 
mits sufficient evidence to prove beyond reasonable doubt the occur- 
rence of the striped hyaena in the Tertiary of Val d' Arno. 

G. M. Dawson calls attention {Geol. Mag., Vol. I.) to the note- 
worthy heights at which glaciation has now been found to occur on 
some of the higher points in the southern interior of British Colum- 
bia. These heights range from 4340 to 7200 feet. 



7/ r2 The American Naturalist. [August, 

A recent study of the corresponding series of beds in the Paris, 
and Hempstead basins leads Mr. A. Blytt to think that the attenua- 
tion of strata was effected by a general cause, and it seems highly 
probable that this cause is the precession of the equinoxes. 

In the Proc. N. Y. Microscopical Soc., 1890, is found a synopsis of 
the Cretaceous Foraminifera of New Jersey, compiled by Anthony 
Woodward. The object of this paper is to bring together all the 
work that has been previously done, and the observations that have 
been made on the Cretaceous Foraminifera of New Jersey from 1833. 

Joseph Moore (Jour. Cin. Soc. Nat. His., April, 1890) describes 
the tooth of a gigantic rodent found in northern Georgia. Its striking 
feature is the peculiar ribbing and flutting of the enamel through- 
out the length of the tooth. He proposes the name Castoroides geor- 
gienis. After an examination of the specimen, Prof. Cope states that 
it is the inferior canine of the Hippopotamus amphibius. 



MIXERALOGY 


AM) PETROGRAPHY. 1 


Petrographical News.— 
car by Rev. R. Baron 2 has bee 

them into gneisses, granitite 
pyroxenites, and basalts. In tl 
fectly transparent, and has an 


A suite of rocks collected in Madagas- 
n examined by Hatch, 3 who separates^ 
:, olivine-norite, pyroxene-granulites, 
le olivine-norite the plagioclase is per- 
undulous extinction. The olivine is 



surrounded by a reactionary rim consisting of an inner zone of hypers- 
thene and an outer one of actinolite. The pyroxene-granulite is 
evidently a basic eruptive that has suffered dynamo-metamorphism. It 
contains pyroxene, hornblende, and garnet, besides the usual constit- 
uents of granulite. Among the basalts many varieties are described. 
In one variety, the augite and olivine, when present, are in porphyritic 
crystals, slightly corroded, and including portions of the microlitic 
ground mass. The augite is grouped around the olivine, which is 
twinned. A few grains of quartz are present. A second variety con- 
tains hornblende and biotite porphyritically developed. All the 
augite of this rock is zonal, with a different extinction in the various 
zones. In some the hour-glass structure was observed. Twinning is 
frequent. A glassy basalt includes hornblende crystals and fragments 
of quartz. Some of the hornblende has been entirely dissolved, and 
in its place has been formed an aggregate of augite and magnetite. 

1 Edited by Dr. W. S. Bayley, Colby University, Waterville, Me. 
* Quart. Jour. Gtol. Soc, XLV., May, 1889,'p. 3°5- 



1890.] Mineralogy and Petrography. ~~\ 

The quartz fragments are surrounded by zones of colorless glass con- 
taining augite microlites, which are in turn surrounded by /ones of 
brown glass enclosing microlites and crystals of augite and granules of 

magnetite. According to Venukoff, 4 basalts play an important rote 

in the geology of Mongolia. They consist principally of feldspar, 
augite, olivine, ilmenite, and magnetite. The feldspar is usually in 
but one generation. When in two, the phenocrysts are anorthite ami 
the microlites labradorite. The augite is usually in two generations. 
the larger crystals being violet in color, while the smallei ones are 
green. In some cases the porphyritic augites are made up oi an 
aggregate of small grains grouped in such a way as t<> 1 'resent the out- 
line of crystals. These aggregates are sometima surrounded by a rim 

mentioned there is often a little of an unorpjious baa 

globulites and microlites. The quartz of an inclusion of granite in 
this basalt is surrounded by a zone composed of augite and small, 
light-colored microlites. The biotite of the granite has been trans- 
formed into a granular mass of magnetite, quartz, and a light brown 
opaque substance. Around it is often a zone of augite grains. Around 
the feldspar the basalt paste becomes light colored, the crystal com- 
ponents are more rare, and in their places are various microlites. 
Within this is a band of augite microlites, and within this band, imme- 
diately surrounding the feldspar, is a zone of colorless glass. The 

feldspar itself is much fractured. The greenstones 5 of Wicklow, 

Ireland, occur in intrusive sheets and dykes. They are quartz-mica- 
diorites (composed of quartz, plagioclase, orthoclase, biotite, horn- 
blende, and a little malacolite, chlorite, and apatite), quartz-diorites, 
diorites, augite-diorites (consisting of plagioclase and grains and 
crystals of sahlite or malacolite), diabases, epidiorites, chlorite-schists 
(produced by dynamic metamorphism from diabase), and serpentines, 
derived from diabases. Mr. Somervail 6 regards the gabbros, green- 
stones, granulites, and hornblende-schists of the Lizard, Eng.,as parts 
of the same rock-mass, the latter-named rocks, according to him, 

having originated from the former by pressure. Mr. Marstens 7 

gives us a very brief description of diabases and diabase porphyrite 
from among the Triassic traps of Nova Scotia. A few dykes 8 



. verb. soc. Belg. de Geol., II., 
Sept 1889, p. 



774 The American Naturalist. [August,. 

occurring in the Upper Silurian and Lower Devonian beds of the 
Appalachians in Highland Co., Va., consist of porphyritic basalt com- 
posed of phenocrysts of augite and olivine in a ground-mass of plagio- 

clase, augite, magnetite, and a few flakes of biotite. Sandberger 9 

mentions cordierite occurring as an inclusion in the basalt of the 
Calvarienberg, near Fulda, in Hessen. He also gives an analysis of 

the phonolite of Heldburg, near Coburg. Holland 10 has isolated 

the porphyritic crystals from the basalts of Mull, Eng., and finds them 
to correspond in composition and other properties with anorthite of 

the composition AbAn 3 . In the phonolite of the Serra de Tingua, 

Brazil, are coarse-grained patches with the structure of foyaite. They 
have the form of leucite crystals, and are, according to Hussak, 11 
nothing more or less than pseudo-crystals of this mineral. They con- 
sist of a thin wall composed of crystals of orthoclase, surrounding a 
coarse-grained aggregate of the constitution of foyaite. The external 
form of the pseudomorphs is so perfect that the angles of leucite can 

readily be detected upon them. Mr. C. W. Hall 12 records the fact 

that the Trenton limestone of St. Paul and Minneapolis., Minn, is 
composed of untwinned rhombohedra of caicite. An argillaceous bed 
lying above the limestone contains many rhombohedra of caicite im- 
bedded in its matrix. Dr. Lawson 13 describes an amygdaloidal trap 

from the Animikie series of Thunder Bay, Canada, that contains about 
2% of native copper. 

Mineralogical News. — New Minerals. — Inesite. — At the mine 
Hilfe Gottes and Ferdinand, near Nanzenbach in the Dillenburg region, 
Germany, is a new manganese mineral associated with various ores ol 
this metal. The new mineral is a dense colorless to dark brown sub- 
stance, whose hardness varies between 5 and 6, and whose streak is 
yellowish-brown. Its fusibility is 3. In other specimens the mineral 
occurs in radial aggregates of a flesh-red color, with a hardness of 6-7, 
a specific gravity of 3.103, a white streak and a glassy lustre. It has 
an extinction of 20 against one of its cleavages, and is regarded by 
Schneider 14 as triclinic. Its composition is 

Si0 2 A1 2 3 FeO MnO MgO CaO H 2 
43-92 .29 .69 38-23 .28 8.00 8.49 

^ Neues Jahrb.f. Mm., etc., 1890, I., p. 101. 
™ Miner. Magazine, Mch. 1889, p. 154. 



Ges., XXXIX., 1889,1 



Mineralogy and Pc 



heated without changing their optical beh; 
supposed to be due to a mixture of opal wit 
the author regards as crystallized silica dif 
cedony, since it possesses optical propert 
these minerals. Its index of refraction foi 



mine. It resembles, in appearance, a mrneiai uou 
denskjold 19 as assoi iated with rk i w/V at Langban. 
is orthorhombic, with the plane of its optical axes 
cleavage face. The axial angle is large, and the da 
The density is 6.886, and hardness 2. On the Langl 
planes P^ and oP occur on twinned forms, with 00P the 
and a .*£.* £=1.0343 : I: 2 - 2 °45- Heliophyllite has 
same composition as ekikmite, from which, however, 
cry-tallographic properties. 

PbO MnO. FeO As 2 O s 



:.o3 



Ref. Ber. d. deutsch. chem. Ges., 1890, p 
Vetensk. Akad. Forh.,1888, Stockh., p. 5 
381. Ref. Ntma. Jahrb f. Mir,., etc., 1890, 



77& The American Naturalist. [August, 

Barysite.—hx the same Harstig mine Sjogren and Lundstrom 20 have 

found a lead silicate associated with garnet, calcite, tephroite, hedy- 
phane and cerussite filling a vein in the iron ores. The mineral occurs 
in silver-white hexagonal crystals, with a perfect cleavage parallel to oP, 
and a less perfect one parallel to ooP. Its double refraction is nega- 
tive, streak white, hardness, 3, and specific gravity, 6.55. When 
heated it becomes dark and melts to a brown glass. Dissolves in nitric 
and hydrochloric acids with the separation of gelatinous silica. Its 
composition (as a mean of two analyses) is : 

Si0 2 PbO MnO FeO CaO MgO Ce Loss. 
17.07 78.26 3.51 .16 .41 .59 tr. .89 
leading to the formula 3 (i MnO+f PbO) 2 Si0 2 . 

Miscellaneous.— The second part Hintze's " Handbuch der Min- 
eralogie " 21 concludes the discussion of the topaz group of minerals, and 
treats of the datholite and epidote groups,vesuvianite, gehlenite, and parts 
of the tourmaline group. The fullness of treatment that characterized the 
first part of this remarkable book is continued in the second part. If 
the promise given by the two parts that have appeared to date is carried 
to its fulfillment, the complete volume will be a marvel of painstaking 

labor and patience. A discussion of some of the facts known with 

respect to the physical symmetry of crystals, together with some ob- 
servations made upon the gypsum of Zimmerscheim, in Upper Alsace, 
lead Beckenkamp n to the view that the molecules of crystals are polar, 
i.e., that they possess different powers at diametrically opposite points, 
and that, other conditions being similar, a crystal face always possesses 

a maximum tendency to growth in a certain fixed direction.- In a 

conglomerate on the Coast of South Devon, near Torquay, England, 

oidal and spherulitic forms of chalcedony, known as beekite. These 
are thought by Hughes 23 to have originated by the replacement of 
portions of the limestone by silica, possibly through the influence of 
organic substances. The author thinks that the same kind of action 
may have given rise to many of the old siliceous deposits like flint or 

chert Mr. Dawson 2i has recently given a statement of the present 

condition of mining in British Columbia, and adescription of the minerals 
of economic value occurring there, and Mr. Coste 24 has issued a statistical 

20 Ofvers. af. Kong!. Vetensk. Ak. Forh., p. 7. Ref. Neues. Tahrb.f. Min., etc., 1890, I- 



report on trie mineral proau 
tourmaline granite of Stri 
halos around inclusions of i 



B< >TANY. 
Note on a New Species of Actinoceps B. and 

le Sylloge Fungorum of Saccardo but a single species of i 
i recorded, and this is a native of Ceylon. Consequently i 
stine to discover that another form, undoubtedly belong 



, was found to be clothed with a tl 
3e By., together with other saprogei 

■b. f. Mm, etc., 1890, ^P^ g88 Ref 



A, <L- 



yj% The American Naturalist. [August, 

bers, although never so close as to touch each other. The networks of 
hyphse at the base of each Actinoceps stipe were found to interlace 
among the bacilli, and to ramify somewhat widely through the nutri- 
tive material. In general the appearance of each stroma was more 
or less glaucescent, varying in a few individuals to a faint and very 
light yellow color. 

For comparison a transcription of the Saccardian description is 
given here in English. The original will be found on p. 5 79 of Vol. 
IV., and the single species described is " No. 2747." 

"Actinoceps B. and Br., Suppl. Fungi of Ceylon . . . Stipe hya- 
line, cylindrical, composite ; hyphse repeatedly branched and accu- 
mulated in a globose head, with radiating spicules ; hyphse sometimes 
prolonged into radiating, vitreous, granulate spicules, again devel- 
oped as very slender conidiophores ; conidia very minute hyaline. 

"Actinoceps thwaitesii B. and Br. Stipe 400 to 500/1 in length; 
head, 140 to 160/1 in diameter ; spicules shaped as in sponges, cover- 
ing the head rather loosely with spines ; spore-bearing hyphse repeat- 
edly branched, sub-flexuose ; conidia elliptico-spheroid. 

" Hab. In decayed, leathery leaves, Ceylon." 

From this it will be seen that the genus Actinoceps differs little 
from Stilbum, the spicules of the former constituting the diagnostic 
character. Like Stilbum, the Actinoceps studied in Minnesota has the 
conidia enclosed within a mucilaginous layer, so that the younger 
plants generally present a somewhat shining aspect, while the older 
ones are slightly desiccated, and appear sub-pulverulent. 

Comparing the Minnesota Actinoceps with the description of the 
Ceylonese form certain minor differences in size are noted. Since 
spore and hypha measurements are omitted in the description of 
Actinoceps thwaitesii, the comparison extends only to the stromatic 
measurements. While the Ceylonese form shows a stipe 400 t0 5°° !i 
in length, that of the Minnesota form is from 700 to 700//. The 
diameter of the head in Actinoceps thwaitesii is 140 to 160 ft, while 
that of the Minnesota form is much larger, measuring from 360 to 40° 
ft. Additional measurements of the stalk showed it- average diameter 
to be between 45 and 55 //. From this it is apparent that the Minne- 
sota specimens should be separated from the Ceylonese specie-, and a 
description of the American form is appended. 

Actinoceps besseyi n. s. Stalk 400 to 700//. long, 45 to 55 ft in diame- 
ter, cylindrical, smooth, hyaline, compacted; head sub-globose, 
pale glaucescent, armed loosely with projecting spicules, 3601042°/* 
in diameter; spore-bearing hypha; repeatedly branched, sub-flexuose, 4 



i8go.] Botany. 779 

pt in diameter, bearing the conidia occogenously. Conidia ellipsoid to 
elliptico-spheroid, 4 — 5 = 2 — 2 • _, >i. Spicules with cell-walls some- 
what thickened, often septate prolonged, sometimes 100 ft beyond the 
surface of the globose capitulum. 

Hab. On putrid orange-skin among bacteria, Minneapolis, Minn. 

It should be noted in passing that the specimens of Acting 
observed by us were sometimes grown over by a cobwebby network of 
Diplosporium filaments, which bore occasional spores, but were col- 
lected more abundantly on the wet papa in the bottom of the moist 
chamber, where they formed a luxuriant growth. The I hplospormm 
was referred doubtfully to D. album lion., from which it ditiers slightly 
in the spore measurements. 

The Actinoceps above described is dedicated to Dr. Charles K. 
Bessey, the well-known botanist.— Conway Ma* Mm an. Umvasity 
of Minnesota. 

Notes on the Canyon Flora of Northwest Nebraska.— Our 
party left Lincoln June 17th, and arrived at the Pine Ridge Tunnel 
early on the morning of the 18th. In the walk from there to Craw- 
ford about the only thing of interest found was a very large form of 
Viola canadense L. with a very small flower. In many places this was 
almost entirely killed by sEcidium viola. In many cases the plant 
leaves and stems were twisted all out of shape by the fungus. 

From Crawford to Harrison brought nothing of interest. Leaving 
Harrison we pitched our tent in War Bonnet Canon. Here new things 
and new variations were continually turning up. One peculiarity of 
the canon flora quite noticeable was the difference— in mam cases very 
pronounced— between the floras of the different side canons. Many 
plants were found in one canon and in that one only, though there 
were many canons very similar to it. In one canon Pyrola chlorar.tha 
Schwarz was found in a considerable quantity, but in one only. In 
another Pyrola secunda L. grew. Some canons have any quantity of 
Populus tremuloides Michx., others scarcely any. 

In nearly all of the canons, especially the damper, darker ones, 
Corallorhiza multitlora Nutt. grew quite plentifully; while only the 
darkest canons afforded the rare C innata R. Br. In a small canon 
at the head of j'im creek was found a lavender-yellow variety of the 
former species. Habenaria bracteata R. Br. grew in abundance along 
the low banks of all the canon streams. The dry cliffs and slopes of 
the canons were covered with the lovely Calochortus nuttallii Torr. and 
Gray. Fritillaria atropurjmrea Nutt. occurred plentifully in a few 



780 The American Naturalist. [August, 

localities, but was generally out of bloom. Mertensia lanceolata D.C. 
was found growing among the short underbrush of the second banks 
in War Bonnet Canyon. 

The weather was too dry for lichens and most of the fungi. Of the 
former, several interesting Cladonise were found together with two or 
three species of Peltigera. On the north slopes of the dampest canons 
Parmelia olivacea (L.) Ach., and a sterile form of Usnea barbata (L.) 
Fr., grew very plentifully on the pines everywhere. 

Various species of ^Ecidium and Uromyces occurred generally in 
large quantities ; the most plentiful being sEcidium abundans Pk., j<Ecid. 
clematidis D.C, sEcid. grossularia Schum., Uromyces trifoliif. glycyrr- 
hizcz E. & E., and also Gymnosporatigium clavariforme (Jacq.) Rees., 
L, was found quite plentiful in a small side canon of the War Bonnet, 
on Amelanchier canadensis. Along the higher lands and buttes above 
the canons Ustilago carices (Pers.) Fuck, was found in large quantities. 
Out on the Hat Creek Basin Ustilago hyphodytes (Schlect) Fr., which 
is considered a rare species, occurred in considerable quantities on 
Stipa comata. Several interesting rock forms of lichens were found on 
the rocks cropping out near the edge of the "bad lands ; " the most 
plentiful as well as the most beautiful being Lecanora rubina (Vill.) Ach. 
and L. rubinavax. opaca. Ach., Fr. and Placodium Sp. f neari 3 . elegans 
(Linta) D.C. Many rocks being literally covered by these with a few 
others.— Tom A. Williams, Ashland High School, Nebraska. 

Botanical News.— Professor McLaren, of the Maryland Agri- 
cultural College, has had his copies of Gray's Manual bound in oil 
cloth, a decided improvement over the soft and rather bibulous cloth 
cover usually given the book by the publishers. Now if the margins 
could be trimmed down it would improve it still more. . . . The 
fourth number of the memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club is devoted 
to a paper by Dr. E. Lewis Sturtevant on " Seedless Fruits." Sixty- 
one species are mentioned in the paper. The general result appears 
to be that a tendency to seedlessness is an accompaniment of high 
development . . . H. S. Jennings published an annotated list of 
ninety-five parasitic fungi of Texas, in the ninth bulletin of the Texas 
Agricultural Experiment Station. . . . G. N. Best has examined 
(Torrey Bulletin for June, 1890) some of the North American roses— 
those belonging to the group Cinnamomeae, — and among other changes 
reduces Rosa arkansana Porter, to a variety of Rosa blanda Ait., as 
R. blanda Ait., var. arkansana (Port.) Best. This reduction, it will be 
remembered, was suggested by Watson five years ago in Proc. Am. 



of Harvard U nii 






ZOOLOGY. 
Snakes in High Places! — A discussion occurred some tin 
ago in The Naturalist upon the question, " Do Snakes Climb '1 ree> ? 
to which I contributed one or two items. But jr" " 
friend, Hiram Carpenter, who lives three miles ou 
me to call at his place and see where he found a snake four feet and 
three inches in length and one and a half inches in diameter. The 
swallows nest under the eaves of his barn, which project some twenty 
inches from the building. The rafters do not run out more than one- 
half or two-thirds of this distance, the space between them being quite 
thickly studded with the mud-nests of the swallows. One pleasant day 
in June his son noticed quite a commotion among the birds, and called 
him to the spot They were amazed to see a large snake clinging to 
the end of a rafter, with its head in one of the nests, evidently devour- 
ing the young birds. The reptile was able to cling to the end of the 
rafter by hugging it tightly, and was only dislodged after some enort. 



782 The American Naturalist. [August, 

It had swallowed two young birds, and another was part way down its 
throat. The young man had not " believed in killing snakes," but on 
this occasion he despatched the reptile forthwith. The barn is sheeted 
up with rough pine boards, upon which there are two coats of paint, 
and from the ground to the point whence the snake was dislodged the 
distance is nineteen feet and four inches. How it managed to get to 
the spot seems altogether a mystery. There was no hole through the 
side of the barn nor under the roof boards, nor did it seem possible 
for it to have worked its way from the top of the roof. Then, it was 
quite as difficult for it to have found a way to the roof. Mr. Car- 
penter is a most reliable observer of all natural phenomena, — an in- 
vestigator, really, — but he was unable to form any opinion as to how 
the reptile reached its prey. He described it as resembling the com- 
mon garter-snake, except in the matter of its great size, hence I could 
form no idea as to the species to which it belonged.— Charles 'Al- 
drich, Webster City, Icnva, July, 14, iSpo. 

Snakes in Banana Bunches.— Banana bunches brought from 
tropical America sometimes contain snakes of the family Boidae, tightly 
wound round the central stem. A specimen of this kind was taken 
in Savanna, Georgia, and was sent to the United States National 
Museum. I identified it as the Epicrates augulifer, a native of Cuba. 
More recently a snake was found in a similar situation in a lot ot 
bananas in Chicago, and was sent by Dr. J. L. Hancock to the Na- 
tional Museum. Dr. Stejneger has identified it as the Boa imperator, 
the common species of Central America and Mexico. The specimens 
are always young, as adult boas of the genera named could not be con- 
cealed in so small a space. — E. D. Cope. 



ENTOMOLOGY. 

Recent Literature.— Several notable entomological articles have 
been recently issued by the National Museum. Mr. Henry Edward's 
Bibliographical Catalogue of the Described Transformations of North 
American Lepidoptera, which form. Bulletin No 35. » s ' l vcr > useful 
compilation, and ought to stimulate the study of the earlier stages o 
the group. There are 1,069 species included in the Catalogues, the 
Tineidje heading the list with 222 entries, and Xygamidae bringing up 



890] Entomology. 

Another valuable paper is the Catalogue of the 
»f North America, by George Marx, which forn 

Juseum Proceedings, and covers about one hut 



er Museum Proceedings 

r of New Acrid i die, in el 
enera, Dracotettix. Erin 



Professor Alfred Giard has publisncd 111 the bulletin S< it-n t ifn iu>- de 

Quelques Types Remarkables de < 

ptusuz, and Potyrhitmm kptophycl infesting \\ 
company the paper. 

The report of the U. S. Entomologist for 1889 contains accounts of 
the Fluted Scale (Icaya purrhasi ). Six-spotted Orange Mite ( Tctranx- 
cluts 6-ma > r/;/s). Hm 1 \ //-'/, • scrrata), and the Grain 
Aphis (Siphonophora arena-). A brief synopsis of the work of the 
division and its agents is given. 

Mr. Lawrence Bruner has published in the Bulletin of the Nebraska 
Experiment Station (Vol. IIP, Article II.) an extended paper on 
Insects Injurious to Young Trees on Tree Claims, which will prove 
useful to western planters. 

A New Phalangium. — In a lot of harvest-spiders received from 
Mr. C. W. Woodworth, Entomologist of the Arkansas Experiment 
Station, I found a number of specimens of a remarkable species of 
Phalangium, in which the sexes are very different, the male having 
extremely long palpi, and the second joint of its cheliceras being 
articulated with the first at the middle, so as to form a right angle, 
while in the female the palpi are but little longer than usual, and the 
second joint of the chelicera? is articulated with the first at the end in 
the ordinary manner. The species may be called Phalangium longi- 
palpis. This case is exactly analogous to that of Phalangium opilio of 
Europe, in which the two sexes are similarly distinguished. 

Description.— Male.— Body 7 mm. long ; 3.5 mm. wide. Palpi 20 
mm. long. Legs: I. 30 mm. ; II. 47 mm. ; III. 30 mm. ; IV. 38 mm. 

Dorsum light mottled gray, with a darker central marking beginning 
expanding rapidly to margin of abdomen. 



784 The American Naturalist. [August, 

then suddenly contracting and again expanding on the first two 
abdominal segments ; suddenly contracting on the third and running 
as a broad stripe to posterior extremity. Scattered over the dorsum 
of the cephalothorax are numerous tubercles, having whitish bases 
and black tips, and generally having also a black spinose hair arising 
on one side of the tubercle near the apex of the white portion, and 
extending beyond the tip of the tubercle ; a transverse row of similar 
tubercles on each abdominal segment. Dorsum of abdomen covered 
with numerous small black granules. Eye eminence gray, well devel- 
oped, canaliculate, each carina surmounted by a well-marked series 
of tubercles, whitish with black tips. Chelicerje large, light brown, 
with tips of claws black ; first joint long, cylindrical, convex, fur- 
nished above with black spinose tubercles; second joint very large, 
smooth, except for some black spinose hairs, articulated at a right 
angle with the first, prolonged above in the form of a large conical 
horn, curved forward. Palpi slender, very long (three times as long 
as body), smooth, except for rows of stiff black hairs; light brown, 
except middle portion of femur, which is black. Ventrum, including 
coxa;, grayish white, with numerous black hairs. Trochanters light 
brown, almost whitish, with a few tubercles. Rest of legs brown, 



rker ; proxin 



tubercles 



Female.— Body 7.5 mm. long; 4.5 mm. wide. Palpi 6.5 mm. long. 
Legs: I. 21 mm.; II. 36 mm. ; III. 23 mm.; IV. 32 mm. 

Dorsum light mottled gray, with a rather distinct darker central 
marking beginning at anterior border of abdomen, and expanding 
rapidly on the first two segments ; suddenly contracting on the third 
segment and running as a stripe to the posterior extremity. Scat- 
tered over the dorsum of the cephalothorax are numerous tubercles, 
having whitish bases and black tips, and generally having also a black 
spinose hair arising on one side of the tubercle near the apex of the 
white portion, and extending beyond the tip of the tubercle. A trans- 
verse row of similar tubercles on each abdominal segment. Dorsum 
of abdomen having numerous small black granules. Eye eminence 
well developed, gray, canaliculate, each carina surmounted by a well- 
marked series of tubercles like those on the dorsum. Chelicers hght 
< law, black ; 
Palpi rather 



brow 


n, dorsal 


proxin 






f first joint 1 


brow 


n ; tips ol 


Maws 


and a b 




ibercle at bas 


both 


joints fun 


lished 


with set 


ittcred 


black, spine 


long (but very 


much 


shorter t 


han ir 


1 male), slenc 


almo 


st Whitish 


, with 


middle 


of fen 


mr black ; a 


writb 


well-deve 


loped 


spinose 


hairs, 


those on t 



PLATE XXVII. 





• 



slender than others ; claw of tarsus r 
ncluding coxae, grayish < 



: denticulate, moderately robust. 



. with 



Trochanters very light brown, almost whitish. Legs 
femora provided with rows of spinose tubercles; tibia 
rows of fine hairs on angles. 

Described from many specimens. 

In the accompanying Plate, Fig. i represents the male, natural size, 
while at Fig. 2 are shown the parts magnified, The letters a, b, d, e, 
and z show respectively a dorsal view of the body, and a side view of 
the eye eminence, the palpus, the palpal claw, and the chelicera of the 
male ; while in Fig 3, d andg represent similar views of the palpus and 
chelicera of the female. — Clarence M. Weed. 

Injuries of Buffalo Tree-Hopper.— This insect (Ceresa buba- 
lus) has become a serious pest in many parts of Ohio. It is only com- 
paratively lately that it has attracted special attention as a destructive 
insect, Professor Popenoe having described its work in Kansas about 
five years ago. During the last winter I have received twigs injured 
by the egg-punctures of the insect from three counties of the state, and 
in each of the orchards much damage had been done. Apples and 

.81 <*' 



Buffalo Tree-Hopper.— a, back view; *, side view, both slightly magnified ; c, 
■!;■.> wing egg-punctures. 

pears are both attacked. The insect is represented, slightly magnified, 
at a and b of the accompanying figure, while at c is shown a twig par- 
tially covered with the egg punctures of the insect.— C. M. W. 



-Th- 



The Maple Bark-Louse, 
bilis), which was so destructive in the central 
years ago, is again appearing above the danger 



(^ 



the trees in great numbers, and 



The American Naturalist. 



SCIENTIFIC NEWt 



An important scientific expedition left Minneapolis on the 2 2d of 
July. Messrs. D. C. Worcester and F. S. Bournes, lately pupils of 
Professor J. B. Steere, of the University of Michigan, having secured 
the financial assistance of Mr. L. F. Menage, of Minneapolis, and the 
endorsement of the Minnesota Academy of Sciences, purpose spend- 
ing two years or more in the Philippine Islands, where they will 
devote their time principally to the collection of corals and birds. It 
is their intention, however, to make frequent detours into the depart- 
ments of zoology, and they have also determined to collect what fungi 
they can, paying particular) attention to the Sphserioideae and Gastro- 
mycetes. Through the large liberality of Mr. L. F. Menage, the 
expedition has been fitted out regardless of expense, and will go pre- 
pared to prosecute investigations under the most favorable conditions. 
The great mass of material secured will be studied at the Academy of 
Sciences in Minneapolis, to which city Messrs. Worcester and Bournes 
propose to return in 1892 or 1893. 

Very important results may be looked for from this expedition. It 
is not designed merely as a collecting trip ; for careful study of the 
problems of distribution is projected, and doubtless some difficult 
points will be settled. Both of the investigators are well known and 
representative western scientific men, and much is hoped for from their 
work in these little-known islands. 

Mr. H. C. Bumpus, formerly Professor of Natural History at Olivet 
College, Michigan, has been elected associate Professor of Zoology at 
Brown University, Providence, R. I. 

Mr. Ralph S. Tarr has severed his connection with the Geological 
Survey of Texas. 

Dr. Henry Orr, Professor of Natural History in the University of 
Kentucky, has been appointed Professor of Biology in Tulane Univer- 
sity, New Orleans, La. 

Dr. Langdon Frothingham, of Harvard Veterinary School, has been 
appointed Instructor in Biology and Agriculture in the University of 
Nebraska, at Lincoln. 

Dr. T. H. Morgan has been appointed Bruce Fellow at the Johns 
Hopkins University. 

Drs. E. B. Jordan, S. Watase, and C. H. Eigenmann will hold fel- 
lowships in Morphology at Clarke University during the coming year. 

Mr. H. S. Brode has been appointed Instructor in Zoology in the 
University of Illinois, at Champaign, 111. 



THE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST 



MEANS OF PRESERVING THE PURITY AND ES- 
TABLISHING A CAREER FOR THE AMERI- 
CAN BISON OF THE FUTURE. 



'J" HE American bison is, as it nearly always has been, and ever 
will be, possibly the most interesting and attractive of all 
mammals. The lamentable, outrageous war of extermination to 
which he has been subjected is certainly one atrocious specimen 
of man's most wanton foolishness, for which he ought to blush. 
Doubtless that extermination is at last regarded with the keenest 
feelings of remorse ; which, though now of so little avail, yet fill 
those who have latterly championed his cause with fond desires 
for the recuperation of what is apparently almost a vanishing 
race. The American bison is, in his royalty, gone,—" passed 
over" into history. The hardly even smoldering embers that 
remain, — can they be nursed, fanned into a greater brilliance that 
might give one the hope of their being revivified into a more 
life-like, enduring flame ? 

From numbers that would have put into total insignificance the 
combined forces of all the various bovine species (and races), for 
instance, there now remain— how many ? The very best that Mr. 
W. T. H ornaday can figure, they can only be marshalled at a total of 
one thousand and ninety-one in the entire world. This number 



788 The American Naturalist. [September, 

is less, positively, than that claimed by even some of our most 
improved domestic bovine races. The enumeration takes into 
account, of course, all individual and scattered specimens in dif- 
ferent foreign Zoological Gardens, which are uninfluential on the 
main body on which depends the fate — so doubtful now — of the 
species. This main body, this specific entity, this restricted, 
smothered force, on which the future fate of recuperation depends, 
— that is, taking into account those only which we know of that 
can, or could, be utilized for ordinary breeding purposes, — the 
most that we could liberally estimate such a force at would 
not be far from about two hundred and fifty. Two-and-a-half 
hundred : can we do anything for you to redeem the obloquy of 
the past? Is it possible to preserve that trivial remnant? It 
would seem presumption to make any assertion to that effect 
in the face of the transforming rapidity of the extermination 
from the many countless hordes to the few insignificant herds. 
Those most interested in the fate of this remnant have, I 
fear, dire misgivings as to the result. For an animal that 
was so long so absolutely monarch of his prairie domain, — till the 
relentless and vicious paleface and the no less destructively 
inclined redman, finding him generally such an easy prey to their 
various refined and rude means of murder, made so much more 
resistless by an animal that had not yet learned the fear of, or to 
beware of, man's ruse or craft, reduced him to his present state 
of insignificance, — for such an animal to be expected to re-create 
itself into some more enduring adjunct of his old enemy's wants, 
would seem unnatural. The products that were the incitement to 
this awful slaughter had to be piled almost horizon-high, and 
then it was not enough to subdue the insatiable, inconsiderate 
greed of the so-called honorable hunter who followed such a 
legitimate calling. The lucre-returning "product" was only a 
trifling portion of the whole. The waste was outrageous, stu- 
pendous in its extravagance. Hence the Assyrian-like destruc- 
tion. For an animal that had reared itself through centuries' 
implantation of nature's own freedom, instinct, unrestraint, and 
environment, to be dragged through such abject degradation, and 
be asked to survive, would seem an insult to this lagger behind, 



1890.] The American Bison of the Future. 789 

"superfluous on the stage," left all alone. It would be a modern 
incongruity, not an instance. 

From the generally apparent characteristics and qualities of the 
species, the sympathizer would entertain— regretfully entertain— 
a decided negative. Yet often when there is least expectation 
hope revives. 

The buffalo has had, even during all that destruction-dealing 
process, before his death throes, observers who have, incidentally 
it would appear, recorded a certain number of facts about their, 
too noble prey, which are now positively encouraging to us. 
For instance, for an animal regarded to be an embodiment of mam- 
malian ferocity, it would appear incredible that such an animal 
should have any inherent traits of gentility or docility. But such 
is, indeed, the fact. In his experiences with his bitter foe, as fore- 
stated, ere the latter days of his regal existence, — before the 
knowledge of that foe's contiguity engendered an idea of a 
danger to flee from, which became an instinct and thence an 
hereditary transmission, — he was indifferent, even disdainful, of 
the feeling of his comrades at his side ; proud, confident in the 
midst of the great horde that, unaffected still, stood its ground. 
During that period there are numerous records of calves which, in 
the hunt or onslaught, having been left behind or become sepa- 
rated from the main body, and particularly from their own dams, 
were very easily, by simple means, attached to the destroyer of 
his maternal and paternal mainstay, and " blindly " following at 
the heels of the man-horse murderer, with all the same signs of 
affection they would show to their own dams. That trait was, 
surely, a strong one, indicating a strong nature or disposition, 
shaped and controlled in the most pronounced manner by envir- 
onment ; just as sure in captivity to be influenced by the subdu- 
ing, gentling power of man when exerted on an immediate object 
and with certain kind solicitude, which was fully reciprocated in 
that object, as in nature to be influenced by the overcoming 
fierce, instincts of free environment, when that was provocative 
of suspicion and antagonism to their worst, latterly forced-on-them. 
natural enemy. Such calf-disposition was a strange concomi- 
tant; and for us it is a starting-point in that which makes us hope. 



jgo The American Naturalist. [September, 

Indeed, when we come to investigate further, we find that even 
from the earliest times the great and ferocious American buffalo 
had been subdued, domesticated in fact, and even crossed with the 
farm bovine. This buffalo blood doubtless runs in the veins of 
a proportion of the common bovines of to-day as another " alloy," 
showing how easily his type could be absorbed. 

When we press this point to its utmost we find that the buffalo 
is fully amenable, to the domesticating process ; and further that 
he demeans and conducts himself similarly and as truly as his 
more sedate and cooler-blooded bovine cousins. What is suitable 
to the one is suitable to the other. 1 

Leaving that most important point of domesticability, it might 
yet be objected that we would have no use for the species. Well, 
we assert that the buffalo, considering the conditions under which 
he has been reared — as seen and delineated by Catlin — on his 
native heath, 2 is far and away ahead of the common bovine as a 
beef animal, naturally fed. Compare this animal in his natural 
bisontine condition with the fieshless results among the bovines 
under the same conditions, in spring or at any period, on the 
former's prairie or the latter's ranche or range, and our assertion 
is at once borne out. This, remember, on "grass alone." Here, 
then, we have in the buffalo an animal exactly evolved out of his 
environment to fill the true American beef-producing animal's 
place, without any recourse to the tricks of shelter or winter 
fodder, as conceived by man for the benefit of a more cosmo- 
politan constructed bovine. We have gone far enough on these 
two lines to bring us to the great conclusions as to the buffalo 
necessary for our plea, viz : 

1. His amenability to domesticity being perfect. 

2. His economic value being incomparable. 

nd Future," in the 
rts and Pastimes. Vinton & Co., Lon- 

on " The Extermination of the American 



II. 

Having come to this most important conclusion, that in the 
American buffalo we have an animal superbly endowed by nature, 
not by artifice, to fill the bovine requirements of this country, 
made ready to hand, but his thorough adaptability unperceived 
or selfishly overlooked, we have now to consider the possibility 
of realizing our dream : i.e., establishing his destiny as an animal 
of such utility as is proved he possesses. We can resign the old 
romance, but we can not risk the reality in so far as that can be 
preserved and enhanced. The buffalo, as he has been known, 
will be known no more. Established in the place his destinators 
would prepare for him, he will be aa entirely different-natured — 
and even nurtured — being from that from which he was forcibly 
exiled; and, fulfilling the mission proposed for him, he will become 
greatly modified from the noble monarch of old. This is inevi- 
table and consequent. We see the effect of the same treatment 
on the bovine species, which was also a wild species subdued at a 
comparatively recent period. Even the wild white cattle of 
Britain, kept in the parks from the earliest times, the most direct 
descendants of Bos urus {primigaiiiis), are greatly modified from 
their ancestors by the restricted area and nature of their confine- 
ment. So it is with the truest representative of the buffalo in 
Europe, the Aurochs [Bison prisons) of the Lithuanian forests. 
But for all these instances we believe that in the buffalo of the 
future we shall, as the result of our judicious interference, our 
subduction and care, the resultant of his removal from his natural 
environment, see arise a new race thoroughly capable of enacting 
an undreamt-of career, and that with happier results than might 
formerly have been possible ; for that former career of his was 
apparently doomed and destined to be sooner or later played out 
on the plains that witnessed his early glory. 

We have now to consider the species as it is, for our purpose; 
its numbers and how composed. The following list gives the 
location of the different herds and numbers they contain, fit for 
breeding purposes, in the United States. The location simply is 



7'J2 



The American Naturalist. 



given ; further full particulars m 
port .referred to in the note : 
Location of Herd. 
Garden City, Kan., 
Flathead Indian Reserva 
Clarendon, Texas, . 
Bismark Grove, Kan., 
Fort Bennet, Dak., 
Rapid City, Dak., . 
Wood Lawn, Neb., . 
Hamline, Minn., 
Glen Island, N. Y., . 
Other places, . 
Wild West Show, . 
Public Park, Philadelphi 



' be found in the elaborate 



Civ'- 



^>. 



Cincinnati, 
New York, 
Washington 



For comparison we give the following figures to show the 
distribution of the entire number known : 

Total captive, fit for breeding purposes in 

America, 2 54 

Wild, under Government protection in Yel- 
lowstone Park, .... 20 ° 
Running wild unprotected : 

In United States, . . 85 

In Athabasca, . . ' . 550 . 635 

Total, 1096 3 

It will thus be seen that the number of those fit for breeding 
is only a fourth of the entire number. This number might 

3 See pp. 458, 525, of Mr. Hornaday's Report already noted. 



.i89o.] The American Bison of the Future. 793 

possibly be added to in the future by new captures from the wild 
herds. Now, what do we propose to do with these remnants 
co preserve them from the surest forms of destruction that seem- 
ingly await them, if not carefully avoided: (a) in breeding, and (/;) 
out-crossing? For there is just now as much danger from the 
latter as from the former. 

We are not in the position of the " early improvers " of the 
bovine race; that is, of those who took it in hand within the last 
hundred years to rescue from a conglomerate promiscuity the 
various types of bovine excellence. By them in-breeding was 
necessary, essential, primarily, to establish the type. Their 
period of out-crossing had been going on during the centuries 
previous to the commencement of the improving period But we 
have no type to establish ; in fact, hardly any characteristics to 
improve; we have only to use those means of amelioration which 
captivity, that is, domesticity, brings. Therefore we, and it is 
fortunate for us, do not need to resort to the usual initial essential 
of in-breeding. But that is, nevertheless, the chief thing ; in fact, 
with the limited alliances at our disposal, the main thing to avoid. 
And it is as to a means to avoid that, that the vital purpose of 
this paper is designed to deal. 

The danger of out-crossing is the establishment of a mixed or 
bastard race of bisontine-bovines. The danger is real, but the 
means of avoiding the first danger — in-breeding — covers this. 

With the alliances existing, what can be done to increase them, 
and not to circumscribe their area, not to bring their points of 
convergence too close? We have to widen these points as much 
as possible. Within the limits of the existing relationships— 
which are in reality just now sufficiently distant, that is, in so far 
as tracing to their common ancestors is concerned — we have to 
out-cross as much as possible. This would appear to be an easy 
matter to do, by the simple interchange of blood from one herd to 
another. But that, under existing conditions of ownership, and 
want of cohesion of breeders as a whole, would likely soon prove 
abortive. We have to look for some means of effecting cohesion 
and a unity of purpose and interest among owners and breeders. 



794 1%* American Naturalist. [September, 

Let us avail ourselves of the experience, now so well method- 
ized, of our forebears, the pioneers of improvement among the 
gentler bovine races. Their rescue from common obliteration 
was the Herd Book, and, in Great Britain at least, every distinct 
breed has now its register. The latest established ones have, 
practically, been the means of rescuing from obliteration certain 
valuable races. We learn an important lesson from this. 

But we imagine we hear a whisper : But we have so few to 
register. Patience ! In collecting material for forming the founda- 
tion of such an undertaking, the number of the individuals com- 
posing such foundation, even in the largest bovine breeds, 
numerically fell short, we imagine, of the number of individuals 
we buffalo men possess. Besides, our individuals are absolutely 
pure, and all up to the highest standard. It was not so with the 
bovine races. We have therefore the advantage of our cousins. 
Our subject is, if such a register were initiated to-day, at a point 
that it took at least a quarter of a century for the bovine improvers 
to accomplish. Of course it must be admitted that the bovines 
did not, could not, start with the certainty of absolute purity, 
because of the mixing between races previous to the initiating of 
these registers. In that our bovines had an advantage over us, 
as it relieved them considerably of the greatest and immediate 
danger of in-breeding, which they were able thence to resort to, 
but which we have to avoid. Is such a register possible for the 
the buffalo? I think so. Let us see. 

We start, we believe, with a larger " foundation stock," and ab- 
solute purity — no sub-standards — as compared with the bovines : 
the two desirable essentials. We should therefore obtain a com- 
plete record of all the male and female buffaloes fit for breeding. 
We should have their relationship to each other noted, traced, 
and arranged in systematic manner. 

Whom would we look to to undertake this? We have the 
National Zoological Park, recently established at Washington 
from the very interest manifested in the " passing of the buffalo, " 
for the purpose of providing a receptacle for the remains of 
this noble representative of American fauna, and resuscitating it 
from total or immediate obliteration. As therefore such was the 



i89o.] The American Bison of the Future. 795 

origin of this National Park, we would put the matter under the 
superintendence of its accomplished Director, Mr. W. T. Horna- 
day, to whom our mutual friend, the buffalo (what remains of 
him) owes so much, to organize such a register for the regen- 
eration of the bison, with such help as the Government could 
supply that would be necessary. 

Such a register should have entered therein, in systematic 
manner, and with such full details as could be obtained, the his- 
tory of each remaining herd and each male and female individ- 
ually composing it. An inspector of the herds might be advantage- 
ously appointed to collect such matter on the spot. The initial 
entries at least should be free of charge ; and such points as the 
following might be recorded : 

1. Location of herd. 

2. As near as possible, age, place of birth, or capture, of the 
original members of the herd. 

3. Affidavit of purity. 

4. For each younger member of the herd, sire and dam 
grandsire and granddam, if necessary. 

5. Description, according to a schedule of details, with pho- 
tographs if possible. 

6. Nomenclature to be governed by the proverb that " brevity 
is the soul of wit," that is, each individual entry to be named ; the 
name to be short and of one word. Indian names would be most 
appropriate, or such short names as have a direct connection with 
the subject. 

7. Pedigree to rank through the side of the dam, which es- 
tablishes the best means of afterwards tracing each succeeding 
entry, especially of sires. 

8. As an appendix, a bibliography of the subject would be 
useful. 

Such a register would make a handsome and highly interest- 
ing volume. Distributed among the breeders, they, sending in 
constant, periodical reports, would become generally and specially 
bound together in one great united experiment. From this inter- 
course and correspondence of the whole, judicious interchanges 
could b.e continuously made from time to time, and the process 



796 The American Naturalist. [September 

and results of breeding constantly watched and guarded. Breeders, 
being bound by a common interest, would have the best means at 
their disposal of avoiding the fatal extermination of their herds, 
from an insufficient knowledge — without this source of intelligence 
— by too dangerous in-breeding. The register would supply them 
with the means of avoidance, the power of tracing to divergence 
the relationships of the sires and dams of stock for which they 
might desire to interchange. Thus divergent lines of relationships 
would be established, instead of their breeding to a convergent 
point, so that a broadening foundation would be obtained. Then 
the American buffalo would take rank as the true, because indi- 
genous, beef ruminant, and have its place alongside the proudest 
breed of bovines in existence. 

Thus the two fatal possibilities of (1) crossing-out, and (2) 
breeding-in, which must ever menace the uncertain existence of 
the buffalo, without such a method of prevention, would be entirely 
avoided. No better method than the one herein advocated can 
we conceive for the purpose designed than the register. The 
number of separate herds that such a register would develop 
would be vitality itself to " the breed." I think I hear this entire 
proposal scouted at as bold and chimerical. But this there can 
be little doubt is about the only chance left for rehabilitating the 
species as a whole. Breeding would then become a fine art; and 
it would put the undertaking on a lasting financial and commer- 
cial basis. 



ORIGIN OF THE PLANE-TREES. 



"THE fourth number of Volume XI. of Engler's Jlotamschc 
1 Jahrbuchcr contains an elaborate article by Johann Jank6, 
entitled " Abstammung dcr Platanen." The writer treats the 
subject in the characteristic German fashion, approaching it in an 
exhaustive manner from every possible point of view ; and his 
contribution throws much light upon this interesting type of 
plant life. He had thoroughly prepared himself by careful 
observations continued during a number of years, and by col- 
lections, made at different and critical seasons of the year, from all 
the species of Platanus growing wild or in cultivation in Europe. 
He had also carefully studied the fossil forms, apparently only 
from the published figures, and evinces a wide acquaintance with 
these as well. He makes a searching revision of the species, 
both living and fossil, reducing the former to three, with numer- 
ous varieties, and the latter to eight. 

The object of the paper, as indicated by its title, is to derive 
the living species from the fossil ones, and to show the line of 
descent of the former. The title is, nevertheless, misleading, 
since it would imply that the author was seeking the origin of 
the genus itself. So far is he from this that he rules out of the 
genus all the archaic forms occurring in the earlier formations, 
including P. nobilis of Newberry, and gives no intimation as to 
whether he regards them as ancestors of Platanus. 
The following is his disposition of the fossil species : 
With P. aceroides (Gopp.) Heer, he unites : P. aceroides cunei- 
folia Gaudin, P. cuneifolia G5pp., P. ettingshauscni Mass., P. 
gracilis Ett, P. grandifolia Ung., P. aeynhauseniana Gopp., P. 
pannonica Ett., P. mgosa Gopp., P. stercuHafolia Ett., Acer 
ficifolium (Viv.) Brongn., A. hcerii Mass.. A. hcerii depcrditum 
Mass., A. heerii ficifolium Mass.. A. hcerii production Mass., 
Acer hcerii tncushidatum Mass.. A. heerii tri '■■alum Mass.. A. 



79% The American Naturalist. [September, 

production Al. Braun., A. pseudocreticum Ett, A. tricuspidatum 
Al. Braun, A. tricuspidatum subintegerrimum Al. Braun., A. tri- 
lobatum (Sternb.) Al. Braun., A.triL datum gt \ dnum Engelh, A. 
trilobatum patens Al. Braun., A. trilobatum productum Al. Braun., 
A. trilobatum tricuspidatum Al. Braun., Acerites deperditum Mass., 
A. ficifolius Viv., A. incerta Mass., Cissus platanifolia Ett. 
Que reus platauoides Gopp, Q. rotunda Gopp. 

He regards Platanus academics Gaud., P. dissccta Lx., and P. 
appendiadata Lx. as varieties of P. accroides Gopp., the last two 
as identical. 

To P. gulielma? Gopp. he refers P. aceroides var. Heer, from 
Greenland. 

He recognizes P. marginata (Lx.) Heer, the Viburnum margin- 
atum of Lesquereux's earlier works, as a true Platanus. 

He considers P. heerii Lx. a variety of P. primceva Lx. 

He excludes from the genus Platanus the following : P. affinis 
Lx., P. digitata Ung., P. diminutiva Lx., P. dubia Lx., P. 
Hercules Ung., P. jatrophcefolia Ung, P. latiloba Newb., P. 
nobilis Newb., P. obtusiloba Lx, />. recurvata Lx, P. am Ung. 

A number of these have been, of course, long ago abandoned ; 
but of the American forms, P. diminutiva, P. nobilis, P. obtusiloba, 
and P. recurvata had not been hitherto challenged. 

He ignores the following species: P. antiqua Watelet, P. 
aspera Newberry, P. basilobata Ward, P. borealis Caspary, P. 
dubia Watelet, P. hcterophylla Newberry, P. klebsii Caspary, 
P. papilloni Watelet, P. subintegra Gopp. 

Watelet's species were so imperfectly figured and characterized 
that little could be said of them, and he was perhaps justified in 
passing them by unnoticed. Still less was he called upon to take 
account of those of Caspary and Newberry, and the last one on 
the above list, none of which have, to my knowledge, ever been 
figured. He was entirely unacquainted with the works of the 
present writer in which P. basilobata has been made known, viz, 
the " Synopsis of the Flora of the Laramie Group," " Types of 
the Laramie Flora," and " Paleontological History of the Genus 
Platanus." The last-named paper was sent to him as soon as his 
address could be found, and he has acknowledged it, and sent in 



1890.] Origin of the Plane-Trees. 799 

return a reprint of his paper, together with other works o( his. 
In his letter of acknowledgment he expresses a deep interest in 
the subject of basilar lobes, but does not say whether he accepts 
my interpretation of their significance. P. basilobata, as I have 
pointed out, is so closely related in other respects to P. nobilis y 
that but for this feature I should have included it in that species ; 
and Sir William Dawson, who had already figured it from the 
Canadian Laramie as P. nobilis, has, in his Geological History of 
Plants, proposed to call it P. nobilis \;u\ basilobata. Prof. Janko 
would therefore naturally have affixed to this species, as to P. 
nobilis, his sweeping verdict, " non est Platanus." 

But the question, as it seems to me, is not so much whether 
these aberrant forms really belong to the present genus Platanus, 
as strictly limited by the characters presented by the few surviving 
species of that ancient type, as whether they represent the ances- 
tors of these modern forms. The genus Platanus, like its close 
relative Liquidambar, like the monotypic Liriodendron, and like 
those holding-over forms of coniferous trees, the Sequoia and the 
Ginkgo, presents all the indications of being the last of a long 
lineage, and paleobotany, in this as in the other cases named, 
shows that it was once far more abundant than at present. So 
prominent a group must have had an ancestry, and the archaic 
forms found in the American Cretaceous deposits bear evidence 
of constituting that ancestry. 

One of the distinctive links in this chain of evidence proves to 
be the presence of basal lobes. Nearly effaced in the latest living 
type, P. orientalis, this feature, nevertheless, sometimes occurs 
there, and was actually found by the searching observation of 
Professor Janko, who, without the slightest suspicion of its sig- 
nificance, but true to his instincts of describing everything he 
found, described it in the following language : " Den Blattgrund 
betreffend, fand ich bei P. orientalis einen sehr interessanten Fall, 
dessen ganze Entwickelung ich beobachten konnte und welcher 
als Uebergangsform von der lappigen in die schildformige betrach- 
tet werden kann. Bei jenen Blattern namlich, wo der Ausgangs- 
punkt der drei oder fiinf Hauptnerven nicht an der Grenze von 
Stiel und Spreite ist, vergrossert sich nicht selten der letzte Zahn, 



800 'The American Naturalist. [September, 

mit welchem der Blattrand den Stiel beriihrt, und streckt sich 
mehr vor als die ubrigen Zahne des Blattgrundes. An den 
inneren Randern dieses Zahnes entsteht mit der weiteren Entwick- 
elung ein zweiter Zahn, und beide erscheinen schon als kleine 
selbstandige Lappen ; wenn nun deren Grosse so lange wachst, 
bis diese zwei kleinen Seitenlappchen an einem Punkte sich 
beriihren, so beginnt das Wachstum von diesem Punkte aus nach 
unten, und dieser Teil der Lamina ist nicht mehr an den Stiel 
gewachsen, sondern sondert sich von ihm ab. Dieses Lappchen 
ist manchmal ziemlich gross und kann im Allgemeinen als Resultat 
einer progressiven Entwickelung betrachtet werden." 

I have never found it in that species as introduced into our 
American parks, where care is taken to trim out the sprouts and low 
branches on which it would occur, if at all. Fig. I represents a 
typical leaf of that species. But in the American form P. occiden- 
tal in its wild state, especially on those abundantly nourished 
shoots of the season that spring from the base of stumps where 
the trees have been felled, I have for years observed it in all its 
phases, and studied its many curious transitions. These I have 
described, and have figured some of them in the papers men- 
tioned, to which I would respectfully refer the reader. 

In the original paper which I read before the Biological Society 
of Washington on February 20, 1886, I exhibited some forms 
that better illustrate the phenomenon than any that have been 
published. One of these I had figured, and sent the drawing, 
together with others and the paper itself, to one of the editors of, 
the American Naturalist, at his request, for publication in that 
journal ; but unfortunately it did not appear, owing to a change 
that took place in the publishers of the Naturalist just at that 
time, in the course of which my manuscript was mislaid and 
could not be found. It has recently come to light and been 
returned to me, and I am able to introduce here (Fig. 2) the 
figure in question. 

In view of the importance of the basilar expansions above men- 
tioned, and of the fact that Professor Janko excludes such forms 
as P. nobilis from the genus Platanus, I may perhaps be permitted, 
at the risk of some repetition of what has been said in my previous 



isgo.] Origin of the Planc-Trccs. Soi 

paper, to introduce here that part of my original paper relating 
to these forms, inasmuch as I there dwelt upon them considerably 
more at length. 

" Few as are the living representatives of this genus, it is now 
known that the type played an important role in later geologic 
time. More than twenty fossil species have been described, the 
greater part of which are from North American or Arctic strata. 
The American forms mostly occur in what is called the Laramie 
group, which all agree to place very near the boundary line 
between the Cretaceous and the Tertiary formations. The Euro- 
pean, Arctic, and many of our western forms agree well enough 
with living species to leave no room for doubt as to their generic 
affinities, but in the Laramie group there occur some aberrant 
forms which have led to serious difficulties. The most notable 
of these is the Platanus nobilis of Newberry, from the Fort Union 
deposits. Our knowledge of this species is as yet confined to 
what we have been able to derive from the study of a large num- 
ber of very fine leaf impressions. The leaves differ in some 
important respects from those of any living species of Platanus. 
They are usually very large, often measuring over a foot in 
length and width, and instead of having numerous short pointed 
lobes with broad sinuses, they have only three, or at most five, 
lobes, which are large and separated by acute sinuses, the mar- 
gins being entire, or only slightly undulate-toothed. These 
characters give them much the aspect of many species of Aralia, 
and they possess other points of resemblance to that genus. 
They also have the general form of the three-lobed leaves of sas- 
safras. Among the numerous specimens of this type collected 
by'me on the Lower Yellowstone, in 1883, there is great variety 
in size, coupled with marked uniformity of shape and nervation. 
The smaller specimens agree in all essential respects with the 
Aralia notata of Lesquereux (Tertiary Flora, p. 237, PI. XXX IX., 
Figs. 2-4), from Colorado and Wyoming, which he first called 
Platanus dnbia (Hayden's Annual Report, 1873, p. 406) [Fig. 1 
of my former paper (Proc. Nat. Mus., Vol. XL, 1888, PI. XVII.)]. 

" In immediate association with Platanus nobilis, and perhaps 
merely as a state of it, there occurred a form differing chiefly in 



8o2 The American Naturalist. [September, 

the possession of a very remarkable appendage at the base of the 
blade. This appendage seems to constitute a miniature reflex of 
the leaf itself, projected backward over the petiole as a lobate 
expansion. It is palmately nerved like the principal blade, the 
primary nerves entering the lobes. These sometimes differ in 
number from those of the leaf, amounting to six in two of my 
specimens. They also vary considerably in length and shape. 
[See Figs. 2-5 of the paper last cited.] 

"This basilar appendage is extremely interesting. It is not 
stipular, since it arises from the summit of a petiole of consid- 
erable length, six centimetres of it being preserved in one speci- 
men without showing the attachment. Neither is it bracteal, and 
there seems no way but to regard it as a veritable part of the 
main blade, to which it is joined by a broad neck of parenchy- 

" There is good reason to regard this character as an argument 
in favor of referring these leaves to Platanus rather than to Aralia 
or any other genus. The leaves of Platanus have a tendency to 
produce appendages of various kinds. A good illustration of 
this is seen in the interesting P. appcndiculata Lx., from the 
auriferous gravels of the Sierra Nevadas [Fig. 8 of that paper], 
where the generic affinities are not at all in doubt. But here the 
appendages appear to be stipular, though large and quite near 
to the base of the limb. In the sycamore of this country the 
stipules are prominent, and often lobed and nerved much like 
these appendages. They also often appear at the base of young 
branches bearing several leaves which are likewise provided with 
true stipules of the same form. In addition to this, however, 
there sometimes occurs a true basilar lobe or wing-like expansion 
on the leaf itself, which in the more marked examples very 
closely resembles those of the fossil impressions described. [Fig- 



of the present paper represents such a case, 



and also shows 



tipules as they are often produced.] Long before I had seen 

the fossil leaves I had remarked this tendency in P. occidental* 
to develop such basilar appendages, and I had collected and pre- 
served specimens of the leaves that bore them to illustrate t is 



isgo.j Origin of the Plane-Trees. 803 

" A careful study of these expansions leaves no doubt of their 
strict homology with those so much more prominently shown in 
the extinct form, and the conclusion is at least natural that they 
are the surviving vestiges of a once prevalent organ. 

"Assuming the fossil form to be distinct from P. nobilis, which 
is, however, by no means certain, I have ventured to name it 
from the peculiar character above described, and to call it P. 
basilobata." 

The close relationship of P. basilobata to P. nobilis renders it 
obvious that the two must stand or fall together as representatives 
or ancestors of the genus Platanus. Moreover, it would seem 
that if they are to be excluded the whole series of ancient types 
to which they belong, must be removed from the ancestral 
line of descent of the surviving forms. It appears, therefore, to 
be essential to the argument that the question whether they 
belong to this line be settled at the outset. We will, therefore, 
consider Professor Janko's objections to the platanoid nature of 
P. nobilis. These are, first, that " It has five thick primary nerves 
(in a geological period in which this character is wanting in all), 
and from these very many (16-18) strong secondaries proceed 
parallel to one another without ending in teeth, their ends, how- 
ever, reaching the margin of the blade ; moreover, these second- 
aries are well developed to the base of the primaries, which does 
not occur in the corresponding forms of Platanus." In the 
second place, "The leaf is five-lobed at the beginning of a geo- 
logical period in which this form does not occur in the planes ; 
moreover, the lobes are very well developed and large, the depth 
of the sinuses is of the third degree, although this depth does 
not appear until the end of the Miocene, and is not character- 
istic even in the Pliocene." Finally, he objects that " The margin 
of the leaf of P. nobilis is undulating and not toothed ; whereas, 
in the planes in which the nervation is developed as it is in that 
species, either teeth appear, or the margin is entire, in which lat- 
ter case the secondaries converge over one another." 

In reading these statements one naturally wonders from what 
source Professor Janko has derived his knowledge of this species. 
The chief objection seems to be that the leaves are five-lobed, 



804 The American Naturalist. [September, 

with three lateral primaries. This is not at all the case. The 
original figure of Dr. Newberry (Illustrations of Cretaceous and 
Tertiary Plants, PI. xvn.) shows at most only four lobes, and one 
of these is produced by an abnormally strengthened secondary 
arising out of one of the lateral primaries. In Dr. Newberry's 
description (Later Extinct Floras of North America, Ann. Lye. 
Nat. Hist., Vol. IX., p. 67) he says : " Leaves . . . three-lobed, 
or sub-five-lobed, . . . two basilar nerves of nearly equal length 
and strength," etc. ; and speaking of the secondaries arising from 
the lateral primaries : " The second or third one on each side is 
often much the strongest of the series, and is then prolonged into 
a small but distinct lateral, triangular, acute lobe, giving the leaf 
a somewhat pentagonal form." He figured only one of the 
leaves in his collection in which, as above stated, this strong 
secondary and supplementary lor)e occur only on one side. From 
his description it is inferred that although this sometimes may 
occur on both sides, it is more frequently wanting entirely, and 
the leaves are simply three-lobed. They never have more than 
three primary nerves. 

The large specimen figured by me (Types of the Laramie 
Flora, PI. xvi.) is of this latter form, and the greater number of 
my specimens, and of all those seen by me (amounting to hun- 
dreds), belong to this class. It is, therefore, safe to say that P. 
nobilis has essentially a palmately three-lobed leaf with two lat- 

So much for the general form. Next, with regard to the 
margins and the disposition of the secondaries. It is true that 
in Dr. Newberry's figure (the specimen I have not seen) the 
secondaries pass directly to the margin, and each one enters a 
very short, broad, and obtuse tooth, giving the margin an undu- 
late rather than a dentate character. But this undoubtedly vanes 
in different specimens, for he describes the secondaries as " termi- 
nating in the teeth of the margin." In my specimens there is 
the greatest diversity in the margins and in the behavior of the 
secondaries on approaching them. In the one figured in the 
"Types," these do not generally differ from Dr. Newberry's, 
although the secondaries are not all straight or parallel. But 



1890] Origin of the Planc-Trccs. 805 

have other specimens, which will be published in my " Monograph 
of the Flora of the Laramie Group," in which there are all the 
variations from a sharply toothed margin with the secondaries 
entering the teeth, to an entire margin with the ends of the 
secondaries curving and arching over one another (camptodrome). 
Moreover, these differences sometimes occur in different parts of 
the same leaf. In my P. basilobata, so far as now known, the 
nervation is always camptodrome, and the leaves strictly three- 
lobed. 

It may be well to point out in this place more specially than I 
have done hitherto that the characters last considered not only 
bear directly upon the ancient forms of the Cretaceous referred to 
Sassafras or Araliopsis, but also connect themselves with some 
of the living species, thus strengthening the argument that P. 
nobilis and P. basilobata form a sort of connecting link between 
these. Leaves of P. racemosa, for example, sometimes have very 
much the same form and general nervation of P. nobilis. Fig. 3 
represents such a leaf now in the National Herbarium, even 
showing the one strengthened secondary producing a lobe simi- 
lar to that of Dr. Newberry's figure. Otherwise it is true that 
the secondary nerves are different, but they are approached in 
some forms of P. basilobata. 

On the other hand, there is much variation in these respects 
among the Cretaceous forms referred by Lesquereux and New- 
berry to Sassafras. The margins of the lobes are generally entire, 
as in the leaf which I reproduced from the Cretaceous Flora (PI. 
xii., Fig. 2, of the former paper) ; but there are others, as, for 
example, that shown in Fig. 4 of the present paper, reproduced 
from PI. xi., Fig. 1, of the same work, in which several of the 
outer secondaries terminate in teeth precisely as they do in P. 
nobilis. 

It remains to consider Professor Janko's argument from the 
geological history and distribution of the fossil species. This is 
the weakest part of his paper, as the ancient forms are so largely 
American, and American geology is so little understood in 
Europe. So far as fossil plants are concerned, it is chiefly known 
to Europeans through the works of Lesquereux, who never pre- 



806 The American Naturalist. [September, 

tended to be a geologist, and was led by the resemblance in the 
fossil floras, without taking account of other kinds of evidence, 
to place most American plant-bearing deposits too high in the 
series. Why, for example, should Europeans continue to follow 
Lesquereux in calling the Laramie group Tertiary, when King, 
Hague, Emmons, Powell, Cope, Marsh, and almost everybody 
else, have always called it Cretaceous? Moreover, I have shown 
in my " Synopsis of the Flora of the Laramie Group," published 
in the Sixth Annual Report of the U. S. Geological Survey, that 
the evidence of the fossil plants does not necessarily conflict with 
the latter view, and that the idea that it does so conflict arises 
from two causes : First, lack of attention to the character of the 
Upper Cretaceous floras already known ; and secondly, the all em- 
bracing predominance of the Miocene flora of Europe, in which 
it is possible to find surviving types of the Cretaceous flora, and, 
indeed, almost anything that it is desired to find. 

Again, Professor Janko does not seem to be aware that most 
or all of the Tertiary plant-bearing deposits of the Arctic and 
sub-Arctic regions which Heer classed as Miocene are regarded as 
Eocene by those who are now chiefly devoted to their study. 
Heer's fallacy was also two-fold. Not only was he led astray by 
the abundance of the Miocene flora to which, as developed in 
Switzerland, he had devoted so much of his life, but he also 
failed to make sufficient allowance for the effect of high latitude 
in causing a flora to appear more recent than it is, as has been 
chiefly pointed out by Gardner. 

The geological distribution of the fossil species according to 
Janko, employing his own nomenclature with its exclusions, is as 
follows : 

Cretaceous. — P. prim&va, primava keerii, and newberryana. 

Eocene. — P. rhomboidea, raynoldsii, haydenii, and guliehna. 

Miocene and Pliocene. — P. aceroides, aceroides academe, 
aceroides dissecta, gidielmce, and marginata. 

He does not specify localities, and thus leaves the botanical 
reader to infer that all these statements are of equal geological 
weight, which is far from being the case. In fact, for reasons 
already given and rr\any others, a large part of the whole argu- 



isoo.] Origin of the Planc-Trccs. 807 

ment from geology is erroneous. Let us look closely for a 
moment at the real geological and geographical distribution of 
the fossil species of Platanus, especially the American species. 

P. primava Lx., is correctly referred to the Cretaceous, as it 
occurs only in the Dakota group of the United States. 

P. primava hccrii Janko (P. Jiccrii Lx.) is also primarily a Dakota 
group species, but occurs in the Mill Creek series of Canada and 
in the Atane beds of Greenland, both of which are considered 
equivalent to the Cenomanian of Europe, and therefore not 
greatly different in age from the Dakota group. But I found a 
form at Black Buttes in the typical Laramie which I referred to 
that species, admitting some differences. Professor Lesquereux, 
who was very tenacious of his views as to the Tertiary age of the 
Laramie, challenged, in a letter, my determination, and I am not 
quite certain that it is correct. It may be as near to another 
Cretaceous species, P. ncxuberryana, but it is not near to any 
Tertiary species. But P. hcerii is not confined to the Cretaceous 
and Laramie if Gardner is right in reporting it from the Island of 
Mull at Ardtun, the Eocene age of that celebrated deposit being 
well established. On this point, however, there are doubts, as he 
only provisionally identifies the Platanitcs of Forbes with that 
species. 

P. newberryana Heer, the other Cretaceous species, is, like the 
rest, a typical Dakota group form, and has not been found out- 
side the Cretaceous, nor, indeed, outside the Dakota group, except 
in the Patoot beds of Greenland, which, however, are consider- 
ably higher in the series, being referred by Heer to the Senonian. 

So much for the Cretaceous species. Next as to the alleged 
Eocene ones. 

P. rhomboidea Lx. is only known in two specimens from 
Golden, Colorado. An examination of the specimens themselves 
shows that they are from the so-called tufa beds of South Table 
Mountain, and therefore belong to the Denver formation of 
Emmons, which he places somewhat higher than the Laramie. 
It may therefore pass as Eocene. 

P. raynolddi Newberry was originally described from the Fort 
Union group on the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers, and I 



808 The American Naturalist. rseptember, 

found it in the Yellowstone Valley in 1883. The Canadian 
geologists report it from numerous points in what they call 
Laramie in the Northwest Territory, which I believe to be nearly 
or quite the same as the Fort Union group. As Dr. Newberry 
is not willing to admit the Laramie age of this group, and 
inclines to regard it as Tertiary, this may also pass as an 
Eocene species. It is not, however, strictly confined to the 
Eocene, for it has recently been found in a collection from 
the John Day River, Oregon, a Tertiary deposit that is gener- 
ally placed near the top of that system as Pliocene or extreme 
upper Miocene. On the other hand, the variety integrifolia Lx. 
is a Laramie form from Black Buttes and Golden, and is there- 
fore Cretaceous. 

P. haydenii Newberry has very much the same range as the 
last, chiefly Fort Union group and Canadian Laramie, but it has 
not been found higher, and has been reported from certain doubt- 
ful deposits, such as Carbon, Medicine Bow, and Washakie, in 
Wyoming. It also occurs at Golden, and is said to be found in 
the typical Laramie of the Raton Mountains. 

P. gulielma Gopp. is a well-known and widely distributed 
species of the European Miocene, also abundant in all the Arctic 
Tertiaries. Nathorst finds it in the Upper Tertiary of Japan, and 
it is by no means rare in the American deposits, being reported 
from Carbon, Washakie, Separation, Medicine Bow, Junction 
Station, etc., in Wyoming, perhaps Lower Tertiary ; from Golden, 
probably Denver formation ; and with less certainty from Black 
Buttes and the Raton Mountains, true Laramie. I collected it 
on the Lower Yellowstone, Fort Union group, and Lesquereux 
identified it in a collection from Mansfield, Louisiana (Mississippi 
Tertiary). It therefore appears to originate in the Upper Creta- 

Finally the Miocene and Pliocene species are . 

P. aceroides (Gopp.) Heer. This is the most abundant of all 
fossil planes, and, accepting Professor Janko's synonymy, is ex- 
tremely variable. It is doubtless the immediate ancestor of all 
the living species, but it is not an exclusively Miocene and Plio- 
cene species, as it occurs abundantly throughout the Arctic 



isgo.] Origin of the Plane-Trees. 809 

Tertiaries, and in the Fort Union group and other deposits in the 
United States that are below the Green River group, and have 
been sometimes regarded as Laramie. If Tertiary at all, they 
belong at the very base of that series. Specimens have even 
been collected in the Bozeman coal mines, which Dr. Peale, who 
has devoted many years to their study, regards as Cretaceous. 
In the form of Acer trilobatum, which Lesquereux did not con- 
sider a Platanus, it also occurs in the Green River group on 
Troublesome Creek, Colorado, generally regarded as Eocene. 
It, therefore, doubtless also had its origin in the Cretaceous of 
America. 

P. aceroides academics Janko {P. academics Gauditi) is only 
known from the Upper Miocene deposit of Montemasso, Italy, 
and has no importance. 

P. aceroides dissccta Janko, including P. dissccta Lx., and P. 
appendiculata Lx., is confined, so far as now known, to the Upper 
Tertiary (Pliocene or Quaternary) of California (Chalk Bluff, 
Corral Hollow, Spanish Peak, Toulumne and Nevada Counties). 
The latter form, as I have shown, approaches very closely the 
American sycamore, P. occidentals, and connects it by its basilar 
appendage with P. basilobata of the Fort Union group. 

P. marginata (Lx.) Heer (Viburnum marginatum Lx.), the last 
species to be considered, is primarily a typical Laramie (Bitter 
Creek) species, but also occurs in the Denver formation at Golden, 
Colorado. Like so many other Laramie species, it is found in 
the Tertiary deposits of Greenland, where Heer first discovered 
its platanoid character. It is, therefore, not a Miocene species at 
all, but a Cretaceous species extending into the Eocene. 

This hasty review enables us to revise the geological distribu- 
tion of the fossil species of Platanus given by Professor Janko, 
which should therefore stand as follows : 

I. Exclusively Cretaceous species. — P. newberryana and 
primczva. 

II. Species originating in the Cretaceous, but extending into 
the Tertiary. — P.primceva heeri, marginatum, and raynoldsiiinteg- 
rifolium. 



810 The American Naturalist. [September, 

III. Species originating in the Eocene. — P. aceroides, gul- 
ielmcE, haydcnii, raynoldsii, and rhomboidea. 

IV. Species not occurring below the Miocene. — P. aceroides 
academic and aceroides dissecta. 

It will be observed that in the above distribution I have not 
considered the Fort Union group, the Denver formation, nor any 
of the deposits along the Union Pacific Railroad, except those on 
Bitter Creek, to be Cretaceous. I have also excluded the Boze- 
man coal mines containing P. aceroides. The radical difference 
between this distribution and that of Professor Janko renders 
needless any discussion of his argument from geological consid- 
erations ; and although I believe an argument can be based on 
these considerations, it would require to take into the account the 
more abnormal and archaic forms which he excludes from the 
genus. This argument is already stated in my previous papers, 
and the present one has become too long to admit of its expan- 
sion here. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVIII. 
Fig. i.— Leaf of Platanus orientalis L„ from Washington, D.C. (cult.). 
Fig. 2.— Lower portion of a leaf of Platanus occidentalis L., showing 
basilar and stipular appendages, from the District of Columbia. 

Fig. 3.— Leaf of Platanus racemosa Nutt., from California, collected by 



-Sassafras cretaceiim Newb., Lesquereux, Cretaceous Flora, 
. 1. Dakota group. 



PLATE XXVIII. 




Record of American Zoology, 



RECORD OF AMERICAN ZOOLOGY. 



(Continued from Vol. XXIV., page 548.) 

TT is the intention to catalogue here in systematic order all 
papers relating to the Zoology of North America, including the 
West Indies, beginning with the year 1889. An asterisk indi- 
cates that the paper has not been seen by the recorder. Owing 
to the method of preparation it is impossible to collect in one issue 
all the papers relating to any group, but it is hoped that succeed- 
ing numbers will correct this. Authors are requested to send 
copies of their papers to J. S. Kingsley, Lincoln, Nebraska. 

GENERAL. 

Riley, C. V. — On the causes of variation in organic forms. 
Proc. A. A. A.S., XXXVIII., p. 225, 1889. 

Cockerell, T. D. A.— On the citation of localities. Can. Ent, 
XXL, p. 46, 1889. 

Hough, W.— The preservation of museum specimens from in- 
sects and the effects of dampness. Rep. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1886-7, 
p. 549, 1889. 

Herrick, F. H.— Walks under the sea by a coral strand. Am- 
Nat., XXIIL, p. 941, 1889 [1890]. 

Cope, E. D.— The Silver Lake of Oregon and its region. Am. 
Nat., XXIIL, p. 970. 

Ryder, J. A.— The -acquisition and loss of food-yolk, and the 
origin of the calcareous egg-shell. Am. Nat., XXIIL, p. 928, 
1889 [1890]. 

PROTOZOA. 

Stokes, A. C — Notices of new Peritrichous Infusoria from the 
fresh waters of the United States. Jour. Roy. Micros. Soc, 1889, 
p. 477, 1 pi.— Describes as new Epistylis vittata, E. elongate, E. 



812 The American Naturalist. 

autumnalis, E. ramosa, Pyxidium nutans, Vorticella , 

conochili, V. molesta, Opisthostyla globularis, 0. similis, Ha/sis 

[nov. gen.] furcata. As in all of Dr. Stokes's papers, no localities 



* Von Lendenfeld, R. — A monograph of the horny sponges. 
London Royal Society, 1889. — Describes 56 species from the 
Atlantic coasts of North America, of which 29 also occur in Aus- 

Fewkes, J. W. — Rosella in shallow water near Monterey, Cal. 
Proc. Boston Soc, XXIV., p. 45, 1889. 

ccelenterata. 

Fewkes, J. W. — On a method of defense among certain me- 
dusae. Proc. Bost. Soc, XXIV., p. 200, 1889. 

Von Lendenfeld, R. — Neuere Untersuchungen iiber Poly- 
pomedusen. Biol. Centralbl., IX., p. 47, 1889.— Abstracts of 
papers by Brooks, H. V. Wilson, Fewkes, et al. 

Nutting, C. C. — Contribution to the anatomy of Gorgonidas. 
Bull. Lab. Nat. Hist., State Univ. of Iowa, I., p. 97, 10 pis., 1889. 
— A general account. 

Fewkes, J. W. — New invertebrata from the coast of California. 
Bull. Essex Inst, XXI.. p. 99, 8 pis., 1889 [1890].— Describes as 
new Syncoryne occidentals, Campannlaria occidentalism Atractylodes 
[n. g.] formosa, Perigonimus formosus, Steenstrupia occidentals, 
Willia occidentalis, Mkrocampana [n. g.] cornea, Velella mcridion- 
alis, Athorybia calif omica, Sphceronectes gigantea, Bunodes calif or- 
nica, Anemonia stimpsonii; and gives notes on Syncoryne rosaria, 
Poly orchis penicillata, Chrysaora melanaster, Aurelia labiata, Pe- 
lagia panopyra. 

The anatomy of Astrangia dance. 20 pp., Washington, 

1889.— Six plates drawn by Sonrel in 1849- Explanation by 
Fewkes. Published by Smithsonian Institution. 

On a new Athorybia. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, III., 

p. 207. — A. californica. 

On Angelopsis and its relationship to certain Siphono- 

phora, ibid, 1889. 



1890.] Record of American Zoology. 8 1 3 

ECHINODERMATA. 

Ives, J. E. — On a new genus and two new species of Ophiu- 
rans. Proc. Phila. Acad., 1889, p. 143 .—Ophiocrinus granulosus 
and Ophioglypha lockingtonii, from the Pacific coast of America. 

Catalogue of the Asteroidea and Ophiuroidea in the col- 
lection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, /. c, 
1889, p. 169. — Contains some new localities. 

Fewkes, J. W. — On the serial relationship of the ambulacral 
and adambulacral calcareous plates of the star-fishes. Proc. Bost. 
Soc, XXIV., p. 96, 1889. 

New invertebrata from the coast of California. Bull Essex 

Inst., XXL, p. 99, 7 pis., 1889 [1890].— Notes on Dcrmastcrias 
imbricata and Ophiothrix rudis. 

PLATHELMINTHES. 

Linton, Edwin. — Notes on cestoid entozoa of marine fishes. 
Am. Jour. Set. and Arts, XXXVIL, p. 239, 1889.— Abstract of 

forthcoming paper. 

Stedman, J. M.— Researches on the anatomy of Amphistomum 
fabaccum Diesing. Proc. Am. Soc. Micros., XI., p. 85, 3 pis., 
1889. — A histological account of this parasite of the manatee. 

ANNELIDS. 

Fewkes, J. W. — New invertebrata from California. Bull. 
Essex Inst, XXL, p. 130, 1889 [1890].— Describes as new Sa- 
bcllaria calif ornica, Sabella pacifica, Spio calif arnica. 

Marsh, C. D.— A two-tailed earthworm. Am. Nat.. XXIV., 
P- 373, 1890. 

PROSOPYGII. 

Fewkes, J. W. — New invertebrata from .the coast of Califor- 
nia. Bull. Essex Inst., XXL, p. 135, 1889 [1890].— Describes 
as new Ascorhi ~a occido talis 1 vide infra). 

A preliminary notice of a stalked Bryozoan {Ascorluza 

occidental). Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, III., p. 1, 1889. 

Hincks, T.— The Polyzoa of the St. Lawrence: a study of 
Arctic forms. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., III., p. 424, l % 8 9- 



8 14 The American Naturalist. [September, 

Dall, Wm. H. — A preliminary catalogue of the shell-bearing 
marine mollusks and brachiopods of the southeastern coast of 
the United States. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 37, 1889.— Enu- 
merates 21 forms. 

Preliminary report on the collection of Mollusca and 

Brachiopoda obtained [oy the U. S. Fish Commission steamer 
Albatross] in 1887-S. Proc U.S. Nat. Mus., XII., p. 219, 1889 
[1890].— See Am. Nat., XXIV. 

Rolfe, C. W. — Characters and distribution of the genera of 
Brachiopods. Am. Nat., XXIII., p. 983, 1889 [1890]. 

VERMES, INCERT.E SEDIS. 

Zelinka, C— Die Gastrotrichen. Zeit. wiss. Zool., XLIX., 
p. 209, 1889.— See Am. Nat., XXIII., p. 912. 



Ford, John.— Remarks on Oliva inflata [etc.]. Proc. Phila. 
Acad., 1889, p. 137. — On the variation of the Olivas. 

Dall, W. H.— On the hinge of the Pelecypods and its devel- 
opment, with an attempt toward a better subdivision of the group. 
Am. Jour. Set. and Arts, XXXVIII., p. 444, 1889.— Criticises 
existing classifications of Lamellibranchs, and proposes one based 
primarily on hinge structure. Vide Am. Nat., Dec. 1889. 

Ford, J.— Notes on Crepidula. Proc. A. N. S„ Phila, 1889, 
p. 345, 1890.— Maintains specific validity of C. glauca. 

Sharp, B.— Activity in Donax. Proc. A. N. S., 1889, p. 347, 
1890. 

Pillsbry, H. A.— New and little-known American Mollusks, 
II. Proc. A. N. S., Phila., 1889, p. 411, 1890.— Describes as 
new Pupa ealamitosa % (Cal. and Lower Cal.), P. sterkiana (L. Cal.), 
Zonites simpsoni (Ind. Ter.), Z. selenitoides (Cal.), Helix {Hemitro- 
chus) streatori (West Indies), Pupa holzingeri Sterki (Iowa, Minn.). 

Dall, W. H.— Preliminary report on the collection of Mol- 
lusca and Brachiopoda obtained [by the U. S. Fish Commission 
steamer Albatross] in 1887-8. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XII., p. 
219, 1889 [1890].— See Am. Nat., XXIV., p. 582. 



iSgo.] Record «f American Zoology. 815 

Heilprin, Angelo. — On some new species of Mollusca from 

the Bermuda Islands. Proc. Phila. Acad., 1889,0. 141, 1 pi. 

Describes as new Chama bermudensu x Ma 

lucida, Cytherca penistoni, Emarginula dtntigtra. li. / ileum, and 

Pillsbry, H. A. — Nomenclature and check-list of North 
American land shells. Proc. Phila. Acad., p. 191. [889.— Enu- 
merates 302 species. 

Dall, W. H.— Notes on the anatomy of /Violas | . 
tata Linne., and Zirphcza crispata Linne. Proc l'hila. Acad., 
1889, p. 274. 

Wright, B. H.— A new Florida Bulimulus. // ' . 
VI., p. S.—B.hemphillii. 

Peck, J. J. — On the anatomy and histology of Cymbulwpsis 
calceola. Studies Biol. Lab. J. Hopkins Univ., IV., p." 3 35. 1N90. 
— Describes digestive, nervous, reproductive, excretory, and cir- 
culatory organs. 

Fewkes, J. W.— New invertebrata from the coast of Califor- 
nia. Bull. Essex Inst., XXL, p. 139, 1889 [1890].— Describes 
as new Cabrilla [n. g.] occiden talis, and gives notes on Chioma 
leontina. 

*Von Martens, E. — Eine ausgestorbene Landschnecke von 
den Bermuda Inseln (Helex nelson Bland). Ste. Geo. Natxr. Fr. 
Berlin, 1889, p. 201. 

*Cockerell, T. D. A!— Note on Patida cooperi. Joum. Conch., 
VI, p. 17, 1889. 

♦Smith, Edgar A.— On the Mollusca collected by Mr. G. A. 
Ramage in the Lesser Antilles. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., III., 
p. 400, 1889. 

*Cockerell, T. D. A. — Preliminary remarks upon the mol- 
luscan fauna of Colorado. Joum. Conch., VI., p. 65, 1889. 

Some notes on Dr. A. R. Wallace's Darwinism. Xa- 

ture,XU.,p. 393, 1890. 

Dall, W. H. — A preliminary catalogue of the shell-bearing 
marine mollusks and brachiopods of the southeastern coast of 
the United States, with illustrations of many of the species. Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 37, 1889, pp. 221, pis. 74. — Enumerates 487 



816 The American Naturalist. [September, 



Lamellibranchs, 44 Scaphopods, 
and 2 Cephalopods ; implying 
least eighteen hundred forms." 

*Stearns, R. E. C. — Notes and comments on the distribution 
of Planorbis bicarinatus. West American Scientist, VI., p. 1 10, 1 889. 

Sterki, V. A. — A Study of the American species of Vertigo 
contained in the U. S. Nat. Mus., with a description of a new 
sub-genus of Vertigo. Proc. Nat. Mus., XL, p. 369, 1888 [1889]. 
— New sub-genus Angustula. 



NEWLY-DISCOVERED GLACIAL PHENOMENA IN 
THE BEAVER VALLEY. 

BY P. MAX FOSHAY AND R. R. HICE. 

A T the mouth of Connoquenessing Creek the valley of the 
Big Beaver is typically developed. The hills on either 
side, rising to an elevation of 1 200' + A.T., slope rather gently 
down to the old base level plain, here at an elevation of 180'+ 
above the present river level, or 910' + A.T. This plain marks 
the level of a system of preglacial drainage at this point, which, 
as has been heretofore suggested, was probably to the north. The 
plain is covered with a fine, close, and very tough whitish or 
yellowish clay, shading away at some points into a mixture of 
sand and gravel, the pebbles for the most part being well-rounded 
quartz, in size from one and one-half inches in diameter downward. 

Near the middle of this old river valley is a gorge, 200 to 300 
yards in width, cut almost perpendicularly into the heavy sand- 
stones, the Homewood and lower members of the Conglomerate 
series, and reaching to a depth of 125' + below the present level 
of the Beaver, having a total depth of 30c/ -f . 

Two or three miles to the north occur great deposits of morai- 
nic material, 1 which were supposed to mark the southern limit ot 
glacial action in the Beaver valley. 

1 H. C. Lewis and G. F. Wright, Second Geological Survey of Penna., Vol. Z, p. 194- 



1890.] Newly-Discovered Glacial Phenomena. S i ; 

At the mouth of the Connoquenessing, and lying upon the 
old base level plain, are several deposits of stratified gravel, 
having irregular hummocks, forming in some places small but 
well-defined kettle-holes ; in short, partaking of the characteris- 
tics of kames, and apparently overlying the whitish or yellow- 
ish clay above mentioned. Lying south of the terminal moraine 
as heretofore mapped, some doubt was at first raised as to their 
true character, a doubt since removed by a more careful exami- 
nation of the largest of them, and the discovery of grooves and 
striae on the cliffs of the rock-gorge. 2 

The largest of these deposits is of an " L " shape, with the 
longer arm lying in the direction of the river valley, and almost 
a mile in length. It reaches thirty to forty feet above the base 
level plain, and the top is formed into irregular hummocks, cov- 
ered with a thin, gravelly soil. The only sections seen showed 
clear but irregular stratification, and we did not feel sure we saw 
the junction of the kame and underlying clay at any point. We 
were informed, however, that, after passing through the gravel, as 
much as eleven feet of hard, tenacious clay had been penetrated 
without reaching the rock. 

This, the largest deposit, lies on the western side of the river, 
a little above the mouth of the Connoquenessing. There are 
other deposits, of essentially the same structure, a mile further 
south (just north of Clinton Run), and on the eastern side of the 
river one is seen on the old base level plain of the Connoquenes- 
sing, one-fourth mile from the Beaver. 

On a close examination of the base of the largest kame, in 
the search for its junction with the underlying clay, a new fea- 
ture of glacial action in the Beaver valley was discovered, in a 
number of grooves and striae. On its eastern side the gravel 
reaches at one point to the bluff of the rock-gorge, and the 
massive rock having been quarried for building purposes, the 
surface of the sandstone was seen. The top of the gorge is here 
in the Homewood sandstone, at this point a massive, rather 
coarse-grained, quartz rock, slightly colored with iron. The 

2 The nearest strise reported are one-half mile northwest of New Castle. Second Geol. 



818 The American Naturalist. [September, 

quarry has been but little worked, and the grooves could not be 
followed for any distance on account of the overlying gravel. 
The direction of the face of the sandstone is S. S. W., and the 
grooves and striae cut the face at an angle of about 6o°, their 
direction being about S. E. by S., practically at right angles to 
the glacial border. The direction of the old valley is here nearly 
north and south, hence the grooves and striae cut the valley at 
an angle of nearly 45 °, and must have ended abruptly on the 
cliffs of the rock-gorge. 

The largest groove is about five feet in width and eighteen 
inches in depth, the entire surface being striated in the direction 
of the groove. The smaller grooves lie in the same direction, 
and the entire surface seen (some forty feet) is uniformly scratched. 
No indications of cross striation were seen on the rock in place, 
but on a loose fragment (4' X 3') left in quarrying some indica- 
tions of cross striae were visible. 

Some ten or twelve rods to the south, in another quarry, striae 
were also seen, running in the same direction ; here they were 
visible for some fifteen feet. The sandstone at this point is a 
Conglomerate, the pebbles reaching three-eighths of an inch in 
diameter. Here the surface is filled with pot-holes, from one to 
five feet in diameter, and from one to two feet in depth. None 
were seen entire, all the exposed ones being more or less shat- 
tered in quarrying. The pot-holes are not in anywise striated, 
nor does the striating agent appear to have affected the edges of 
the holes, which are as sharp as those now forming in similar 
sandstones. The general appearance of the pot-holes indicates 
that they were made by a north-flowing stream, and we believe 
they are older than the strise, though the evidence is as yet in- 
complete. 

Beaver, Pa., July 29, 1890. 



A N 



THE DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS. 



unusual degree of interest has recently 
both in the general subject of the geograj 



groups, witn reterence to queens 01 KMuunMup. m \o 01 
this interest, indicated in part by various important 
monographs that have lately appeared, it may be that an outline 
of the historical development of the subj 

condition of our knowledge in regard to it, may serve a timely- 
purpose. 

The history of the philosophical study of geographical distri- 
bution properly begins, with the opening of the present century, 
with the classical essay of Alexander von Humboldt on the 
" Geography of Plants." l Fifty years before that time Linnaeus 9 
had discussed the habitats of plants, with reference to the physi- 
cal conditions by which they appeared to be determined, and 
somewhat later had considered the dissemination of seeds by 
winds and other agencies, and the influence of climate and lati- 
tude ; but Humboldt was the first to approach this study with 
the distinctively scientific spirit that subordinates facts to princi- 
ples, and endeavors to give to all observed phenomena a rational 

Humboldt's habits of study led him to think of the vegeta- 
tion of the earth from the standpoint of the physical geographer 
rather than that of the biologist. In the " Ansichten der Natur," 
published in its final form many years later, the prominence still 
given to physical conditions, and the fixed habit of deriving 
conclusions from numerical data, furnish a striking comment 

1 Essai surla Geographie des Plantes. 1805. 



820 The American Naturalist. [September, 

upon the hopefulness of attaining correct biological conceptions 
through strictly mathematical processes. He laid down the 
principle that " the predominance of certain families of plants 
determines the character of a landscape, and whether the aspect 
of the country is desolate or luxuriant, or smiling and majes- 
tic ; " and further, that "the predominance of a particular species, 
as to the number of individuals, — the mass, — or, on the other 
hand, the lack of certain species, may give to a region a pecu- 
liar physiognomy." Connecting his thought, in the usual way, 
with man and his welfare, he says : " Grasses forming extended 
savannahs, or the abundance of fruit-yielding palms, or social 
coniferous trees, have respectively exerted a powerful influence 
on the material condition, manners, and character of nations, and 
on the more or less rapid development of their prosperity." 

From this point of view, then, the first thing to be undertaken 
in the study of the geography of plants was to bring out the con- 
spicuous characteristics of the flora of a given region by deter- 
mining the number of species of a particular family, as compared 
with the whole number of species constituting the flora of the 
region in question. As a single specimen of the laborious com- 
parisons carried out by him may be cited his tabulated statements 
of the estimated preponderance of various families of plants in 
the north temperate zone. 3 

It is unnecessary to say that he did not possess, at that time, 
sufficient data for making such estimates more than approximate. 
Nor if they had been exact would they have brought out the real 
principles involved. Humboldt himself seems to have felt this, 
and to have groped almost painfully after the solution of the 
problem. " The forms of organic beings," he says, " are recipro- 
cally dependent on one another. Such is the unity of nature, 
that these forms limit each other in obedience to laws which are 
probably connected with long periods of time." He anticipate , 



i89o.] The Distribution vt Plants. 821 

in some measure, the results of later investigations; but even his 
extraordinary genius, that seemed to compass the whole earth in 
its giant grasp, was forced at last, baffled and eluded, to yield the 
question and leave the field. 

Humboldt's real service, then, was not so much in developing 
the laws of distribution as in boldly statin- the problem and 
showing more clearly than it had ever been shown before how- 
much there was to be accounted for. It needs but a slight ac- 
quaintance with his writings to feel convinced that the whole sub- 
ject of distribution had scarcely been worked beneath the surface ; 
the lines had been sighted and the stakes driven, but 
plorations were left for future workers. 

The well-known treatise of Alphonse De Candolle, "The 
Geographic Botanique Raisonnee," ' appeared just half a century 
after the publication of Humboldt's essay. It is hardly too much 
to say that, compared with all that had preceded it, this great 
work showed such an increase of knowledge, with a breadth of 
view and capacity for generalization, as rendered it a permanent 
record of the sum total that had been accomplished up to the 
middle of the present century in this study. 

An examination of De Candolle's treatise shows that there were, 
at that time, clear ideas regarding the relations of plants to physi- 
cal conditions ; that the shape of the area occupied by a species 
— approximately circular or elliptical— had been noticed; and 
disjoined species — those occupying widely separate areas — had 
received a certain amount of attention ; that the greater part of 
existing species were then, as now, held to be of high geological 
antiquity, although it was also held that they originated by suc- 
cessive creations; and finally that the relations of species to 
genera, families, and higher groups were beginning to be studied 
in the light of facts of distribution. 

De Candolle had fairly done what, at this time, lay within the 
power of man to do. He had gathered an overwhelming array 
of facts, had marshalled them with orderly precision, had tried 
them — not wholly satisfactorily, it is true— with reference to their 
theoretical bearing, and had given them to the world ready to use. 

4 Paris, 1855. 



822 The American Naturalist. [September, 

But there was still needed some great fundamental conception 
to bind these facts together into a consistent whole ; and this con- 
ception, brought out three years later in the famous papers of 
Wallace and Darwin before the Linnaean Society, was embodied 
and applied, more and more completely, in the various monographs 
and essays of the three botanists : Asa Gray in the United 
States, and J. D. Hooker and George Bentham in England. 

The history of the subject now becomes so largely identical 
with the contributions of these three men 5 that we can do no 
better than to follow each one of them step by step in his work, 
and see, as far as we are able, the facts as they saw and interpreted 
them. 

The botanical contributions of Asa Gray, taken as a whole for 
fifty years, bore more or less directly upon the subject of geogra- 
phical distribution. One of his earliest reviews is a notice of 
Siebold's Flora Japanica, 6 in the course of which the remark is 
made that "the flora of Japan presents such striking analogies to 
that of the temperate part of North America as to render this 
work of more than ordinary interest to American botanists ; " and 
again, in 1846, he takes the occasion offered in another review to 
say : " It is interesting to remark how many of our characteristic 
genera are represented in Japan, not to speak of striking analogous 

This remarkable fact, having once been clearly formulated, was 
never lost sight of, and although it seemed incapable of explana- 
tion upon any theory then held regarding the nature of species, 
Dr. Gray lived long enough to find the clue to its meaning, and 
to show the far-reaching and fundamental nature of the principle 
involved. 



iciples in this study. For an entirely c 
led by Hooker " the reformer," and 



Am. Jour. Set., Oct., 1840. 



The Distribution of Plants. 
1856 and "57 Dr. Gray published in the An 



Northern United States, 7 




indicated were brought 


oil' 


comparisons being made 




and species indigenous to 


til 


of Europe and Eastern / 


isii 


of the floras of the two g 




in a still more striking m 


111! 


bearing of these facts are 




some little time before th< 




"As the discussion of th 




The first "theory is based 




sisting of kindred indivi< 


Ju.: 


which, whether demonst 





and distinct conception of species, and the 

The second theory, being incompatible with this conception, 
leaves species no objective basis in nature and seems to make 
even the ground of their limitation a matter of individual opin- 

Here was the essential conception of the real nature of species, 
— a conception that became more fixed as his studies continued, 
and was expressed more at length in a memoir presented to the 
American Academy in 1858-59, 8 in which Dr. Gray says : " The 
natural supposition is that individuals of the same kind are de- 
scendants from a common stock, or have spread from a common 
center; and the progress of investigation, instead of eliminating 
this preconception from the minds of botanists, has rather con- 
Without attempting to condense or reproduce further the sub- 
stance of these earlier papers, it is enough to say that in them 
had already been clearly formulated two essential principles, viz., 
the genetic relationship of plants of the same and " representa- 
tive " species, and repeated migrations under changed climatic 

7 Am. Jour. Sci., 2d Ser., Vol. XXII. (1856), and Vol. XXIII. (1857). 



824 The American Naturalist. [September, 

conditions. His later papers a extend and confirm the observations 
recorded in these ; and the fact that the accumulations and 
research of nearly thirty years afterwards did not change his 
views in any essential particular is of importance. The history 
of the big trees of California, of the forests of the Northern Con- 
tinents, and the peculiarities and resemblance of the North 
American flora as compared with those of Europe and Asia, still 
were shown to point unmistakably to migrations from a former 
common, though extended, area, with subsequent modifications in 
accordance with the theory of descent. 

Dr. Hooker covered a different ground in his study of geo- 
graphical distribution. Taking up successively the Antarctic 
flora, and those of New Zealand, Tasmania, and the Oceanic 
Islands, it was only at a later period in his investigations of the 
floras of Southern Asia and of the Arctic regions that he over- 
lapped in any way the ground already occupied by Dr. Gray. 

His position in regard to theories then prominent was dis- 
tinctly indicated in the " Introductory Essay to the Flora of Tas- 
mania." 10 Referring to the flora of New Zealand, 11 in which he 
had given (though without distinctly endorsing) the prevalent 
view, that species are created as such, he says : " In the present 
essay I shall advance the opposite hypothesis, that species are 
derivative and unstable." 

Of the observed facts recorded in this series of monographs 
only a few of the most important can be mentioned. 

It was shown in the Flora Antarctica that a certain relationship 
exists between floras of the Antarctic Islands and that of the ex- 

9 Three papers of Professor Gray contain his latest contributions to this sub J ec *^ 

Northern Hemisphere. These are : 

i. Sequoia and its History: The Relations of North American to Northeast Asian and 
to Tertiary Vegetation. A presidential address to the American Association at Dubuque, 

2. Forest Geography and Archeology. A lecture delivered before the Harvard 
versity Natural History Society, April, 1878. 

3. Characteristics of the North American Flora. An address to the botanists of the 
British Association at Montreal, August, 1884. 

10 Am. Jour. Set., i860, Vol. XXIX. 



i89o.] The Distribution of Plants. 

treme southern portion of the American continent, and subsequent 
study brought out a far greater extension of this relationship. 

A further interesting observation was that the plants of the 
Antarctic Islands that are also natives of Tasmania, New Zeal- 
and, and South America, are almost invariably found only on the 
lofty mountains of those countries. 

In view of these and other results. Dr. Hooker was strongly 
impressed with the view that existing agencies are not sufficient 
to account for the observed facts, and conch 

" exhibit a botanical relationship as strong as that which prevails 
throughout the land within the Arctic and Northern Temperate 
zones, and which is not to be accounted for by any theory of 
transport or variation, but which is agreeable to the hypothesis 
of all being members "of a once more extensive flora, which has 
been broken up by geological and el una: 

In the " Outlines of the Distribution of Arctic Plants," pub- 
lished in 1 86 1, an attempt was made to trace the distribution of 
every phsenogamous species known to occur spontaneously 
within the Arctic circle. The distinctively Scandinavian char- 
acter of the Arctic flora, the remarkable deficiency of Greenland 
in characteristically American species, arid the fact that no close 
relation was discovered between the isothermal lines and the 
amount of vegetation, so that the observed facts remained to be 
accounted for in some other way than by reference to present 
climatic conditions, were some of the most important results of 
this study. The explanation offered involved the two principles 
already established by Dr. Gray, viz., the community of origin of 
closely related species, and forced migrations under the influence 
of climatic changes. 

The results of Dr. Hooker's study of insular floras were em- 
bodied in a paper presented to the British Association at its Not- 
tingham meeting in 1866. 12 It contained the most extended 
account that has yet been given of island life from the strictly 
botanical point of view. The author emphasizes the fact that the 
flora of no oceanic island is independent and-Wtt generis \ but is always 
very manifestly allied to some continental flora; but that they all 



826 The American Naturalist. [September, 

have numerous and very remarkable species peculiar to them, 
and which distinguish them from the continental islands. He 
discusses at length the possibility of transoceanic communication, 
and although still impressed with the difficulty of accounting for 
the distribution of plants on oceanic islands by reference to 
agencies now in operation, he is far less inclined to deny that 
these may be sufficient than in his discussion of the floras of 
New Zealand and Tasmania. In fact, he seems ready to admit 
the full force of the argument, as recently stated by Wallace, for 
their distribution by natural agencies now acting, although there 
were still certain difficulties that did not seem to him to readily 
yield themselves to such an explanation. 

Hooker's extended and long-continued study of the distribu- 
tion of plants in every part of the Eastern hemisphere had led him 
to essentially the same conclusions as those reached by Dr. Gray. 
Both had come perforce to think of species as unstable, and both, 
while recognizing to the full extent the action of existing agencies 
of dispersal, had felt the necessity of assuming the action of 
climatic changes antedating the present geological epoch, the 
results of these changes being in a good degree definite and 
ascertainable in the Northern hemisphere, less definite and more 
perplexing in the Southern. 

The most voluminous writer, and the one who has perhaps done 
the most, taken all in all, to advance our knowledge of the dis- 
tribution of plants, was George Bentham, who for fifty-seven 
years, ending with his death in 1883, contrived to produce, one 
after another, floras, monographs, and other botanical papers, 
until even a review of them become a herculean task. 

He approached the subject differently from either Gray or 
Hooker. Finally recognizing, equally with them, the importance of 
the theory of descent as an essential factor, he undertook to apply 
this by a laborious and exhaustive comparison of botanical 
characters and actual geographical location of species, genera, 
and sub-orders. " If," he says, " the two theories be admitted, 
that allied species and genera have a common origin, and that 
the descendants of a common stock placed in different regions 
having no inter-communication will vary in these different regions 



i«9°.] The Distribution of Plants. 

with different combinations of characters, it 
much geographical distribution may be made t 
given to generic or other groups founded upoi 
tions." In other words, he inaugurated the act 
geographical distribution as an aid to classified 
The method pursued by Gray and Hooker i 
species that occupy a given region, and com 
botanically with others, brings tli 



geological nature. Bentham's method, on the other hand, 

consisting in the exhaustive study of various fcmili< 
with the distribution of each of their species, as far as this is 
known, the world over, suggests greater possibilities than the 
former, inasmuch as it offers at least the hope of one being able 
some time to follow, step by step, the descendants of a common 
ancestor as they have spread themselves over the face of the 
earth. Such monographs as those of Bentham's on the Campan- 
ulaceae u and Compositae 15 are excellent specimens of what has 
already been accomplished in this direction, and if they are 
somewhat disappointing in coupling few conclusions with enor- 
mous labor, they point out none the less the way in which those 
who care to lay solid foundations for future studies of this kind 
will probably choose to work. 

Thus far it has been attempted rather to indicate the successive 
steps that have been taken in this line of investigation since the 
time it became a subject of scientific inquiry, rather than to dis- 
cuss results and theories. If, now, a brief summary of the present 
status as a whole is made, it appears, in the first place, that the 
observed facts relating to the distribution of plants correspond 
in every essential respect with what has been observed of the 



828 The American Naturalist. [September. 

geographical distribution of animals. Making allowance for the 
greater age of plant life and the facility with which seeds are 
carried over barriers not easily crossed by animals, it is plain that 
the same laws have governed in the one case as in the other. 

In the second place, although the theory of dispersal of each 
species from a single centre, occupied by its own ancestral form, 
has been found to harmonize better with the facts thus far ob- 
served than any other, the application of this principle, simple and 
intelligible in itself, is beset with practical difficulties, owing to the 
complicated relations of the various agencies involved. 

It seems perfectly plain, for example, that changes of climatic 
conditions have had much to do with the present distribution of 
plants in both hemispheres, but just how much it is hard to tell ; 
and, in the same way, the extent to which ordinary means of dis- 
persal, such as wind, water, etc., have operated can hardly be de- 
termined with precision. 

To illustrate : when we find in Eastern Asia our own gold- 
thread, blue cohosh, twin-leaf and mandrake, poison ivy and 
prickley ash, Mayflower, snowberry, partridge-berry, and a host 
of other either identical or equivalent species, and find all these 
absent from Europe, we feel no hesitation in taking these facts in 
connection with the paleontological evidence in assuming that the 
changes of climate during the glacial epoch have been largely, 
we might fairly say chiefly, the physical factors involved ; but when 
we find, to follow Hooker's enumeration, fifty and seventy-five New 
Zealand plants indigenous to Northern Europe, thirty-eight com- 
mon to Australia, Northern Europe, and Asia, about fifty of those 
of Terra-del-Fuego in North America and Europe, and close rela- 
tives of other European species on the island of Fernando Po 
and the mountains of Abyssinia, it is by no means easy to account 
for it all. 

Much is still required, from different sources, in order to the 
future advantageous study of the whole question. It is har y 
necessary to say that notwithstanding the very extensive collec- 
tions of plants that already exist in numerous herbaria, the firs 
condition of the comprehensive study of any one order with 
reference to its distribution is the gathering of still more o 



i89o.] 73k* Distribution of Plants. 829 

species, particularly from regions still imperfectly known botani- 
cally, into the great herbaria where proper facilities for study and 
clasification are provided. 

There is great need of more exact observations o( actual cases 
of transportation of seeds to great distances. We ai\ 

this way. Whoever records a single absolutely reliable observa- 
tion of this kind will render a good service. 

Climatic changes remain, and probably must still remain, the 
the least definite of all the factors thus far considered. From 
whatever source it may come, a clearer conception of the physical 
conditions formerly prevailing in the Southern hemis] 
indispensable. This is, perhaps, not hopeless, but it is, to all 
appearances, not likely to be immediately realized. 

Paleontological evidence has been slowly accumulated, enough 
to show how much need there is of more. Species now perfectly 
isolated, living in tropical America on the one hand, and in 
Southern Asia on the other, have had their relations cleared up 
by finding their ancestral forms scattered through the intervening 
regions; and the prosecution of this part of the study is as hope- 
ful as it is difficult. But the successors of Heerand Lesquereux 
are not likely to be numerous, nor to turn out results very rapidly. 

One more side of approach remains, seemingly most hopeful, 
perhaps really most hopeless of all ; offering almost unlimited 
possibilities, but involving endless labor and endless complica- 
tions. This is the study of single groups from a more strictly 
biological standpoint. Nothing but the merest beginning has 
yet been made. The method is illustrated in a short paper re- 
cently prepared by Prof. Huxley ; more, apparently, as apiece of 
tentative preliminary work suggestive of what may be done than 
as a formal contribution. 16 

Spending a few weeks, in the summer of '86, in the mountain 
region near the valley of the Rhone, he began to study some of 
Alpine flowers, and among them the gentians. He at once ex- 
perienced trouble in " analyzing " the species, which, as in so 
many other cases, obstinately refused to conform to the book 

16 Jour. Linn. Soc, Vol. XXIV., 1888. 



830 The American Naturalist. [Septemb 

descriptions, and finally set out to see for himself what such ; 



Confining himself to the structure of the flowers, as he after- 
ward studied the order at the Kew Gardens, he found some seven 
or eight modifications of its structure, arranged in two series, 
and presenting a complete gradation of forms, from the completely- 
open, stellate condition, through the bell-shaped to the extreme 
tubular forms with which we are best acquainted in our American 
flora. A comparison of these various forms indicates their deri- 
vation by successive slight modifications from an original, simple 
flower that Professor Huxley calls the " ur-gentian," and Muller, 
in the " Alpenblumen," 17 does not hesitate to employ to its full 
extent the Darwinian theory to explain the evolution of the 
more highly developed and differently colored forms to the 
agency of insects, particularly bees and butterflies. 

If this is admitted, it becomes quite as necessary to know the 
whereabouts and habits of bees and butterflies as to study the 
gentians themselves, and the interesting hint is thrown out that 
those gentians that have remarkably long, tubular corollas are 
found in such regions as Madagascar and Guiana, with their large 
Lepidoptera provided with a long suctorial apparatus. 

Evidently a somewhat complicated set of relations has been 
introduced ; and after still other suggestions looking in the same 
direction, Prof. Huxley adds to our feeling that the subject is 
growing in magnitude by saying : " I think there is no greater 
mistake than to suppose that distribution, or indeed any other 
large biological question, can be studied to good purpose by those 
who lack either the opportunity or inclination to go throug 
what they are pleased to term the drudgery of exhaustive ana- 
tomical, embryological, and physiological preparation." 

Finally he raises the significant question : " Is anybody in a 
position to deny that, in the absence of all other phamogamous 
vegetation, the gentians might have occupied every 
station on the earth's surface in which flowering plant 



^ere any ground for seeking the cause; 
vhere than in the competition with oth< 



L n exist? 
iribution 
ch they 



i89o.] Editorial. 

it has often happened that the success of a gh 

itself to certain conditions has invoked a cot 
tion of the faculty of adapting itself to other 
point of view of the evolution doctrine," he 
that taxonomy and distribution have to be su 
of revision which will hardly fail to revolutio 

Manifestly the end has not yet been reach.. 
more than ordinary interest has been going 
easy to imagine, and we are barely able to g 
its latest phases, or, at rare intervals, to re 
history. And yet it is perfectly certain that 1 
comprehend more of it will never be abandor 
are obtained from time to time as the curtain 
and once in a while a portion of the old rec 
and gives new hope and a new impulse. 

University of Michigan. 



EDITORIAL. 

""FHE late meeting of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, held at Indianapolis, was a 
pleasant and instructive occasion. The local accommodations 
were of the most ample character. The sections met under the 
roof of the State Capitol, and the conveniences of the building 
were thrown open to the Association. The scientists of Indiana 
lent their aid to render the occasion worthy of the high place 
which the State holds in the Union as a centre of scientific work. 
The city- of Indianapolis contains a large intelligent and progress- 
ive element, which has kept pace with the remarkable increase 
in population which the city has experienced during the last 
decade. This intelligence was especially reflected in the press 
reports of the proceedings, which were among the best that the 
Association has received. 

Many papers of a high order of merit were read, both before 
the regular sessions and before the botanical, entomological, and 



832 The American Naturalist. [September, 

ornithological clubs, which met at intervals during the meeting. 
The one excursion which the local committee arranged to come 
off during the session, that to the regions of the gas wells, north- 
east of the capital city, was well attended. To the many mem- 
bers who had not seen the extraordinary phenomena which 
these localities display, the excursion was of great interest. Per- 
haps the most effective scene was that witnessed at Anderson 
after nightfall, when the gas-jet was turned into the water of the 
White River. The extraordinary pressure threw the latter into 
a boiling caldron of flame and fluid. 

— Among the various official acts of the Association there is 
only one to which we take exception : that is the abolition of the 
Committee on the International Congress of Geologists. This 
committee has been a useful one. It has furnished to the Congress 
the only complete synopsis of the geological formations of North 
America in existence. This work is already somewhat behind the 
times, so rapid is the progress of discovery, but the committee was 
expecting to supply such deficiency from time to time to the suc- 
ceeding meetings of the Congress. But it has done more than this. 
It has suppressed at their inception various crude and unscientific 
products of the official geology of the country. It refused to 
adopt Director Powell's scheme for revising the colors of our 
geological maps, as compared with those hitherto in use through- 
out the world. It declined to insert in its reports the great dis- 
covery of the " Agnotozoic" (!) era, which was to occupy a position 
between the " Azoic " and the Paleozoic. It declined to adopt 
some innnovations in nomenclature desired by the same authority, 
regardless of the law of priority. For these and similar 
reasons the committee incurred the displeasure of the geological 
autocrat at Washington, and he determined on the control or 
abolition of the committee. Failing in the former, he determined 
on the latter, and he has succeeded. This was partly due to 
the weakness of some of the members of the committee them- 
selves, who wearied, prematurely as it appears to us, of the per- 
petual antagonism to which they were subjected. And now we 
suppose that the Geology of America will be " officially " recon- 
structed and presented brand new to the Congress of 1 892, in 
Washington, if any is ever held. 



Recent Books and Pamphi 



RECENT BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS. 

Abbot, F. E.— Scientific Theology the Ground of all Liberal I 
Unitarian Review, Dec, 1889. 

Belgiaue, 1890. 

Ayres, H.— The Morphology of the Carotids. Ext. Bull. Harvai 
Zool., Vol. XVII. 

Beecher, C. E., and J. M. Clarke— The Development of Some! 

Bridge, T. W— The Air-Bladder and Weberian Ossicles in the 

Britton , N. L— The Genus Eleocharis in North America. Ext. Jo 
Microscopical Soc, Oct., 1889. From the author. 

Bulletin No. 8, Exp. Station, Kansas State Agricultural College. 

Bulletin de la Societe Zoologique de France, 1889. 

Bulletin of the Agricultural Exp. Station, Cornell University. 

Bulletin Nos. 48-53, inclusive, U. S. Geol. Sur. From the Dept. Int. 

Calderon, S.— La Region Epigenique de FAndalousie rt l'Origine 
Ext. Bull. Soc. Geol. de France, Troisieme serie, Tome Dix-septieme. F 

Cartailhac, E— La France Prehistorique. From the author. 

CLARKE, J. M.— The Hercynian Question. Lxt. Forty-second Am 
State Mus. From the author. 

Conn, H. W.— Coleopterous Larvae and their Relations to Adul 
Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. XXIV., 1889. 

Constitution of the Geological Society of America. 

Cofe, E. D— Report on the Batrachians and Rep; ! 

System. Ext. Journal Nervous and Mental Diseases, Vol. XIII., 18 

Dwight, W. B.— Recent Explorations in the Wapj ' ■ 
other Formations of Dutchess Co., N. Y. Ext. Am. Journ. Sci.. V '• >1. XX 

Eldridge, G. H.— Some Suggestions Upon the Method of Group 
tions of the Middle Cretaceous, and the Employment of ai Vd ; 
Nomenclature Ext. Am. Journ. Sci., Vol. XXXVIII., 1889. From the 

ELLIS, H.— Women and Marriage. From the author. 

l889 ' dderKalksteinederPermform 



From Longmans, Green & Co.,publ 



834 The American Naturalist. [September, 

verwandte carbonische Formen. Memoires de l'Acad. Imp. des Sciences de St. Peters- 

bourg, Tome XXXVII, So. 2. From the author. 

Vol. VIII., No. 1. 

LaMBORN, R.— The Knees of the Bald Cypress. Ext. Garden and Forest, Jan., 
1888. From the author. 

LAMPERT, K.— Die Wahrend der Expedition S. M. S. Gazelle, 1874-1876, von Prof 
Dr. Th. Studer gesammelten Holothurien. Separatabdruck aus den Zoologischen Jahr- 

Langley, S. P.— The Solar and Lunar Spectrum. Second Memoir Nat. Acad. 

Lesley, J. P.— A Dictionary of the Fossils of Penna. and Neighboring States 
Named in the Reports and Catalogues of the Survey. Report P 4, 1889, Geol. Sur. 
Penna. 

LoOMIS, E.— Contributions to Meteorology. Seventh Memoir Nat. Acad. Sci. 

Mr.RRIAM I' — Li »n >f th North me lit Pocket Mice— Descriptions of 

Fourteen New Species and One New Genus of North American Mammals. 



MovreoM 


ERY, E — 


Mental .' 


activity. Ext. 


Mind, Vol. 


XIV. 


From 


the: 










indent, Ohio. 


From Rot 


»t Clarke & Co. 






E. T.— Description 


of a New S;. 








Of W.: 




ur. Geot.Soc, Feb. 


,1889. Fron 














A.S.— Or 


1 a Fossil 






m Peru. Ext 










. From the a 














V. K — Oi 


1 the " Manus" of Phoenicopterus 


. Ext 






r£S 9 . 


Patten, "V 


V.— Studi. 


s on the 


Eyes of the 


Arthropods. 


Ext. 


Journ. 


Mo 


rph., \ 



PEPPER, W— Tlv- L niversitv in Modern Life. From the author. 

PORTER, A.— Famine Diseases. From H. K. Lewis, publisher. 

Report of the Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey of Minnesota, 1888. From the Survey 

Revue Biologique du Nord de la France, Nov., 1889. 

Report U. S. Fish Commission, 1886. 

Report Penna. Geol. Sur., 1887. 

Cal. Acad Sci.,Vol. II. 

Roberts, O. M.— History and Burden of Taxation. Bull. Texas University, 188 
From R. T. Hill. 

Rohant. C. A— Du Transformisme et de la Generation Spontanee. From tl 

Scudder, S. H. -The Work of a Decade upon Fossil Insects. Ext. from Psych 
Shufeldt, R. W.— Contributions to the Comparative Osteology 
Exts.ybar. 



-Ethno-Conchology : A Study of Prin 



doney. Ext. Re- 



,u-S,,u 



aid Polyp. Ext. San Francisco Mining 

. H.-On the Scratched and Facetted Stones of the Salt Range, India. 

f., Vol. VI., 1889. From the author. 

'rinciples of Mechanics as Applied to the Solar System. 



Recent Books and Pamphlets. 



TOPINARD, P.— La Societe, L'Ecole, Le Labora 



True, F. W.—On the Occurrence of Echinomys semispinosus Tomes in Nicaragua, 
t. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1888. 
TscHAN, A.— Recherches sur TExtremite anterieure des Oiseaux .1 

Van Beneden, P. J.— Histoire Naturelle del Detphlsidei del ICnfeei d" Europe. 

Walcott, C— A Review of Dr. Ells's Second Report on the Geologv of ■ Pottk» 
.Vol. 

a and Species fro 



The Paleontologic History of the Genus Platanus. Ext. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mas., 

'1. XI., 1888. From the author. 
Weber, M.— Zoologische Ergebnisse einer Reise in niederlandisch Ost-Indien. 

WESTLING, C. — Anatomische Untersuchungen uber Echidna. Bihang Till K. 
enska Vet. Akad. Handlingar, Ba 

urian Rocks o ' 

Williams, G. H., and A. C. GlLL.-Contributions to the Mineralogy of Marv- 
'd. Ext. Johns Hopkins Univ. Cir. No. 75. From A. C. Gill. 

Will, L.— Bericht liber Studien zur Entwickelungsgeschichte von Platydactylus 
uritanicus. Sil -1389. From the author. 

Wilson, e. B.— The Embryology of the Earthworm. Reprint Journ. Aforph.,\'o\. 



General Notes. 



GEOGRAPHY AND TRAVELS. 
Africa.— Captain Binger's Journey.— Further particulars of 
Captain Binger's journey in the districts between the Upper Niger and 
the Guinea Coast serve to show that this is one of the most important 
of recent journeys, both geographically and politically. It has proved 
the non-existence of the Kong mountains as a defined range ; has 
shown that there are few affluents of the Niger from the south, and 
that the watershed between the coast rivers and the Niger lies much 
farther inland than was at first supposed ; and it has led to the recep- 
tion under French protectorate of all the country lying between the 
upper Niger and the French coast possessions, so that the English 
settlements of the Gambia and Sierra Leone, and the independent re- 
public of Liberia, are now framed entirely in French territory. Start- 
ing from Bammako, Captain Binger passed Likaso, and then proceeded 
southeastward to Kong, which he reached on Feb. 20th, 1888. The 
town had not previously been visited by a European. On his passage 
he crossed several streams, one of which proved to be a tributary of the 
Laku, while two others were the head-waters of the Akba, or Comoe,— 
all of them three to four degrees further to the north than had been sup- 
posed. The watershed was marked simply by rising ground. Kong 
or Pong is a considerable trade-centre ; cotton-weaving, indigo-dying, 
and horse-trading are carried on here, and the population seems to be 
from twelve to fifteen thousand. After three weeks' stay in Kong, our 
traveller set out northwards, crossed the upper course of the Comoe, 
and reached the head-waters of the most westerly tributary of the 
Volta, the Black Volta, near the sources of the Comoe. He hurried 
through the country of the Gurunsi, in anarchy through the incursions 
of the Haussas, and reached Wagadugu, whose capital, Mossi, is m the 
midst of a flat country, and is rich in corn and cattle. Compelled to 
quit this town, he abandoned his intention of making an excursion to 
Libtako and connecting his surveys with those of Barth. He then 
proceeded south to Salaga, which he reached October, 188S, after a 
detention through illness at Wale-wale of forty-five days. Following 
the right bank of the Volta, he entered Kintampo, a depot for kola- 
unts. On January 5th, 1889, he again reached Kong, where he met a 



i8 9 o.] Geography and Travel. 837 

relief party, sent from the coast colonics by the governor, Treich 
Laplene. Both parties followed to the coast the river Akba. which 

is navigable as far as Attakru. 

The greater part of the country included within the great northern 
bend of the Niger proves to be drained by the Conine and the Volta, 
which latter is formed by three large tributaries, the White. Red. and 
Black Volta. Though there is no distinct range separating the basins 
of the Niger from those of the coast rivers, yet isolated granitic peaks 
rise above the general platform. In the west these culminate in 
Natinian Sikasso (2,560 ft.). Southward of this the platform sinks 
gradually, and here the Lahu and the Dahbu rise. Am 
peaks more to the east is that of Kernono (4.75 7 ''•■)■ which turns the 
course of the Comoe from east to south. From the Volta, which is 
surrounded with low hill-ranges, an extensive table-land stretches east- 
ward, ascending from 3,250 feet to Xauri. in the southi 
dugu, 5,905 feet high, and the highest point of the wa; 
rated from the Gambaga range by the valley of the East or White 
Volta, which rises in Bussang. Sandstone and swamp-ore prevail in 

June the heat was 104 in the shade, 140 in the sun. Captain Bin- 
ger surveyed his route with the compass, and determined thirteen points 
astronomically. The natives belong to seven different groups: the 
Mondungo (Samory, Kong, Worodugu, Kurudugu, Gudja, etc.), colo- 
nised in all directions ; the Sieneren or Sienufs, ranging from Tieba 
to Pegue, Follona, Djimmi, and Worodugu ; the Gurungu, who prevail 
in Gurunsi and part of Bussang ; the Moor Mossi ; the Haussa, west of 
the White Volta J the Ashanti. as far as the Black Volta; and the 
Fulbe, whose chief abode is further north, but who have colonies to 
n°N. Lat. 

The Zambezi Delta.— In the March issue of the Proc. Roy. 
Geog. Soc, 1890, D. J. Rankin gives an account of the Zambezi delta, 
and especially of the Chinde mouth thereof. The Quaqua cannot now 
be called strictly an outlet of the Zambezi, as the bulk of the waters 
which flow into it are derived from the drainage of the Shimwara and 
Achigunda hills and of the Borore heights. From Quillimane to the 
sea stretches a flat sodden swamp, bordered by mangroves. The tide 
rises to Mogorumbo, but from Lokololo to Quillimane goods have to 
be transported in lighters. The Kongoni mouth has 12 to 14 feet 
draught, but is not suitable, as its coasts are mere mangrove swamps, 
covered at high tides. The island of Inhainissengo is becoming rapidly 



838 The American Naturalist. [September, 

submerged. The Madredane channel, three miles long, is narrow, 
and so choked with reeds and aquatic vegetatation that a passage has 
to be hewn through it. The Mosella mouth is little known, but is said 
to have a bad bar at its junction with the main stream. The Melamba, 
Maria, East Luabo, and another mouth seem to be closed to naviga- 
tion, as the sea always breaks over their bars. The Chinde mouth 
has, however, three fathoms on the bar at low water, and a channel 
500 yards wide, and well defined. In an exceptionally dry season 
20 to 23 feet were found on the bar at high water. There is a sandy 
point at the very mouth, and good anchorage inside it. Chinde vil- 
lage is at the junction with the main stream, ten miles up. The banks 
and channel of the main stream are continually changing direction 
under the influence of the immense body of water, full of vegetable 
matter, and depositing a light-colored ooze. The delta is thinly 
peopled, and the inhabitants are not indigenous, but have been slaves, 
and are of low social condition. 

M. Dauvergne's Journeyings.— M. Dauvergne's explorations 
in the vicinity of the Hindu Kush, last year, led to several interesting 
geographical discoveries. He descended the valley of the Lung, and 
asserts that that river is a tributary of the Tashkurgan, and not of the 
Zerafshan. The valley is deep, difficult of access, warm, highly culti- 
vated, and inhabited by Sunnite Mohammedans, who are Chinese sub- 
jects. The river flows west and southwest, with the Kundur mountains 
on the left bank, and the Kichik-tung on the right. Crossing the 
Kotti-Kandar pass (16,350 ft.), which has a glacier on the top, our 
traveller descended into the valley of the Tashkurgan, and then 
ascended that of Karachunkur. He afterwards camped with nomad 
Kirghises in various localities in an elevated rolling Pamir, resembling 
the Great Pamir. 

Our traveller finds the sources of the Oxus or Amu-Daria near the 
pass of Wakijt-Kul, at a level of 15,500 feet, and states that they are 
fed by three enormous glaciers. To make certain, he followed the 

It has been asserted that Karambar Sar, a small lake on the north 
side of the Hindu Kush, has two outlets, but one of the results of M. 
Dauvergne's explorations has been to dispel this idea. There are here 
two lakes in close proximity, the one the real Karambar Sar. about a 
mile and a half long, giving origin to the Karambar or Askaman River, 
while the other, situated a few hundred vards to the east, over a ow 
rocky watershed, is about half a mile long, and gives outlet to the 
Ausa or Marghab. The smaller lake is named Gazkul. 



i8 9 o.] Geography and Travel. ^39 

Geographical News.— Africa.— J. R. Pigott has recently trav- 
elled up the Tana (Northeast Africa), ten days' journey beyond the 
farthest point reached by the Brothers Denhardt. Mount Kema was 
in full sight during the latter part of the journey, and seems to be 
nearer the coast than has been supposed. The country is thinly peo- 
pled, for the inhabitants of the lower course of the river (ear the 
Somali's, while those of the upper are in dread of the Wakamba. A 
map of the district traversed is given in the March number of the 
Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc. 

A map of the journey of Mr. Selous in Mashona land, in the basins 
of the Mazoe and the Mufn, tributaries of the Zambezi on the south, 
is given in a recent issue of the Proc. Roy. Gi 

Among recent journeys in South Africa deserves to be mentioned 
that of Mission Superintendent Knothe from Mphome on the Zout- 
pansberg to the land of the Bonjai or Bokharaka, southeast of the 
Barotse country. The Bonjai speak a language akin to the SesutO, 
and are more skilled in handicrafts than the Bosuto. The brothers 
Posselt, in travelling north of the Limpopo to Simbabye, found certain 
ornaments, among which were three of gray gneiss or syenite, evidently 
in imitation of birds. 

A small map in Petermann's Mitteilungen, 1890, Part I., shows the 
distribution of the Berber stems in Morocco. About one-half of the 
country is really Arab, stretching from the western limit of Algiers, 
south of the Ref Berbers, to the north coast by Ceuta and Tangier, 
and extending southward to Mogador, and inland to the Atlas. The 
Rif Berber element is composed of the Bezirker-Rif. the Bezirk-er- 



Gart, and the Isnaten, the last bordei 






lid-stature, strong, broad-shouldered. They live by fishery, and by 
wrecking; and robberv and murder are common, .some enlist as 
Zouaves in the Spanish garrisons on the Morocco coast. The north- 
ern part of the Atlas is occupied by the Berbers, who for the most part 
are unmixed with Arab, and are slender, often over mid-height, and 
nly muscular; the face is long, with a somewhat Roman 
becomes darker toward the south, 
2 rve the Berber type, save where there is negro 
admixture. The Schloch Berbers, south of the parallel of Mogador, 
inhabit the lowlands as well as the mountains. They are never blond- 
haired like the other Berbers, but are civilized, and given to trade and 
handicrafts. Toward the east they become mingled with negro peo- 
ples, producing the Charatin or Draa. 



physiognomy, and, though 



840 The American Naturalist. [September, 



King Menelik, formerly King of Shoa, is now Ne; 
and the Italians, who favored his pretensions, have succeeded in mak- 
ing advantageous treaties with him, considerably enlarging the area 
placed under the protection of Italy. 

A map of the caravan route from Zeila (British) to Ankobar, show- 
ing the routes followed by various travellers, and marking the bound- 
aries between the Somali tribes and the Afar or Galla, is given in a 
recent issue of Petermanri s Mitt. 

The April issue of the Proceedings of the Royal Geographical 
Society contains an account of the explorations conducted by Mr. T. 
Last, as leader of the expedition to the Namuli Peaks, and the narra- 
tive is aided by a map of the part of East Africa lying between the 
Rovuma and the Zambezi. 

Dr. Zintgraff, in his journey from the Cameroons to Adamaua in 
1888-89, had to force his way through the territory of the Banyanga, 
was compelled to stay three months in the land of the Bali, and in 
April reached that of the Bafut. On account of a threatened attack, 
he had to make his way through a comparatively uninhabited country. 
At Donga his surveys met those of Flegel. On June 11, 1889, he was 
at Ibi, on the Benue, whence he proposed to proceed to Jola, and then 
return to Bali-land. 

Dr. Schweinfurth gives a full account of the excavations carried on 
by Flinders Petrie in the Fayoun, in Petermann's Mitteilungen, Part 
II., of this year. 

A. Sharpe, in an account of his trip in the region between the Shire 
and Loangwa rivers, mentions that the Kirk mountains are merely the 
abrupt edge of the highlands that stretch to the west of the Shire valley. 
The Oughat or Achevva tribes have to a great extent been driven away 
or enslaved by the Angoni (Zulus), so that the remaining Achewas 
stand in great fear of the Zulus. The names of places in South Africa 
change as the chiefs change : thus Undi, four days west of Lake 
Nyassa, is named from an Achewa chief. 

Petermann's Mitteilungen, 1890, Part I., contains an account of the 
journey of Dr. K. W. Schmid in the Comoro Islands, with a map o 
Angasija, or Great Comoro, and of Mohilla. The latter island is ent ^ 
covered with vecretation, but wherever the rock could be seen 



coast of Angasija is without a harbor 



but on 



there is a good harbor at Mroni Bay, slightly 



north of the great volcano. The island extends about 40 



north and 



i89o.] Geography and Travel. 841 

south, and is quite narrow. increasing in width at its s uithern extremity. 
where it reaches 18 to 20 miles. It comprises several little sultanates. 
The volcano, 2250 metres high, is at the southern broad end about 
equidistant from each of the shores. Its crater is oval, the wall 
broken north and south by a lava stream. 

Asia.— M. Bonvalot is now at Lob-Nor. He intends t. 
and follow the Yang-tse from the sources. 

Beluchistan is now wholly British. The natives off the Zhob and 
Gamul valleys, and also the Wazuris, have made submission. The 
Zheb valley is an alluvial plain, at an average elevation of 4S00 feet, 

Much of territory lying between that of the Amir and what was previ- 
ously British has thus now fallen into the hands of the latter. The 
British headquarters are now at Apozai. 

H. S. Hallett considers that the earliest invaders who disturbed the 
repose of the aboriginal Negritos of Indo-China were the ban ot the 
Shan States, the Mon of Lower Burma, and the Cham ot Cambodia, 
all of whom are Mongoloid with Mala;, affinities, and in Nest bengal 
and Central India are represented by the Kolarian tribes. The La-Hu 
and Kiang-Tung La-Wa are said to be kindred to the white races, and 
were established upon the south bend of the Hong-He when the Chinese 
came from Chaldsea. They gradually amalgamated with their con- 
querers, and imported to the latter their folk-lore. The guardian spirits 
worshipped by the Shans are those of the ancient La-Wa kings and 
queens during the long wars that endured between the La-Wa and the 

M. Venukoff {Revue de Geog., April, 1S89) asserts that the English 
have placed a garrison in a fort at Schahidulla, on the north side of 
the Karakorum range, and so near to the possessions of the Chinese in 
Kashgaria (Yarkand and Khotan) that they in alarm have also built a 
fort. Great Britain has also two other small forts northwest of the 
Indus, at the south foot of the Hindu Kush, and not far from the 
sources of the Oxus. 

In Russian Turkestan an avalanche of rocks, a kilometre long, half 
a kilometre wide, and 100 metres thick, has fallen into the valley of 
the Zarafshan, and has blocked up the river, forming a lake twelve 
kilometres in length, threatening the district with submersion. 

Salanga is a small archipelago on the western coast of Malaca, and, 
like Larut and Perak, is rich in tin mines. This has caused its peo- 



842 The American Naturalist. [September, 

pling by Chinese, who in 1889 numbered 40,000, while there were 
but 1500 natives and 500 Malays. The tin-bearing layer lies at the 
base of an unctious clay of varying thickness, which is itself below 
alluvial deposits of varying depth. 

Petermann's (Part III., 1890) gives a map of the course pursued by 
A. Jakobsen from Flores to Kalao, Tana, Diampia, Pulo Salayer, and 
other small islands north of Flores. The same traveller proceeded 
westward to Adenare Islands. 

B. Moritz contributes to the Zeitschrifft der Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde 
a paper upon the new Turkish province of Hedjaz, and the route from 
Mecca to Medina. The population of Hedjaz has been estimated at 
700,000, but our author deems these figures too high. The nomad 
Bedouins are not more than 27,000 strong. Mecca has 110,000 inhab- 
itants, Medina 40,000, Jeddah 20,000, and all the remaining towns are 
small. The area of the province is 1,193,517 square kilometres. 

In 1888 the population of Hindustan, including Birma, was 269,- 
477,728, or a mean density of 185 per square mile. In Bengal there 
are 443 persons on every square mile, in the Northwest Provinces 416, 
and in the central tributary states 215. Birma is the most sparsely 
peopled, and next to this the vassal states of Bengal, and the districts 
of the extreme northwest. 

There are twenty thousand so-called " Mountain Jews" in the Cau- 
cascus. They have singular beliefs and superstitions, showing Persian 
influences, but for centuries they have had no communication with the 
rest of their race. 

Thanks to the facilities now afforded by the Japanese government 
for the colonization of Hekkaido (Yesso), there was in 1888 more than 
seventy-seven times as much cultivated land as in 1876. The latest 
populations (1887) of the chief cities of Japan are as follows : Tokio, 
1,165,048; Osaka, 432,005; Kioto, 264,559; Nagoya, i49>75 6 5 
Yokohama, 115,612 ; Kobe, 103,969. The total area of the islands is 
382,421 square kilometres, and the population 39,069,007, of whom 
19,731,354 are men. There are 76,624 Christians, and 543 forei § n 

Lieutenant Roborowsky sends from the oas 
of his account of the doings of the Russian < 
Pievtsoff. Accounts of Central Asian journeys are, as a rule, monoto- 
nous, but this is enlivened with a legend of a Mohammedan feminine 
saint, who, being pursued by heathen, prayed to God, and was answered 



i8go.] Geography and Travel. 843 

by the earth opening and swallowing her all up except her long plait 
of hair, which is still visible (to the head mallah only). By t new pas, 
the expedition will enter Tibet during the present summer. The 
botanical collection of Roborowsky contains 430 species. 

Miscellaneous Geographical News.— The Peruvian govern- 
ment have despatched an expedition to the river Javary, on the borders 
of Peru and Bolivia, in order to chastise the Indians for the murder of 
of white traders. As the party includes among its members five scien- 
tific men, among whom is the well-known Richard Payer, some useful 
results may be looked for. 

According to Venukoff, the increase in size of the delta of the 
Neva is small compared with that of the deltas of the Danube. Rhone, 
and Volga. The water of the river is comparatively free from sedi- 
ment, because the principal tributaries deposit their load in Lake 
Ladoga, which is only sixty-five kilometres distant from the Gulf of 
Finland. 

According to Dr. Hettner, two different peaks have been confused 
under the name of Coropuna. The peak called Coropuna at Arequipa 
seems to be higher than the true mountain of that title— which also 
bears the names of Arupato and Salmancay (Indian)-and is probably 
the highest of the entire volcanic range. 

The republics of Central America propose to unite under the title of 
the United States of Central America. The president is to be elected 
annually, and to be furnished by each of the States in turn. The 
federal capital is to be Tegucigalpa, the capital of Honduras, lhe 
Congress will be composed of eighteen deputies, one for each 200,000 
of the population, and the first meeting is to be on Sept. 15, 1890. 

Dr. A. Phillipson contributes to Peterman* s Mittdlungcn of this 
year an account of the various elements which compose the existing 
population of the Peloponnesus. The Goths and other barbarian 
hordes ravaged and departed, so that the first immigrants who came to 
stay in considerable numbers were the Slavs. At the beginning of 
the thirteenth century the bulk of the population consisted either ot 
New Greek, otherwise called Byzantine or Rhomai, who mhabited 



, especially those of the 



r Greek 1 



Slav, scattered all over the country. The old Hellenic element per- 
sisted, however, in a nearer approach to purity, in Mam and Tzakonia, 
while the Slavic was almost pure in Arcadia and Taygetos. The 
Greek language eventually predominated over the Slav. Later on 



844 The -American Naturalist. [September, 

came the irruption of the Arnauts or Albanians. The result is, that 
at the present time the old Hellenic blood has entirely disappeared, 
and all the people of the peninsula are more or less mixed. About 
90,000, chiefly at or near Corinth, and on the ^Egean coast, still speak 
Albanian, but all the rest of the inhabitants use modern Greek. 

Dr. Hickson has published an interesting book, giving the results of 
his residence, for nearly a year, upon a small island off the extreme 
north coast of Celebes. During this stay he made excursions to the 
northern part of the main island, and also to Nangir, Nanusa, and 
Talant, small groups between Celebes and the Philippines. About half 
of the book concerns the northern part of Celebes, especially treating 
of the mythology and customs of the natives. 

The greater part of the island erupted in 1885 in the Tonga group 
(Falcon Id.) has disappeared, and the existing island is a shelving bank 
to the northeast of it. The volcanic debris may now form a platform 
h a coral reef, and ultimately an atoll, may be built up. 



GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY. 
Newberry's Paleozoic Fishes of North America. 1 — In this 
volume we have collected descriptions of the fishes of the Paleozoic 
formations of North America, which have been discovered by Pro- 
fessor Newberry since the publication of his report of the geological 
survey of Ohio, with a few others. The species there described, as 
well as those described in the report of the geological survey of Illinois, 
by himself, Mr. St. John, and Prof. Worthen are only enumerated ; 
and those described from the Permian beds of Illinois and Texas, by 
the present reviewer, are not mentioned. Add to this the fact that no 
bibliographic references appear, and we see that Professor Newberry 
has not intended this work to have the characteristics of a complete 
monograph. It is therefore that we welcome it as a collection of 
descriptions of numerous remarkable forms of early fish-life discovered 
by the author, which will greatly advance our knowledge on the sub- 
ject. This branch of paleontology is an important one, representing 
as it does our knowledge of the earliest-known Vertebrata, and includ- 
ing as it must the ancestral types of all later forms. 

1 The Paleozoic Fishes of North America, by John Strong Newberry. Monograph 
Received July, 1890. 






Geology and Paleontology. 



^45 



The volume is divided into three parts, viz. : I. On the Fishes of 
the Silurian System ; II. On those of the Devonian ; and II. On 
those of the Carboniferous System. The number of species referred to, 
and the number described in the divisions of these systems, is as 
follows : 



Enumerated. Described. 
Onondaga Salt Series, 2 o 

Hamilton, 8 8 

Chemung, 9 9 

Catskill, 9 9 

Waverly, 48 5 

Cleveland Shales, 28 26 

Carboniferous Limestone, 347 M 

Coal Measures, 27 2 

Total, 498 ?-l 

Among the eighty-seven species described are a number of very 
interesting ones, several ot which are referred to new genera. From 
the Corniferous series we have Acantholepis and Acanthaspis Newb., 
which the author thinks to be allied to Cephalaspis. From the Ham- 
ilton, Goniodus Newb. , probably a Cestraciont shark; and Callognathus 
Newb., small forms allied to Dinichthys. From the Chemung, Holo- 
nema Newb., based on the Pterichthys rugosa of Claypole, a remark- 
able Placoderm of large size. From the Cleveland Shale, Titanich- 
thys Newb., a member of the Dinichthyidae, but different from Din- 
ichthys in the slender edentulous jaws, with two species ; Glyptaspis 
Newb., another Placoderm belonging to the Dinichthyidae ; Mylostoma 
Newb., another member of the same group, with flattened grinding 
surfaces on the extremities of the dentary bones ; Trachosteus, an ally 
of the same family ; and Actinophorus Newb., apparently a very prim- 
itive representative of the modern superorder of the Actinopterygia, 
and therefore a very interesting discovery. The Waverly produces 
the new genus Mazodus Newb., which is based on the flat-grinding 
teeth of some Cestraciont shark of large size. To the fauna of the 
Carboniferous Limestone is added the genus Coelosteus Newb., based 
on a mandibular ramus, with shallow alveolae for large teeth, probably 



846 The American Naturalist. [September, 

allied to Rhizodus. Important discussions of the characteristics of 
the best-known Paleozoic genera are entered on, especially of Macrop- 
etalichthys, Onychodus, Bothriolepis, Dinichthys, Titanichthys, My- 
lostoma. and Edestus. 

In the discussion of the affinities of these and other genera, the zool- 
ogist who has gone beyond the views held in the days of the elder 
Agassiz will find a good deal to criticise. In fact, modern taxonomic 
, views do not seem to have taken much hold on the mind of Professor 
Newberry up to the time of writing this book. The principal source 
of error is the tendency to compare the extinct with very different 
recent forms, to which they may have some superficial resemblance. 
This is a tendency much more praiseworthy than the opposite extreme 
that prevails among paleontologists — that is, the habit of neglecting exist- 
ing forms, as though all of the latter have originated in modern times, 
which we well know is not the case. However, when Prof. Newberry com- 
pares Macropetalicthys with the sturgeons, he is certainly wide of the 
mark. This genus is a Placoderm, allied to Homosteus, and the areas 
on the cranium indicated by Prof. Newberry as separate elements, 
comparable to those of the true fishes and Batrachia, are not such, 
but are merely the spaces inclosed by the tubes of the lateral line sys- 
tem. (See Fig. 2, p. 43.) The true cranial segments are different, 
as I hope soon to show. As to the Dinichthyida, Professor Newberry 
follows Huxley in referring them, and of course other Placodermi, to 
the neighborhood of the Nematognathi of modern waters. Since the 
discovery of the dorsal fin in Coccosteus by von Koenen and Traquair, 
it is evident that the resemblance to the Siluroids is scarcely even 
superficial. In describing Ccelosteus, Prof. Newberry regards it as 
allied to Pappicthys, and the order of the Halecomorphi ; but this 
cannot be accepted, as the character of the ossification is that of van- 
ous truly Paleozoic types, and the general characters approach espe- 
cially to Rhizodus. 

In commenting on Macropetalichthys, the author asserts that the 
absence of lower jaw need not be regarded as a character of much 
importance, as is done by Haeckel and others. In this zoologists will 
probably agree with Professor Haeckel, and will make the systematic 
inferences from it which it warrants in the case of the Pteraspididae, 
for example. 

In his conclusion that the remarkable structures to which the name 
Edestus has been applied are median dorsal procumbent spines, ichthy- 
ologists will agree that Prof. Newberry has given the most plausible of 
all the attempted explanations yet offered. 



1890.] Geology and Paleontology. 847 

The most complete description of structure of any of the genera 
enumerated, is that of the genus Dinichthys Newb. The elements of 
the skull and shield are pointed out, and its affinity to Coccosteus Ag. 
is demonstrated. Prof. Newberry shows that the eye had an osseous 
capsule, whose intimate structure considerably resembles that of some 
existing forms, as the sword-fishes. He describes a foramen which has 
the position of the pineal foramen of some reptiles ; and shows that 
the eyes were protected by a ring of large bony sclerotic plates. A 
good deal of light is thrown on the structure of the fins. Thus Prof. 
Newberry believes that pectoral spines exist. H this be true, the 
family Dinichthyidse may be regarded as distinct from the Coccos- 
teida?, where Traquair shows that the}' are absent. Dorsal fin ele- 
ments are described from what are regarded as probably basilars. 
Their connections with the axial and not known, 

but so far as they go they resemble the elements described by Yon 
Koenen in Coccosteus, and indicate a wide difference from the struc- 
ture of the Siluroids or any other Actinopterygian fishes. 

The comb-like bodies found in Ohio coal measures with fishes and 
Stegocephalous Batrachia, originally described by the present critic in 
the Proceedings of the Amer. Philos. Soc, are redescribed by Prof. 
Newberry. He is not persuaded that Fritsch, who first found them in 
the Permian bed of Bohemia, has correctly referred them to the 
genitalia of the Stegocephali, but he is inclined to think them the 

The fifty-three plates that accompany the text greatly elucidate the 
subject. We are sorry that they could not have been better executed, 
but the fault is not Prof. Newberry's. The method of illustration by 
phototype process has not yet attained perfection, and until it does, 
and so long as the U. S. Geological Survey insists on using it. there 
must be some scapegoats. — E. D. Cope. 

Chinese Accounts of the Mammoth. — The gradual cooling 
of the Asiatic climate may be supported by the existence of the bones 
of the mammoth in northern Siberia. This hairy elephant lived in 
that country when the air was temperate, and when abundant forests 
supplied it with the young twigs on which it lived. Since that time 
northern Siberia has be< 0111 : an intolerably cold desert. The ground 
there is constantly frozen to a depth of more than two feet below the 
surface, and produces only moss, with a few modest-looking flowers. 
The mammoth very early drew the attention of the Chinese. It is 
first mentioned in the Er-ya, and next in Chuang-tse, in the third 



848 The American Naturalist. [September, 

century before Christ. The enormous quantities of valuable ivory 
which the remains of the mammoth in Siberia furnish made known to 
the ancient Chinese the existence of the animal through their trade 
with Tartary. On account of its being found in very many localities 
imbedded in the soil and in rocks, old books always speak of it as a 
monstrous mole living underground. It was found, they tell us, in 
China and in Tartary. Chuang-tse wrote as a poet, and pictures it 
1 ven shu) as drinking a river of water before its thirst was satisfied. 
lie had been told of the fossil bones or had seen them, and filled up the 
picture by the aid of imagination, either his own, or that of those from 
whom he heard the story. Seven centuries afterwards a medical 
writer, Tao Hung-king, says : " It is found in forests, and is as large 
as a water buffalo. It is in form something like a pig. Its color is a 
greyish-red. Its feet are like those of the elephant. Its breast and 
upper tail are white, and blunt though powerful. Its flesh is eaten, 
and is like that of the cow. It is known by the name ' King of the 
Shu tribe.' In calamitous years this animal often appears." 

In the seventh century this account of the animal was discredited. 
Its great size was not believed. Its hiding and walking in the earth 
were thought absurd. These disparaging criticisms were made by 
Chen T'sang-chi, an eminent writer, who does not seem to have been 
shown any of the bones of the animal. Yet in the eleventh century 
Su Sung defended the statements of early writers on the subject. 
Bones of some large unknown animal had been found at T'sangchou, 
near Tientsin, just as the Tsin History states that at Siuencheng, a 
little way southwest of Nanking, there had been found similar remains 
in the third century. It was also related that the same animal existed 
in Tartary, where the larger specimens weighed one thousand catties, 
and was fond of living in water. It was like an elephant in the legs, 
though it had the hoofs of a donkey. Another place where it was 
found was at Tsiuning, near Pingyang Fu in Shansi. The people 
called it the "recumbent cow." It used to wander among the moun- 
tains at times, and drop its hair in the fields. Each one became a 
rat, and great was the damage to the crops. The Liang history says 
that in Japan there is a large animal like a cow of the Shu class, which 
is eaten by a great serpent. These are all instances of the mammoth 
(" hidden, shu ") and prove the correctness of Tao's words. Tao has 
been blamed without reason by men who had not themselves inquired 
into the truth of his statements. The name by which this animal is 
known in Shensi is " the small donkey." Such are the testimonies of 
the existence of the mammoth cHertcd by the author of the Pen? sao. 



The Chinese accounts of a monster animal as given in the Pent 'sac could 
not, if taken alone, be regarded as agreeing with the Siberian mam- 
moth except in a rough way, yet they are very important. F.arly in 
this century the remains of that animal were found in so many parts 
of Siberia, and the ivory was of such great conmi-a* iai value that the 
whole scientific world was interested. Cuvier in France was absorbed 
in the contemplation of the remarkable bones submitted to him. and 

cayed, there must have been a sudden change of climate from tem- 
perate to extremely cold to account for the frozen condition in which 

the Chinese drug shops and found that the bones were known to the 

Chinese there. They gave him the name of the animal as it was 
recorded in the Penfsao. It was he that suggested that the throne of 
ivory of the Mongol Emperors was formed of the tusks and teeth of 
the Siberian mammoth, and that Chinese traders for two thousand 
years would be ready to buy on any occasion the ivory which was 
from time to time discovered and brought away. He went home to 
Berlin, and made known to the learned world that the Chinese had 
accounts of the animal. The passages he translated are apparently 
those which are found in the PenPsao, in the chapter on the class Shu, 
which includes the Rodentia with the squirrel, sable, ermine, and wea- 
sel. There can be no doubt that the mammoth, and possibly other 
fossil animals known to the Chinese, are assigned to the class Shu, 
because they were supposed to hide t; i ultivated 

fields, and to have died underground in the position where their bones 
were afterwards found . 

In a work published in 1887, "Mammoths and the Flood," by 
Henry Howorth, M.P., author of "A History of the Mongols," the 
attempt is made to prove that the change of the Siberian climate from 
mild to severe was sudden. Lyeli's uniformitarian doctrine is op- 
posed. Yet the evidence from China of a gradual change of climate 
in that country was not known to this author, and if he had had this 
evidence before him, showing as it does that there is a very slow- 
refrigeration taking place, c; ising gradual changes in the vegetable 
as well as the animal world, he might have modified his theory. Per- 
haps the best form for the hypothesis to assume is that of a rapid local 
refrigeration in Siberia, joined with a slow refrigeration generally over 
the Asiatic continent. The Chinese facts on climate point distinctly 
to a slow refrigeration, but do not in any way suggest a sudden catas- 
trophe by which the heat shown by the thermometer was reduced to a 



ge The American Naturalist. LSeptember, 

large extent. The Chinese mammoth has been found in four princi- 
pal localities : in the Yellow River alluvium near Tientsin, in the loess 
formation near the centre of Shansi, in Shensi, also on the banks of 
the Yangtze River in Anhui. It was this last discovery that drew the 
attention of Tau Hung-king, who belonged to Nanking, and being a 
noted Taoist, and a writer of the school of Pao Pu-tsz, would feel the 
deepest interest in the discovery so near his home.-. North China 
{Shanghai) Herald. 



MINERALOGY AND PETROGRAPHY 

Petrographical News. — The 

clastic, metamorphic, and eruptive 
fornia, promised by Mr. Becker a few years ago,* have recently ap- 
peared in an extended form. The principal conclusions of the study 
have already been referred to in these notes. The proofs which Mr. 
Becker offers for the correctness of the statements that many serpen- 
tines of the Coast Ranges are altered sediments will probably be 
accepted by most petrographers as sufficient. His conclusion that 
typical diabases, diorites, and gabbros are likewise derived from clastic 
materials will not find such ready acceptance, as there seems to be no 
positive evidence that such rocks were originally sediments, rather 
than eruptives, which squeezed themselves into fragmental beds, and 
so caused the formation of a graded series, with sandstone at one end 
and a holocrystalline rock at the other end. There is no reason to 
suppose that holocrystalline 4 rocks may not have sometimes originated 
by metasomatic alteration of fragmentals ; but the belief that a rock 
with the peculiar structure of diabase has originated in this way will 
require stronger proof for its acceptance than that offered in Mr. 
i of a few illustrations of types 



Becker's monograph. The present; 
of rocks intermediate between the sandstones and the diabases (pseudo 
diabases of Becker, metadiabases of Dana) would have aided mated 
ally in enabling readers of the volume to draw their own conclu ' 



origin of the rocks in questio 



In the discussion of 1 



s of the region, the term asperite is proposed i 
le to include all andesi tic rocks with a rough trachytic hal 

i Edited by Dr. W. S. Bayley, Colby University, Waterville, Me. 



i89o-] Mineralogy and Petrography. 851 

portion of the volume are also described andesitic and basaltic glasses, 
which are much more acid than the holocrystalline rocks with which 
they are associated. The basalt glass has the composition of an obsi- 
dian, and passes into a rock with the appearance of basalt. Analyses 

I. and II. are of obsidian and basalt respectively : 

SiO, P 2 5 Ti0 2 A1 2 3 Fe 2 O s FeO MnO NiO CaO MgO 
I- 75-40 7-72 1.41 -12 1.55 1-26 

II. 57.37 .02 .60 15.66 2.06 4.46. .27 .41 4.94 8.84 

Na 2 K,0 CI H s O Sp. Gr. 
8.00 4.52 .12 .43 2.39 
3.05 1.50 .74 2.83. 

differences in composition of the original magma. As an introduc- 
tion to his description of the minerals of the syenite-pegmatite veins 
of Southern Norway, Brogger 5 gives a short account of the geology 
of the region in which these veins occur, and gives his reasons for re- 
garding the lattter as eruptive in origin, as against the lateral secretion 
theory proposed to account for them. Since the article is itself an 
abstract of a monograph on the geology of the region, it is difficult to 
give a resume of its contents. Among the rocks discussed are some 
new types, to which reference may be made. Laurvikite is a typical 
augite-syenite composed of anorthoclase (or cryptoperthite) diopside, 
aegerine, and lepidomelane, with small amounts of barkevikite, olivine, 
sphene, magnetite, apatite, zircon, nepheline, cancrinite, and sodalite. 
It is granitic in structure, except on its periphery, where it is developed 
as the well-known rhombic porphyry. This latter occurs also as 
dykes in the former and as flows. A variety of the laurvikite, in which 
oligoclase is present in addition to the anorthoclase, and in which 
the latter mineral has rectangular rather than the rhombic cross 
sections which characterize it in the laurvikite Brogger calls 
augite-mica-syenite, since it contains very little nepheline. Another 
rock very characteristic of the region is called laurdalite. This is a 
coarse-grained nepheline-syenite, with or without olivine. It contains 
more nepheline and sodalite than does laurvikite, and the former min- 
eral is porphyritically developed. It is the rock described by the 
author as nepheline-syenite 6 in a former publication. The dyke rock 
corresponding to laurdalite is a nepheline-rhombic-porphyry, which 
differs from the porphyritic laurvikite in containing nepheline in its 

^Zeits.f. Kryst., etc., XVI., 1890. 
6 Silur. Elagen, 2 and 3, p. 273. 



852 The American Naturalist. [September, 

ground-mass. Three other varieties of dyke rock corresponding to 
laurdalite are recognized. The first is granitic, and is called ditroite ; 
the second is trachytic in structure, and has been denominated foyaite ; 
while the third has phenocrysts of elseolite in a granitic ground-mass. 
This a nepheline-porphyry. Hedrumite is trachytic, but it contains no 
elaeolite, or, if any, but a small quantity. A tinguaite variety of these 
rocks is also recognized. Among the acid rocks a quartz-bearing 
augite-syenite is distinguished by the name akerite. This rock is com- 
posed of orthoclase, plagioclase, a large amount of brown biotite, 
idiomorphic diopside, nepheline, sodalite, usually olivine, and nearly 
always quartz. Its structure is granitic, and its peripheral facies is a 
quartz-porphyry. Several varieties of the rock were discovered, one, 
of which is a hypersthene-akerite. More acid than akerite is nordm- 
arkite, which is a quartz-syenite, consisting of microperthite, a diop- 
• side pyroxene, biotite, glaucophane or segirine, and arfvedsonite, 
sphene, and a little zircon. It is granitic, with quartz in ordinary 
granite form. Since the rock contains less than 66% of Si0 2 it is 
called quartz-syenite, rather than soda-granite. The corresponding 
effusive rock is a quartz-rhombic-porphyry, with a poicilitic ground- 
mass of quartz and feldspar. Soda-granite is developed in several 
varieties, among which hornblende, arfvedsonite, and a^girine varieties 

granitic, consisting, as it does, of a ground-mass composed of short 
rectangular orthoclase, quartz, needles of gegirine, apatite, etc., with 
a few phenocrysts of microcline and regirine. The author proposes 
that the rock be called grorudite. Very many more special phases of 
these various rocks are recognized, but a full description of them is 
left to the promised monograph. The larger part .of the introductory 
portion of the volume is occupied with arguments to show that the 
pegmatitic veins so common in South Norway, as well as in other 
regions of old rocks, are true fillings of fissures by what was once a 

molten magnea. Toula 7 announces the results of the examination 

of rocks collected during several trips through the Balkans. The 
rocks of the Central Balkans are divided into massive rocks and crys- 
talline-schists, among the former of which granite, diorites (including 
nadel-diorite), uralite-diabase. microgranite, orthophyres, porphyrites, 
pepheline-basalt, limburgite, and andesitic and porphyritic tufas are 
described ; among the latter granitic, halleflinta and other gneisses and 
■ luartz-pnvllit.,, u . mt , nl , m , p p, • „ ) , u ,,, Pali m- are fossiliferous 



1890.] Mineralogy and Petrography. 853 

diorites, j *or] ihyrites, quartz-norphyrv. andesites, and traohvtes of 

various kinds, s and tufas. Lacroix 8 announces 

the discovery of a peculiar rock, composed of garnets, quartz, ortho- 
clase, oligoclase, nitite. and diaspore. oc< Hiring in blocks cast from a 

volcano near Bournac in the Auvergne. Mr. Xason 9 gives a brief 

description of the crystalline rocks occurring in the Highlands of New 
Jersey. 

New Minerals. — In addition to the numerous new minerals lately 
discovered by Borgger in the Scandinavian Peninsula, five others have 
recently been described. These latter are from Sweden ; the discov- 
ery of them is due to Igelstrom. 9 Talcknebelite, from the iron mine 

Hillang, Ludvika Parish, Gouvernement Dalekarlien. is associated 
with small red garnets. In appearance- it resembles igslstromite, but is 
lighter and has a pearly lustre on a fresh fracture. In composition it is 
a magnesium bearing knebelite as follows : Si0 2 = $$. 1 ; FeO = 42.6 ; 

MnO= 21.6 ; MgO= 4.7. Ferrostibian has been found imbedded 

in massive rhodonite at the Sjogrufvan Mine, (inthyttan, Oerebo. 
The crystals are quite large. They are probably monoclinic, and 
bounded by oP, 00 P 00 and w P 00 '. They are black and opaque, 
with a brownish-black streak, and are weakly magnetic. They have a 
hardness of 4, and in thin section are blood red in color. The mineral 
dissolves with great difficulty in the usual reagents. An analysis gave : 
SiO a (MgCa)Co 3 Sb 2 5 FeO Mno H 2 
2.24 2.14 1418 22.60 46,97 9.19 

Regarding the silica and carbonate as impurities, and the manganese 
and iron as in the " ous " condition (which could not be proven), 
the analysis may be expressed by the formula 10 RO. Sb 3 5 -f-io(RO. 

H 2 0). Pleurasite is a hydrate arsenate from the same mine. It is 

implanted in arseniopleite. It is bluish-black and opaque, but in thin 
se< turn 1 < c,.m< , 1 alt red. It has a half metallic lustre, a black streak 
tinged with red. and a hardness oi 4. and i>verv weakly magnetic. It 
dissolve:- readih in dilute hydrochloric acid, and yields a yellow solu- 

that it is a hydrated manganese iron arsenate, containing some anti- 



The crystals appear 



854 The American Naturalist. [September, 

to be orthorhombic. They are raven black and perfectly opaque even 
in the thinnest sections. They are easily soluble in hydrochloric acid 
and are not magnetic. An approximate analysis gave: FeO=26; 

Mn 2 O s = 44 ; Sb 2 5 + H 2 = 30. Neotesite, also from the Sjogru- 

fvan, occurs in lamellar masses associated with tephroite, pyrrhoarsenite, 
and calcite. It resembles in appearance red orthoclase. It has a good 
cleavage, a hardness of 5-5.5. It is soluble in acids, leaving a residue 
of flocculent silica. Its composition : 

Si0 2 MnO FeO MgO H,0 

29.50 40.60 tr. 20.05 9-85 

corresponds to (MnMg) 2 Si0 4 +H 3 0, i.e., to a hydrated tephroite. 

The author, however, does not regard it as a decomposed tephroite. 

Antlerite is a light green, massive mineral from the Antler Mine, Mo- 
have County, Arizona, which, according to Hillebrand, 10 has a specific 
gravity of 3.93, and a composition as follows : €110=67.91 ; ZnO= 
16.5 ; CaO = .05 ; S0 3 = 20.77 > H 2 0= 10.93, corresponding to 3 
Cu S0 4 +7 Cu(OH),. Selen-tellurium, from El Plomo Mine, Teguci- 
galpa, Honduras, is nearer in composition to native selenium, accord- 
ing to Messrs. Dana and Wells, 11 than any substance known. It is 
regarded as an isomorphous mixture of the two metals indicated by its 
name, in the proportions Se= 29.31, Te= 70.69. It occurs massive, has 
an indistinct columnar structure, and is blackish-gray in color. Its 
cleavage indicates hexagonal crystallization. Durdenite, a greenish- 
yellow mineral associated with native tellurium, is thought by the 
same authors to be a ferric tellurite corresponding to Fe 2 (Fe0 3 ) 3 + 
4 H 2 0, but differing from the ferric tellurite described by Hillebrandt 
under the name emmonsite. HamUnite.— Messrs. Hidden and Pen- 
field 12 describe a rhombohedral mineral occurring at Stoneham, Maine, 
in small crystals, associated with herderite, margarodite, and bertran- 
dite. The material available for study was so small that no chemical 
analysis of it was possible. The crystals are bounded by oR, R, and 
— 2R, with oR predominating, a : c = i :i-i35- The cleavage is per- 
fect, parallel to the base, and the lustre on this face is pearly, while 
on the rhombohedral faces it is vitreous and greasy. The double re- 
fraction is weak and positive. Hardness=4.5 ; Sp. Gr. = 3.228. Blow- 
pipe tests prove the mineral to be a phosphate of beryllium and alum- 



Mineralogy and Petrography. 855 

ne, near Eiserfeld, Siegen. 13 It is in the form of 
sh-violet aggregates lining cavities in an iron ore. 
nd has a hardness of 3.75, and a density of 2.76. 
In the glass tube it becomes yellow and opaque and loses water. Dis- 
solves in hydrochloric acid, but is almost insoluble in nitric acid. An 
analysis gave Fe a 3 = 44-30 J P,O s = 38.85 ; H,0 =17.26, correspond- 
ing nearly to 2Fe 2 3 P 2 5 -f 8H,0, which is the formula for strengite. 
The new mineral differs from strengite in containing about two per 
cent, less water, and in losing all of this in one stage. PhosphoeideritC 
is orthorhombic, with a :b : c =.533° : » : - 8 772- The cleavage is par- 
allel to 00 P 'So, which is the predominant form. Prismatic forms are 
also largely developed. Twins, with P« the twinning plane, are met 
with. The mineral is optically positive, with 00 P ~So the axial plane 
and c the acute bisectrix, 2 V n ,= 62°4' and p> u/ . Pleochroism is 
a = pale rose, b ae carmine, c = colorless. 

Miscellaneous. — The U. S. National Museum has just published 
two pamphlets of some interest. One is by Mr. Kunz, 1 * and contains 
a readable account of the gems in the possession of the institution. 
The second is of more special interest to mineralogists. It is a com- 
plete catalogue of mineral names, with their synonyms in French, Ger- 
man, and other languages. The volume is by Dr. Egleston," of 
Columbia. It is intended to serve as an aid to those who arrange and 
keep in order large collections of minerals, a purpose that it 

will surely serve. The first part of volume second of 

the Report of the Geological Survey of New Jersey 16 contains 

a full list of the minerals found in that State. The well-known 

instrument maker, Fuess, 17 has recently given very full and clear de- 
scriptions of some petrographical microscopes manufactured by him- 
self after suggestions offered by practical mineralogists and petro* 
graphers, and of some newly-constructed apparatus for use with these. 
The most novel of the latter are an axial angle apparatus and a gonio- 
meter attachable to the stage of the microscopes. 

13 Bruhus and Busz : Zeits.f. Kryst., XVII.. 1890, p. 555. 

" Rep. Smith. Inst., 1885-6. Pt. II., p. 267-275. 

is Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 33, Wash.. 1889. 

i« Geol. Sur. of N. J. Rep. of State Geol., Vol. II., Pt. I., Trenton, 1889. 



The American Naturalist. 



MICROSCOPY. 
Methods for the Preservation of Marine Organisms Em- 
ployed at the Naples Zoological Station.— Unfortunately for 
our students, especially those living inland and depending largely for 
their knowledge of marine forms upon dried or preserved specimens in 
museums, the old-fashioned methods of throwing any material which 
the collector may find into a jar of alcohol without further attention, 
or else drying it in the sun, arc still almost the only ones made use of 
for the preservation of museum specimens. The result is that the 
majority of forms which the student has for study are either dried 
skeletons, or shrivelled up monstrosities giving no idea whatever of the 
actual appearance of the creatures supposed to be represented by them. 
How many college museums possess a specimen of coral showing in any 
recognizable form the polyps by which the skeleton coral was formed ? 
Or how many have even a satisfactorily prepared Lamellibranch ? 

There are, however, in this country, a few collections which show a 
marvellous improvement in their manner of preparation, and which have 
been purchased for the Naples Zoological Station, whose conservator, 
Salvatore Lo Bianco, has, for several years, been devoting himself to 
the discovery of the best methods for the preservation of the form and 
color of the marine animals occurring in the Mediterranean. Until 
the present, however, his discoveries have not been made common 
property, except in the few cases where the most successful methods 
of preserving certain forms have been published in connection with 
accounts of their structure. The last number of the Naples Mit- 
thdlungcn? however, contains a full description, by Lo Bianco, 
of the methods found most successful for the preservation of the 
various forms which occur at Naples, and which are undoubtedly appli- 
cable to the similar forms found upon our own coast. An abstract of 
these methods is given in the following pages, in the hope that they 
may be found useful by the museum curators of this country, and that 
their application may result in the much-needed improvement of the 
appearance of the specimens found in the majority of our college 
museums. 

It must be fully understood, however, that much depends upon the 
skill of the preparator, and that want of care and patience will fre- 
the advantages to be derived from a good 



1890.] Microscopy. 

method. All who have had the opportunity ol 
prepared by Lo Bianco can appreciate readily 
which may result from the careful application ol 
perceive how greatly we are indebted to him a 
for their publication. 

Alcohol is, of course, indispensable as preser 
are necessary in its use. Kxcept 



cient for preservation, and producing mui 
fragility in delicate organisms. Strong alcdt* 
distilled water to the desired strength, ordinal 



may effectually destroy the appearance <>f a specimen. Furthermore. 
delicate organisms should first be [«l:n ■■ ■'. in weak alcohol ( ^ to 5c ■</, ) 
for from 2 to 6 hours, the changing of the fluids Fein- effected by a 
siphon, a small quantity of the weak alcohol being withdrawn and 
- ■"■■'■ , './;.-■ 

'ruclures tl, iucrcast in the strength of the 
alcohol should he as iS - ■ dual as possible. 

In many cases it is necessary to use a hardening or fixing reagent 
before the final consignment to alcohol, which is principally useful as 
a preservative. The most useful fixing reagents, according to Lo 
Bianco, are the following : 

Chromic Acid. — 1 per cent, in fresh water. Objects should not 
remain in this fluid longer than is necessary to fix them, as they are 
apt to become brittle. Subsequent, 

distilled water to prevent the formation of a precipitate when placed 
in alcohol, and also to prevent their taking on too green a tinge from 
the reduction of the acid. 

Acetic Acid, concentrated, kills rapidly contractile animals, but 
must be used with caution, as it produces a softening of the tissues if 
they are subjected for too long a time to its action. 

Osmic Acid. — 1 per cent, solution, hardens gelatinous forms well, and 
preserves their transparency, but its prolonged action renders the 
object brittle and gives it a dark brown tint. Objects hardened in 
it should be well washed in distilled water before being placed in 
alcohol. 

Lactic Acid.— 1 part to 1000 parts sea-water fixes larvae and gelatin- 
ous forms well. 



858 The American Naturalist. [September, 

Corrosive Sublimate. — Saturated solution in fresh or sea-water j may 
be used either hot or cold. It acts quickly, and preserves admirably 
for histological purposes. It is especially good combined with copper 
sulphate, acetic acid, or chromic acid. Objects hardened in it should 
be subsequently well washed in distilled water and in iodized alcohol 
(the recipe for which is given below), to remove all traces of the 
sublimate, which in alcohol crystallizes out in the tissues of the organ- 
isms and so injures the preparation. 

Bichromate of Potassium. — 5 per cent, solution in distilled water 
hardens gelatinous organisms slowly, without rendering them fragile. 
It gives, however, a precipitate in alcohol, and discolors the speci- 
men. The discoloration, however, may be removed by adding to the 
alcohol a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid. 

Copper Sulphate.— 5 per cent, or 10 per cent, solution in distilled 
water, used either alone or in combination with corrosive sublimate, 
kills larvae and delicate animals without distortion. The objects should 
be subsequently repeatedly washed with water to remove all traces of 
of the salt, otherwise crystals will form when the object is placed in 
alcohol. 

Various combinations of these reagents are especially useful, and 
some of those most serviceable are given here : 



Alcohol and chromic acid. 

70 per cent, alcohol . . 

1 per cent, chromic acid 

Alcohol and hydrochloric acid. 




1 equal parts. 


Hydrochloric acid, concentrated 5 c.c. 

Iodized alcohol. 

35 per cent, or 70 per cent, alcohol 100 c.c. 


Chrom-acetic acid, No. 1. 

1 per cent, chromic acid 








5 cc 


Chrom-acetic acid, No 2. 










10 cc 


Chrom-osmic acid. 

1 per cent, chromic acid 100 c.c. 



1890.] Microscopy. 859 

Chrom-picric acid. 

1 per cent, chromic acid ) , 

in , . ,,.,,.., \ equal parts. 

Kleinenberg s picrosulpnunc acid ) 

Copper sulphate and corrosive sublimate. 

10 per cent, solution of copper sulphate 100 c.c. 

Saturated solution of corrosive sublimate 10 c.c. 

Potassium bichromate and osmic acid. 



Saturated solution of corrosive sublimate 100 c.c. 

Concentrated acetic acid 5° cc - 

Corrosive sublimate and chromic acid. 

1 per cent, chromic acid 5° cc - 

Frequently great difficulty is experienced in killing an animal with- 
out producing a considerable amount of contraction, and in the case 
of elongated forms, such as Nemertean and other worms, without 
causing them to coil up or become twisted. To avoid this, it is 
expedient to narcotize the animals before killing them, and for this 
purpose Lo Bianco recommends immersion in weak alcohol. He uses 
generajy a mixture of sea-water 100 c.c. and absolute alcohol 5 c.c. 
In othe- cases 70 per cent, alcohol may be carefully poured upon the 
water in which the specimen lies, so that it forms a layer at the surface. 
It will gradually mix with the subjacent water, and in the course of a 
few hours will narcotize the animal, so that it may be treated with fix- 
ing reagetts without fear of contraction. 

Chloral hydrate, 1 to 2 parts to 1000 parts sea-water, is also efficient 
as a narcotizing agent, and has the advantage of allowing a recovery 
of the aninnl, if there should be necessity for it, by placing it in fresh 

For some ssa-anemones tobacco smoke is useful, the smoke being 
conducted b> a V-shaped tube into a bell-jar covering the vessel of 

Certain of these reagents will prove most satisfactory with some ani- 
mals, others with others. Lo Bianco details the best method for treat- 
ing the various f»rms in a second portion of his paper, and an account 
of some of his Methods of procedure, so far as they concern forms 
which resemble those found upon our coast, may now be presented. 



860 The American Naturalist. [September, 

Sponges. — Direct immersion in 70 per cent, alcohol, with subsequent 
renewal of the fluid, is recommended for the majority of forms. To 
avoid contraction in the case of the Halisarcidse they should be left for 
half an hour in 1 per cent, chromic acid, or in concentrated solution 
of corrosive su linutes. To prepare dried specimens 

the sponges should be washed in fresh water for a few hours, and then 
allowed to remain in ordinary alcohol for a day, after which they may 
be dried in the sun. 

Anthozoa. — The first care must be to place the forms belonging to 
this group in fresh salt-water, to allow them to expand, a result which 
may not be ok n some cases. Alcyon- 

arians sh Id b killed with ehi 11 tic solution N 2 thdrawhig 
the water in which they lie until there is left just enough to cover them, 
and then adding a volume of the chrom-acetic solution double that of 
the sea-water. The animals should be removed from tnis mixture :he 
moment they are killed, since the acid will quickly attack the calca- 
reous spicules, which are important for the identification of the Alc^on- 
aria, and placed in 35 per cent, or 50 per cent, alcohol, it being well 
to inject the alcohol into the mouths of the polyps to keep them freely 
expanded. The preparation should finally be preserved in 70 percent, 
alcohol. 

Regarding the Actinians no definite rule for preservation can be 
given. Much of the success of tre pre] aration depends on tie form 
employed, some species contracting much less readily and less perfectly 
than others. Some may be killed in a fair condition by pounng over 
them when expanded boiling corrosive sublimate, and then, before con- 
signing them to alcohol, treating for a few minutes with one-half per 
cent, chromic acid. This method may be employed with snail forms 
such as Aiptasia. Narcotization may be tried with others. For this 
purpose remove from the vessel in which the animals an contained 
two-thirds of the sea-water, and replace it with a 2 per cent, solution 
of choral hydrate. After a few minutes the fluid is agiin removed, 
and cold concentrated sublimate solution is poured, in. Tobacco 
smoke, in some cases, as with Adamsia, will act satisfactorily, if fol- 
lowed with vapor of chloroform for two to three hours, ifter which the 
animals may be killed in chrom-acetic, solution No. 2 and hardened 
in one-half per cent, chromic acid. 

Edwardsia may be narcotized by gradually addinr 70 per cent, al- 
cohol to the sea-water in which they are, and subsequently may be 
killed with hot corrosive sublimate. 



Cerianthus should be killed 
it as soon as possible in weak a 
so that the tentacles may float i 

Corals should be allowed 
killed with boiling solution of ■ 
in volume equal to that of the 
colony should then be transfer! 
fluid being injected into the 
should be repeated at every ch 
should be preserved in 70 per c 
iodized alcohol. 

HvJromcdusce. — For the hydi 
corrosive sublimate. The smal 
either in the mixture of corrosi 
enberg's picrosulphuric acid. 



Small Campanularian medusae, e.g. , Eucope and Obelia, may be killed 
in the mixture of a)\] sEcjuorea 

should be killed with concentrated acetic acid, and immediately trans- 
ferred to chrom-osmic mixture for fifteen to thirty minutes. The same 
method answers for Cunina, while Liriope should be treated at once 
with chrom-osmic for five to twenty minutes. 

Scyphomedusee are best fixed with 1 per cent, osmic acid, to the 
action of which they are subjected until they assume a pale brown tint. 
They should then be thoroughly washed with fresh water before being 
placed in 35 per cent, alcohol, and should be finally preserved in 70 
per cent. 

Siphonophores. — The forms of this group should be preserved soon 
after capture, and specimens in good condition should be selected. 
Agalma and similar forms should be killed in the mixture of copper 
sulphate and sublimate, which should be used in volume equal to or 
double that of the sea-water in which the animal floats. The mixture 
should be poured in rapidly, and not over the animal. When killed, 
the specimen should be carefully lifted upon a large horn spatula, and 
transferred to 35 per cent, alcohol for a few hours, and then placed in 
70 per cent. It is recommended to preserve the animals in tubes just 
large enough to contain the specimens and placed within a second lar- 



862 The American Naturalist. [September, 

ger tube. In this way evaporation of the alcohol is prevented, and 
also injury of the specimen from movements of the liquid is avoided. 
Physalia should be placed in a cylinder filled with sea-water, the 
animal being lifted by the pneumatophore. When well expanded it is 
killed by pouring over it the sublimate and acetic acid mixture (one- 
quarter the volume of the sea-water), and when dead is transferred to 
a cylinder containing one-half per cent, chromic acid, and then after 
twenty minutes to 50 per cent, alcohol, and finally to 70 percent. 

Velella may be killed with chrom-picric or sublimate and chromic 
acid mixture, and after a few minutes should be transferred to weak al- 
cohol. Porpita may be fixed by dropping Klienenberg's picro-sul- 
phuric acid into the vessel in which it is contained, and when the blue 
color commences to change to red it should be transferred to Kleinen- 
berg's fluid, and after fifteen minutes to weak alcohol. 

Diphyes may be killed expanded by hot corrosive sublimate. 
Ctenophora may be killed by throwing them into the chrom-osmic 
mixture, where they should remain for fifteen to sixteen minutes, 
according to the size, and then gradually passing them through alcohol 
to 70 per cent. A mixture composed of 

Pyroligneous acid, concentrated, 1 vol. 

Corrosive sublimate solution, 2 vols. 

One-half per cent, chromic acid, 1 vol. 

is also recommended as a fixative. 

Echinodermata. — Starfish may be prepared with the ambulacral feet 
in full distension by allowing them to die in 20 to 30 per cent, alcohol. 
Echinoids should be placed in a small quantity of water, and killed 
with chrom-acetic mixture No. 2, being removed from it as quickly as 
possible, as the acid corrodes the test. To preserve the internal parts 
it is necessary to make two opposite openings in the test, so that the 
alcohol may penetrate the interior readily. 

Holothurians, such as Thyone and Cucumaria, after the tentacles are 
fully expanded, should be seized a little below the bases of the tenta- 
cles by forceps, using a slight pressure, and the anterior portion of the 
body should then be immersed in concentrated acetic acid. Alcohol 
(90 per cent.) should then be injected into the mouth, and the speci- 
mens placed in 70 per cent, alcohol. The injection should be repeated 
each time the alcohol is changed. 

Synapta should be fixed by immersion in a tube containing a mixture 
of equal parts of sea-water and ether (or chloroform), where they re- 
main completely expanded. They should then be washed for a short 



time in fresh water, and passed into alcohol, 
the strength of this very gradually. 

Vermes. — Cestodes, Trematodes, Turbellaria 
minthes, are most satisfactorily killed with con 



Nemerteans should be narcotized in a solution of chloral hydrate in 
sea-water i per cent., where they should remain for 6 to 1 2 hours. 
They are then to be hardened in alcohol. 

Gephyreans may be narcotized with 1 per cent solution of chloral 
hydrate in sea-water, or in alcoholized sea-water, 3 to 6 hours ; or else 
may be killed at once in one-half per cent, chromic acid, which last 
method may also be applied to Him di net. 

Chcetopods are best narcotized in sea-water containing 5 per cent, of 
absolute alcohol, or by adding gradually to the surface of the sea-water 
in which they are contained a mixture of glycerine 1 part, 70 per 
cent, alcohol 2 parts, and sea-water 2 parts, hardening them subse- 
quently in alcohol. Cheetopterus is best killed with 1 per cent, 
chromic acid, in which they should remain for half an hour; while 
the Hermellidaa, Aphroditidas, and the Eunicinas may be killed in cold 
corrosive sublimate. Some of these, such as Diopatra, may. however, 
be narcotized in alcoholized sea-water. Serpulidse, before treatment 
with corrosive sublimate, should be narcotized in 1 per cent, chloral 
hydrate, which causes them to protrude wholly or partly from their 

Crustacea. — Cladocera, Copepods and Schizopods may be killed in 
corrosive sublimate, dissolved in sea-water. Ostracodes may be thrown 
at once into 70 per cent, alcohol. Cirripedes die expanded in 35 
per cent, alcohol, and if some specimens contract it is easy to draw 
out the cirrhi with forceps. Amphipods and Isopods may pass 
directly into 70 per cent, alcohol, except the Bopyrids and Entonis- 
cids, which should be killed in the mixture of equal parts of 90 per 
cent, alcohol and sublimate solution. 

To avoid the casting off of the appendages of the Decapods they 
should be allowed to die in fresh water, care being taken not to allow 
them to remain in it longer than is necessary, as it causes a distortion 
of the membranous appendages. 

Pycnogonids will die in one-half per cent, chromic acid with the 
appendages fully extended. 

Molhtsca.— Lamellibranchs, Prosobranchs and, Heteropods should 
be narcotized in alcoholized sea-water. To avoid the closure 



864 The American Naturalist 

of the valves of Lamellibranchs on immersion in 70 per cent, alcohol, 
little plugs of wood should be placed between the margins of the 
valves. The same result may be effected in the case of Prosobranchs 
by tying the internal edge of the operculum to the shell. 

Of the Opisthobranchs the aeolidse may be best preserved by pour- 
ing over them concentrated acetic acid in volumes equal to or double 
that of the sea-water containing them. Dorids should first be narcot- 
ized by gradually adding 70 per cent, alcohol to their sea-water, and 
then killed with concentrated acetic acid or boiling sublimate. The 
larger forms may be killed in 1 to 5 per cent, chromic acid. 

Pteropods are preserved well in Pereny's Fluid for fifteen minutes, 
whence they are passed to 50 per cent, alcohol. Gymnosomatous 
forms should be first narcotized with 1 per cent, chloral hydrate, and 
then killed in acetic acid or sublimate;. 

Decapod Cephalopods may be fixed directly in 70 percent, alcohol, 
making an opening on the ventral surface to allow the alcohol to reach 

Bryozoa.— The genera Pedicellina and Loxosoma may be left for 
an hour in 1 per cent, chloral hydrate, and then killed with cold 
corrosive sublimate, washing them immediatety afterwards. Some 
species of Bugula give good results when the expanded animals are 
suddenly killed by pouring over them hot corrosive sublimate. With 
other forms it is sometimes possible to preserve them well expanded by 
adding 70 per cent, alcohol gradually to the surface of the water in 
which they are, or by narcotizing first in weak chloral hydrate or in 
alcoholized sea-water. The results are, however, uncertain, and de- 
pend largely on the skill of the preparator. 

Brachiopoda may be treated in the same manner as Lamellibranchs. 

Tunicates. — Clavellina, Perophora, and Molgula may be killed with 
the orifices expanded by immersing them in 1 per cent, chloral 
hydrate for 6 to 12 hours. They should then be killed in chrom-acetic 
mixture, No. 2, and quickly transferred to 1 per cent, chromic acid, 
injecting some of the fluid into the body. After half an hour they 
should be transferred in 35 per cent, alcohol, the injection being re- 
peated, and finally to 70 per cent. Other simple forms may be treated 

chloral hydrate, or may be killed by pouring a little 1 per cent, 
chromic acid on the surface of the water in which they are, subse- 
quently hardening in 1 per cent, chromic acid. The method recom- 
mended for Perophora may be employed (or compound Ascidians. us- 
ing, however, corrosive sn" chrom-acetii mixture. 



Salpce vary considerably in consistency, according to the species, 
and different methods are consequently required. The denser forms, 
such as S. zonaria, should be placed in a mixture of ioo c.c. fresh 

for fifteen minutes. They should then be washed in fresh water for 
ten minutes, and pass gradually into alcohol. Less dense forms, such 
as S. tlcmocratica mucronata, may be fixed in chrom-acetic mixture. No. 
i, and then passed directly into fresh alcohol ; while the soft forms, 
such as S. pinnata and maxima, should be placed in chrom-osmic mix- 
ture for 15 to 60 minutes, then washed in fresh water, and transferred 
to weak alcohol. 

Fishes. — . ( ended in sea- 

water alcoholized to 10 per cent. They should then be transferred to 
50 per cent, alcohol, and gradually to 70 per cent. 

Other forms may be preserved in alcohol (70 per cent.), taking care 
to make a ventral incision, and also to inject the alcohol and renew it 
frequently at first. If it is wished to preserve some of the larger 
Selachians for some months in order to prepare at leisure the skeleton, 
the intestines should be removed, and the animals placed in a 10 per 

Elasmobranch embryos may be fixed in corrosive sublimate, leaving 
them in the solution for 5 to 15 minutes, afterwards washing well 
in iodized alcohol. Embryos of Torpedo with the yolk were preserved 

acid and corrosive sublimate for fifteen minutes, and then transferring 

Transparent fish eggs may be preserved for the purpose of demon- 
stration by subjecting them for a few minutes to the action of. the 
alcohol and ! ture, and then transferring them to 

pure alcohol. — Plavi air M'Murrich. 



The American Naturalist. 



ENTOMOLOGY." 



The Long-legged Harvest Spider.— In my Descriptive Cata- 
logue of the Phalangiinse of Illinois 2 I described, under the name 
Liobunum nigropalpi Wood, a harvest spider that occurred rather 
commonly in southern Illinois, and which, from the extreme length of 
its legs and other characters, had been identified as the species indi- 
cated. I have lately received, however, through the kindness of Pro- 
fessor George F. Atkinson, specimens of a harvest spider taken in 
North Carolina which proves to be Wood's species, leaving the Illinois 
species without a name. On account of its exceedingly long legs the 
specific name longipes is proposed for it, in connection with the 
description given below. We have taken both sexes a number of times 
this season in central Ohio ; and Professor Atkinson has sent a single 
specimen taken at Auburn, Alabama. 

Liobunum longipes n. sp. f late. -Figs, i and 2.— Male.— Body 
4 mm. long; 3 mm. wide. Palpi 4 mm. long. Legs : I., 49 mm - J 
II. , 99 mm. ; III., 50 mm. ; IV., 67 mm. 

Dorsum minutely tuberculate, reddish-brown with a subobsolete 
dark central marking, sometimes simply represented by obscure dark 
blotches. Eye eminence at least as broad as high, black above, cana- 
liculate, with small black tubercles on the carinas. Mandibles light 
yellowish-brown, tips of claws black ; second joint with sparse hairs. 
Palpi slender, light brown, distal portion of femur, and almost all of 
patella, black ; femur, patella, and tibia with small scattered tubercles, 
and short hairs ; tarsus, with a row of subobsolete, small, black 
tubercles on its inner ventrolateral surface. Ventrum paler than dor- 
sum, of a nearly uniform tint. Coxae minutely tuberculate, of same 
color as ventrum. Trochanters black. Legs very long, slender, black 
with white annulations at distal extremities of femur and tibia, especi- 
ally in the second and fourth pairs. Shaft of genital organ flattened, con- 
tracted near its distal extremity, and bent upwards, terminating in an 
acute point. 

Described from many specimens. 

The body of the female is slightly larger than the male, with the 
central marking usually more pronounced. 

The accompanying plate is engraved from drawings by Miss Freda 
Detmers. Fig. 1 represents the male, natural size, while Fig. 2 shows 

1 Edited by Dr. C. M. Weed. Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Columbus, Ohio. 
* Bull. 111. St. Lab. Nat. Hist., Vol. III., Art. V. 



PLATE XXIX. 




■■■■■. 



1890.J Entomology. 

details of the same, magnified : a being a back view of the body ; 
side view of the eye eminence ; c, a front view of the same ; d 
palpus, side view ; and e, the palpal claw, side view.— Clarence 



Food-Plants of the Clover-Stem Borer. 1 — Until very re- 
cently the accepted life-history of the clover-stem borer (Languria 
mozardii) rested upon the observations recorded by Professor J. H. 
Comstock in the Report of the U. S. Department of Agriculture for 
1879. Briefly stated, these observations showed that the eggs of the 
insect are deposited during June in the stems of red clover ; that the 
larvae hatching shortly after feed upon the pith of the stalk, pupate 
within the burrow the same -season, and emerge as beetles during 
August, September, and October, hibernating as adults. As to reme- 
dies, Professor Comstock says : 

" It seems probable that where clover is regularly cut in early sum- 
mer, and again in fall, this insect will not increase to any alarming 
extent ; but where this is neglected, or where there is much waste 
clover, it may do considerable damage. ' ' 

Essentially these facts and recommendations have been rehearsed 
by a number of writers during the last decade ; but in a recent article 
in Insect Life (Vol. II., pp. 346-7), Mr. F. H. Chittenden has shown 
that this species develops in horse-weed (Ambrosia bifida), and prob- 
ably also in nettle {Urtica dioicd), daisy fleabane (Erigeron tamosus), 
and ox-eye daisy (Ckrysai Mr. F. M. Wd^ur 

has also found a larva indistinguishable from that of the present sp-.cies 
in stems of timothy (Phleum pratense). 

My observations upon this species began the present summer, ar.d 
show that the insect has even a greater range of food-plants than these 
facts would indicate. Between July 12 and August 12, larvae, pupae, 
or adults of Z. mozardii were found in the stems of the following 
plants : Yarrow (Achillea millefolium), sweet clover (Melilotus alba), 
wild lettuce (Luctuca canadense and L. fioridanum), bellflower | Campa- 
nula americana), thistle (Cnicus altissimus), fleabane (Erigeron phila- 
delphicus), and nettle (Urtica gracilis). 

A large number of stems of red clover were examined for the insect, 
but none were found. Hence it seems probable that the species pre- 
fers uncultivated plants, especially the c 
poses. — Clarence M. Weed. 



868 The American Naturalist. [September, 

Outlook for Economic Entomology. — An interesting article 
upon this subject, by Dr. C. V. Riley, is published in the American 
Garden for July, 1890. The author says : "All late advances in the 
study, and>ll probable advances in the immediate future, come under 
three chief categories : (1) The ascertaining of every detail in the life- 
history of species at present injurious, or likely to become injurious. (2) 
Thorough and careful experiments with insecticide substances. (3) The 
invention and improvement of apparatus for the application of insecti- 
cides. ... As one of the immediate results of the great increase in the 
number of paid entomologists who are able to devote all or nearly all of 
their time to the work, consequent on the recent establishment of the State 
Experiment Stations, we may expect, after a little preliminary repeti- 
tion of previously known facts and remedies in the interest of accessi- 
bility, great advance along the lines of our first category. Our knowl- 
edge of the life-histories and habits of ail plant-destroying pests should 
take great and immediate strides, and, as I have shown, new prevent- 
ives and remedies will undoubtedly result from the establishing of facts 
of this character. Progress in the second and third categories will be 
much slower. Yet we may confidently anticipate advances in the 
cheapening of insecticides, and in better knowledge of their properties 
and the conditions governing their application. We may as confi- 
dently look for cheaper and better apparatus, though radical and 
important discoveries in this direction are hardly to be anticipated, 
however much hoped for." 

Recent Literature.— One of the most useful volumes ever pub- 
lished by the Department of Agriculture has lately been issued by the 
Bureau of Animal Industry. It is by Dr. Cooper Curtice, and is 
entitled, "The Animal Parasites of Sheep." There are 221 pages 
and thirty-six plates, the latter being well-executed lithographs from 
drawings by Haines and Marx. As Dr. Salmon well remarked in his 
letter of transmittal : « The subject of parasites and parasitic diseases 
is one of great importance, and must become more prominent as the 
number of domesticated animals in the country increases, and the 
pastures become more limited in comparison with the flocks which 
graze upon them. Under such' conditions parasites multiply more 
rapidly, and their ravages become more alarming. For this reason 
the time has come when we must pay more attention to these organ- 
isms, and study more assiduously the means of controlling them, if we 
would preserve that healthfulness and vigor for which the animals of 
this country have heretofore been noted." 






Bulletin No. 22 of the Unite,! States Division 



Hruner. and Miss Mu 
Hcmiptera injuring gi 



Geo n \>— John C. Branner, of Little Rock, Ark.; F— Biology 
— C. S. Minot, of Boston, Mass.; H.— Anthropology—Frank Baker, 

■ :..nce and Mat-stirs — -J. kirhards 

Bolton, of > '. Harvey W. Wiley, 

and Astronomy— W- Mich.; B— 

istry— W. A. Noyes, of Terre Haute, Ind.; D.— Mechanical Science 

—Geology and Geography— Samuel Calvin, of Iowa City, Iowa; F. 
—Biology— John M. Coulter, of Crawfordsville, Ind.; H.— Anthro- 
pology— Joseph Jastrow, of Madison, Wis.; /—Economic Science 
and Statistics-— B. S. Fernow, Washington, D. C. Treasurer, William 
Lilly, of Mauch Chunk, Pa. 



870 The American Naturalist. [September 

Thursday, August 21st. — Papers read in Section E. — Geology and 
Geography. — Preservation of Glaciated Rocks, by Homer T. Fuller. 
An Old Channel of the Niagara River, by J. T. Scovell. Niagara : A 
Few Last Words in Reply to Mr. G. K. Gilbert's History of the Niagara 
River, by George W. Holley. A Local Deposit of Glacial Gravel 
Found in Park County, Ind., by John T. Campbell. Concerning 
Some Portions of Castoroides ohioensis Foster, not heretofore known, 
by Joseph Moore. The "Barking Sands " of the Hawaiian Islands, 
by H. Carrington Bolton. Occurrences of Sonorous Sand on the 
Pacific Coast of the United States, by Carrington Bolton. Floridite, 
a New Variety of Phosphorite found in Florida, by E. T. Cox. The 
Columbia Formation in tl j ment, by W. J. McGee. 

Section F. — Biology. — Forest Trees of Indiana, by Stanley Coulter. 
Food of Bees, by A. J. Cook. A Case of Morbid Affection of the 
Eye in a Cat, by C. L. Herrick. Preliminary Notes on a New and 
Destructive Oat Disease, by B. T. Galloway. Observations on the 
Variability of Disease Germs, by Theobald Smith. Changes in the 
Ciliated Areas of the AiinieMan Canal t.f tin: Ainolu'lna During De- 
velopment, and the Relation to the Mode of Respiration, by Simon H. 
Gage and Susanna P. Gage. Combined Aerial and Aquatic Respira- 
tion in Amphibia, and the Functions of the External Gills in Forms 
Hatched on Land, Simon Gage. The Trimorphism of Uromyces 
trifolii, J. K. Howell pre ented by W. R. Dudley. The Harvest 
Spiders of North America, by Clarence M. Weed. Morphology of the 
Blood Borpuscles, by C. S. Minot. Observations on the Life-History 
of Uncinula spiralis, by B. T. Galloway. On the Seed Coats of the 
Genus Euphorbia, by L. H. Pammel. Observations on the Method 
of Growth of the Prothallia of the Filicineae, with Reference to their 
Relationship, by Douglas H. Campbell. Development of the Sporo- 
carp of Griffithsia bornctiana, by V. M. Spalding. Contributions to 
the Life-History of Isaeus, by Douglas H. Campbell. 

Section H— Anthropology.— -Indian Origin of Maple Sugar, by H. 
W. Henshaw. Fort Ancient, by W. K. Moorehead. Aboriginal 
Stone Implements of the Potomac Valley, by W. H. Holmes. Sug- 
gestion for a Pan-American as Precursor to an Universal Language, by 
R. T. Colburn. Dialectic Studies in the Swedish Province of Dale- 
carlia, by J. Mullen Notice of a Singular Earth-work near Fosters, 
Little Miami Valley, Ohio, by F. W. Putnam. 

Papers read on Friday, August 2 2d, in Section E.— Geology and 
Geography. —What Constitutes the Laconic Mountains? N. H. Win- 
chell. The Formations and Artesian Wells of Memphis, Tenn., 



i89o.] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 871 

James M. Safford. Progress in Morainic Mapping, T. C. Chamber- 
lain. Remarks on Construction of Topographic Maps for Geologic 
Reports, Arthur Winslow. Notes on the Occurrence of Pegmatite in 
Central Missouri, Arthur Winslow. The Amount of Natural Gas 
Used in Glass Manufacture, Edward Orton. Differentiation of Sub- 
terranean Water Supplies, J. E. Siebel. Some of the Qualifying Con- 
ditions of Successful Artesian Well Boring in the Northwestern States. 
C. W. Hall. A Notable Dike in the Minnesota River, C. W. Hall. 
Topographical Features of Arkansas Marbles, T. C. Hopkins. The 
Origin of the Manganese Ores of Northern Arkansas and its Effect on 
the Associated Strata, R. A. F. Penrose, Jr. The Novaculites of 
Arkansas, L. S. Griswold. Subsidence and Deposition as Cause and 
Effect, E. W. Claypole. 

Section F. — Biology. — The seven following papers were assigned at 
the Toronto meeting, under the general head of " Geographical Distri- 
bution of North American Plants: " The Relation of the Mexican Flora 
to that of the United States, Sereno Watson. The Distribution of the 
North American Umbelliferae, John M. Coulter. The Distribution of 
Hepatic^ of North America, Lucien M. Underwood. The Migration 
of Weeds, Byron D. Halsted. Geographical Distribution of North 
American Grasses, W. J. Beal. Geographical Distribution of North 
American Cornaceae, John M. Coulter. The General Distribution of 
North American Plants, N. L. Britton. On the Plates of Holonema 
rugosa, H. E. Williams. On the Structure of Certain Palaeozoic 
Fishes, E. D. Cope. External Termination of the Uretha in the 
Female of Geomys bursarius, Herbert Osborn. Work of the Botani- 
cal Division of the Department of Agriculture, F. V. Coville. On 
the Lack of the Distance Sense in the Prairie Dog, Burt G. Wilder. 
Disappearance of the Decidua reflexa, C. S. Minot. The Continuity 
of Protoplasm Through the Cell-Walls of Plants, W. J. Beal and T. 
W. Tuomey. Potato Scab, a Bacterial Disease, H. L. Bolley. 

Section H.— Anthropology. — Exhibition of Diagrams of the Brains 
and Medisected Heads of Man and a Chimpanzee, Burt G. Wilder. 
Peculiar Effects of One-sided Occupations on the Anatomy and 
Physiology of Man, J. Muller. Exhibition of a Bone Image from 
Livingston County, N. Y., C. C. Abbott. Exhibition of Gold Beads 
of Indian Manufacture from Florida and New Jersey, C. C. Abbott. 
Notice of a Singular Earth-work near Fosters, Little Miami Val- 
ley, Ohio, F. W. Putnam. A Study in Mental Statistics, J. Jas- 
trow. Arts of Modern Savages for Interpreting Archaeology, O. T. 



§72 The American Naturalist. [September, 

Papers read on Monday, August 24th, in Section E.— Geology and 
Geography.— Subsidence and Deposition as Cause and Effect, E. W. 
Claypole. On the Paleontological and Geological Relation of Closely 
Similar Fossil Forms, C. A. White. The Crystalline Rocks of Cen- 
tral Texas, Theo. B. Comstock. The Geology of the Wichita Moun- 
tains, Indian Territory, Theo. B. Comstock. The Silurian System and 
Its Geanticline in Central Texas and Indian Territory, Theo. B. Com- 
stock. Topographical Evidence of a Great and Sudden Diminution 
of the Water Supply in the Ancient Wabash, John T. Campbell. 
Glacial Action Considered as a Continuous Phenomenon, Having 
Shifted from One Locality to Another, P. H. Van der Weyde. Geol- 
ogy of Indian Territory South of Canadian River, R. T. Hill and 
James S. Stone. The Recent Explosion of Natural Gas in Shelby 
County, Ind., H. E. Pickett and E. W. Claypole. Note on the Stony 
Meteorite that Recently Fell in Washington County, Kan., E. H. S. 
Bailey. The Bendigo (Brazil) Meteorite, Orville A. Derby. A New 
Method of Searching for Rare Elements in Rock.-,. Orville A. Derby. 



Nepheline-bearing R<>< 


'ks in brazil, 


Section F. — li; >logv. 


—The Devel 






of the Tree, W. P. Wi 


Ison. Potatc 


Bolley. The Continu 


ity of Proto] 


Plants, W. J. Beal an 


d T. W. Tu 


Genus Rhynchospora i 


n North Arm 


a New Genus of Vacci 


niaceae from 


tribution of Land Birds 


in the Philij 


bition of Diagrams Illu 


strating the 


Fissure, Burt G. Wilder 




S. Hopkins. Different 


iation of the 


C S. Minot. A Supr 


>ort for the ( 


T. B. Spence. Notes c 


,n the Ampin 


H. W. Norris. 




Section H.-Anthrop 





relnnin 


h t ( \!! Walls hJ 


.. brill 


on. On Rusbya, 


I. L. B 


ritton. The Dis 


ds, J. 


B. Steere. Exhi- 


of thi 


t Human Sylvian 


nui h < 


>f Amia ealva, G. 


legmen 


ts in Vertebrates, 


mpani 


Nerve in Felidae, 



Implements of Californ 



i8go.] Proceedings of Sck 

Basket-Mortar of Southern California, H. N. Rus 
Rust. 

Papers read on Tucsuav, Aug. 25 th. — Section F. 
of the Marine Biological Lahorat.T 
Desirability of Establishing a Biological Staii<.n 01 
W. P. Wilson. Potato Seal., a Bacterial Disease 
Continuity of Protoplasm Through the Cell-Wall: 
and T. W. Tuomey. Preliminary Note on the I 
in North America, X. L. Britton. On Rusbya, ; 
ciniaceae from Bolivia, N. L. Britton. Notes on 
Genus Lechea, X. L. Britton. 

The general session of the I 

in August, 1891, will open with a clear page. It was voted that names 
of candidates for fellowship mibt he presented before the first meeting 

committee on forestry to bring the matter of preserving the groves of 
Sequoia trees of California to the special attention of Congress and the 
Secretary of the Interior. 

A resolution was passed recognizing the services to science of Senors 
Barao de Guahy and Jose Carlos de Carvalho, citizens of Brazil, who 
by the expenditure of many thousands of dollars by the first, and many 
months of gratuitous labor on the part of the latter, caused to be trans- 
ported from its orig 1 a! p< sith n in the interior of the State of Bahia 
to the National Museum in the city of the Rio de Janeiro the famous 
Bendigo meteorite, the largest mass of sidereal matter ever placed in 
any museum. This meteorite is aid to weigh about five tons. 

The committee on reduction of tariff on scientific books reported 
progress, and an item providing for the free transportation of scientific 
books by individuals has been introduced into the McKinley bill. As 
this item embraces only books in languages other than English, repre- 
sentations have been made by the committee to members of the Ways 
and Means Committee of the Senate >\hi< h, it is hoped, will result in 
the inclusion of scientific books printed by the English government 
and scientific societies. 

It was resolved that the A. A. A. S. request of the Secretary of the 
Navy the careful consideration of the memorial recently presented by 
various observatories relative to furnishing of time signals to the 
Western Union Telegraph Company by the naval observatory for com- 
mercial purposes. It was also resolved that the association joins the 
observatories of the United States and Canada in asking the Secretary 



874 The American Naturalist. [September, 

of the Navy to consider the system which has been established at the 
naval observatory, in pursuance of which time signals are given for 
commercial purposes to the Western Union, and to cause this practice 
to be so changed as not to injure the work of the local observers. 

Mr. Amos W. Butler moved that the permanent secretary be em- 
powered to extend invitations to the governments of Mexico, Central 
and South America to send delegates from the different scientific socie- 
ties of those countries to the meeting cf the association at Washington. 
The resolution was adopted, after which Permanent Secretary Putnam 
announced that of the 364 members and associates in attendance upon 
the present meeting, Indianapolis furnished 27; Indiana, outside of 
Indianapolis, 64 ; Ohio, 38 ; New York, 29 ; District of Columbia, 
30; Illinois, 26; Michigan, 22; Massachusetts, 19; Kentucky, 14; 
Iowa, 12; Pennsylvania, 12; Missouri, 12; New Jersey, 6; Nebraska, 
6 ; Wisconsin, 5 ; Tennessee, 4 ; Arkansas, 2 ; Maine, 2 ; Canada, 6. 
There were also representatives from Rhode Island, West Virginia, 
England, Scotland, New Hampshire, Arizona, Texas, and other 
States. 

The resolutions of thanks comprehended nearly all the railroad 
companies that enter that city, the street-railroad company, the people 
of Indianapolis, Noblesville, Kokomo, Marion, Muncie, Anderson, 
Terra Haute, and New Albany, the local committee, the ladies of that 
committee, and the press. The various corporations, committees, and 
persons thus thanked were not disposed of in one resolution, but taken 
up seriatim and each brought, as in toast-making, for a little speech 
from the proposer, and one from the gentleman designated to respond. 
In this way speeches were made by Mr. F. E. Nipher, of St. 
Louis ; Prof. E. T. Cox, of New York ; Prof. E. D. Cope, of Philadel- 
phia ; Secretary Putnam, of Cambridge, Mass.; Mr. A. W. Butler, of 
Brookville ; Mr. A. F. Potts, of Indianapolis ; Professor Avery, of 
Cleveland; Professor Abbe, of Washington, D. C.J President-elect 
Prescott, of Ann Arbor ; Professor Mees, of Terre Haute ; Dr. Hover, 
of New York; Professor Mason, of Washington, D. C. ; Mr. G. 
W. Holley, of Ithaca, N. Y. ; Prof. Stanley Coulter, of Lafayette ; 
Prof. Charles R. Barnes, of Madison, Wis. ; and ex-President Menden- 
hall, of Washington, D. C. After this the meeting adjourned. 

On Saturday, August 23d, an extensive trip was arranged to cover 
the immense gas territory of Indiana. 

A special train was provided, which left the city in the morning, 
going north over the Lake Erie & Western R. R., through Nobles- 
ville to Kokomo, where the gas field was explored, and a visit made to 



hold their session at tl 
Friday, August 22d, 1 

The citizens of Lafi 

visit Lafayette, but the 

A special excursion^ 



The Delaware Valley Ornithological Club.— R. 

. lined work, a number of ornitholo- 
ists residing in the vicinity of Philadelphia have organized the Dela- 
■are Valley Ornithological Club, for the study of the birds of south- 
ern Pennsylvania and southern New Jersey, with especial reference 
3 their migration in the valley of the Delaware River. The active 

ad considerable experience in field work, and are known to be 
An associa i n added to 



horoughly relia 









Daily field notes are taken by the members, and recorded 

»nes for the birds in the order of their occurrence 
during the month. The spaces are sufficiently large for recording the 
number of birds seen (as recommended by Mr. Batchelder, in the 
V] ril nu nl er of TJu Aiik~), and short abbreviated notes as to singing, 



876 The American Naturalist. [September 

mating, nesting, etc. Across the top of the chart are blanks for 
recording the curve of temperature variation, the direction and force 
of the wind, and other corellative notes. In addition to these 
individual charts there are "combined monthly charts," on which the 
notes of all the observers are recorded, followed by private marks 
indicating their various stations. These charts are passed from one 
member to another, and when all the data have been recorded are 
reproduced by a copying process and copies furnished to each ob- 
server. In the same way it is proposed to have yearly charts on which 
will be recorded the first and last occurrence, arrival and departure of 
bulk, and other general facts relating to each species. 

The club meets in Philadelphia twice a month, when all matters of 
importance are discussed and specimens exhibited. 

Another aim of the club is to keep a complete record of all the 
birds which occur in southeastern Pennsylvania and southern New 
Jersey, and of the breeding habits of those species which remain in 
this di-trict during the summer. These observations will cover a wider 
field than those on migration, the latter being confined to the imme- 
diate vicinity of the Delaware River south of Trenton, as it is thought 
that better results can be obtained by restricting the country covered 
by the observations to one river rather than by including other river or 

During the present year the club has seven regular observers,— Wm. 
L. Baily at Wynnewood, Pa.; Samuel N. Rhoades at Haddonfield, N. 
J.; J. Harris Reed at Tinicum Island, Pa.; Geo. Morris at Olney, 
Pa. ; Dr. Spencer Trotter at Swarthmore, Pa. ; Chas. A. Voelker at 
Chester, Pa., and Witmer Stone at Germantown, Pa. 

The results so far have been highly satisfactory, and have far sur- 
passed our expectations. We therefore thought by stating our methods 
of work other observers similarly situated might be led to "join their 
forces " and gain the benefit of each other's work as we have done. 

This work need not interfere in any way with that being conducted 
by the Department of Agriculture, as the correspondents of the De- 
partment can fill out their schedules as heretofore, or they can s 1 t t te 
the combined report of the club, as may be desired. In any case the 
results obtained by the combined efforts of a number of observers in 
a small district cannot fail to be of service to the Department when it 
undertakes to work out the migration through the country at large. 

At the close of the year we hope to present to The Auk an abstract 
of the migration of 1890 as it occurred in the valley of the Delaware, 
with a map showing the district covered by each observer.— Witmer 
Stone in The Auk. 



THE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST 



Vol. XXIV. 



THE MESODERM AND THE CCELOM OF 
VERTEBRATES. 



HP HE morphology of the mesoderm is one of the most vexed 
* questions of the day. Scarcely an embryologist can be 
found who has not published opinions on this question consider- 
ably at variance with those of most others. It has been main- 
tained that the mesoderm arises from the ectoderm* ; that it arises 
from the the entoderm, or from both ; from neither, but from two 
special segmentation spheres ; that it has a double origin, part 
coming from the blastoderm, part from the yolk ; and even that 
there is no mesoderm. 

We now know positively that in all vertebrates there is a dis- 
tinct and unmistakable mesoderm, which spreads out from the 
primitive streak in all directions, and has distinctive histological 
characteristics. Two large cavities appear in this mesoderm on 
either side of the median axial line. The mesodermic cells which 
bound these two cavities assume an epithelial arrangement, and 
are designated as the mesothelhini ; the cavities constitute the 
ccelotn ; the remainder of the mesoderm is known as the mesen- 
clivma, and corresponds to the embryonic connective tissue of 
older writers. The mesothelium at various points throws off 
cells, which are added to the mesenchyma. We have accordingly 
two distinct phases to study, viz., the origin of the mesoderm, 
and the differentiation of the mesenchyma and mesothelium, and 
together with the latter the formation of the ccelomatic cavities. 



I. ORIGIN OF THE MESODERM. 

Mesoderm of Elasmobranchs. — In the cartilaginous fishes the 
mesoderm arises from the entoderm close to the ectental line. 
The observations of Balfour in his monograph, 2 (see also his 
works, I., 246-268), established the fact that the mesoderm 
appears after the two primary layers and is connected with the 
entoderm. This fact has since been abundantly confirmed (see 
Kollmann, 23 ; Swaen, 4.1; Riickert, 32, 33 ; Rabl, 29; D. 
Schwarz, 36, et al). These later observations, particularly those 
of Riickert and Rabl, have settled the exact point, or rather area, 
of entoderm which is mesoblastogenic. Unfortunately Rabl over- 
looked the phenomena of concrescence, and consequently reached 
conclusions as to the development of the mesoderm which I feel 
no hesitation in pronouncing erroneous. The mesoderm is differ- 
entiated along the embryonic rim before concrescence takes place ; 
hence, when concrescence is partly completed, there is an axial 
stretch of mesoderm, and from the hind end of this the mesoderm 
spreads out toward each side along the embryonic rim in con- 
nection with the entoderm, as has been described. 1 We can dis- 
tinguish the axial mesoderm from the lateral mesoderm ; but 
later on, when concrescence has progressed further, there is no 
lateral mesoderm, for it has become axial. Rabl, however, 
failed to study the later stages, and so came to consider that this 
temporary condition of the mesoderm signified a double origin ; 
accordingly he distinguishes between the " gastral " (axial) and 
" peristomal " (lateral) mesoderm, and makes the unsuccessful 
attempt to show that the "gastral " and "peristomal " mesoderms 
are of essentially different origin in all vertebrates. Had Rabl 
accepted the law of concrescence, he would certainly have not 
fallen into these errors. There is no evidence whatever that 
there is an evagination of the entoderm, as the Hertwigs maintain 
can be shown in the amphibians (see below). On the contrary, 
the cells grow forth from the entoderm, so as to constitute a 
sheet between the primary germ-layers. Soon the 
with the entoderm is permanently severed. 
1 American Naturalist, 1890, p. 507. 



i8go.] The Mesoderm and the Qvlom. 879 

The fact that the mesoderm appears first in the embryonic rim 
renders it easy to make sure of its springing from the entoderm. 
Later, when concrescence moves the rim into the axial line, all 
three germ-layers are united in the axis of the primitive streak, 
and it becomes more difficult to decide which of the layers the 
mesoderm is specially connected with. To conclude: In Elasmo- 
branchs the mesoderm arises over a limited area of the entoderm 
near the ectental line ; it separates from the entoderm apparently 
by a process of delamination, but the exact means of separation 
have yet to be investigated ; it remains for a while connected 
with the entoderm along the embryonic axis ; after its separation 
from the entoderm the mesoderm expands by proliferation of its 
own cells, and receives no accretions from the yolk, so far as at 
present known. 

Mesoderm of Teleosts.—So far as the published accounts go 
the middle layer of bony fishes arises, as maintained by Balfour 
( Comp. Embryol., II., 74), from the entoderm. Such appears to be 
the significance of Ryder's observation,^, 41, of A. Goette's, 9, 
E. Ziegler's, 45, Agassiz and Whitman's, /, and of others. For a 
good description, together with citations of conflicting authorities, 
see M. Kowalewski, 26, 469-474. Apparently the blastodermic 
rim is turned under, and the turned-under portion yields the 
entoderm, and is intimately connected with the sheet of meso- 
dermal cells, very much as in sharks ; the mesoderm is several 
layers thick, and extends under the ectodermal blastoderm, 
gradually thinning out ; the cells of the middle layer are at first 
closely compacted. 

Mesoderm of Amphibia. — Here it seems also clearly established 
that the mesoderm arises from the entoderm, principally along 
and alongside the median line, as a sheet of cells with no cavity 
(coelom) included between them ; along the axis of the primitive 
streak and at the blastoporic margin the connection between the 
mesoderm and the entoderm is both evident and intimate (see 
Bellonci, 5, Tav. il, for figures showing this point in the axolotl, 
and O. Schultze, 35, for similar figures of Rana fused). These 
facts have been recorded by so many observers that there can be 
little doubt or none of their entire accuracy (see the description 



TJie American 



[Ool 



and cuts, ante p. 618). It may be considered as still uncertain 
whether the sheet of mesoderm receives accretions at its distal 
edge from the yolk cells (entodermic) upon which it rests. There 
usually is no sharp limit between the two, and therefore we must 
consider it probable that at first the mesoderm receives additions 
from the yolk ; later on it is found divided from the vitelline cells, 
and after it has split off it probably grows independently. The 
growth of the mesoderm at first from the yolk has been found in 
Petromyzon by A. E. Shipley, j8, 177-178 (of Studies), although 
in later stages the mesoderm is severed from the yolk. 

In later stages the mesoderm is wanting in the median line, 
and thus constitutes two masses or two lateral sheets. This bi- 
lateral division is effected by the development of the medullary 
groove and notochord. The mesodermic connection with the 
entoderm is retained, but is double, owing to the division. Along 
the median dorsal line of the archenteron runs the strip of ento- 
derm which forms the notochord ; on each side of this strip runs 
the line of connection between entoderm and mesoderm. The 
study of this secondary condition has led many authors into the 
error of ascribing a double 
origin to the amphibian meso- 
derm, and inferentially to the 
vertebrate mesoderm in gen- 
eral. This brings us to the 
consideration of O. Hertwig's 
views, which form one of the 
chief supports of the " Ccelom- 
theorie " of the brothers Hert- 
wig. For further discussion 
of this theory, see p. 893. 

O. Hertwig, 12, ij, studied 
stages in which the notochord 
had appeared, and at this 
time, as O. Schultze, jj, has 
arcnemeron ; y*, yoik. shown, the primitive relations 

of the layers no longer exist, but Hertwig regarded the second- 
ary arrangements in question as primary. He found no meso- 




1890.] The Mesoderm and the Ccelom. 88 1 

derm in the axial line above the notochord ; at the edge of the 
notochord, where it joins the undifferentiated epithelial ento- 
derm of the archenteron, there is on each side a groove 
which in cross sections appears as a notch (Fig. 23); the 
notch is of variable depth, is sometimes absent, and is a tempor- 
ary feature. In the neighborhood of the furrow, alongside the 
notochord, the mesoderm is still intimately connected with the 
entoderm. These relations are believed by Hertwig to indicate 

and that each mass is really a diverticulum of the archenteron, the 
furrow being the mouth of the diverticular cavity. Hertwig's 
figures, 12, Taf. xm.-xiv., offer the plainest representations of 
the mesoderm in Triton as paired diverticula ; but these figures '- 
are evidently digramatic, and they must be termed inaccurate, I 
think, in the very respect which arc essential to Hertwig's 
theory. This appears from the investigations of Gotte, 10, Bel- 
lonci, 5, Bambeke, j, O. Schultze, 33, and others ; compare also 
K. Lampert, 2J. The reader may compare, for instance, Hert- 
wig's Fig. 10, I.e. Taf. xiii., with Bellonci's Fig. ir, I.e. Tav. in. 
O. Schultze's detailed criticism, I.e. 344-349- of Hertwig's account 
seems to me entirely justified, and I accordingly accept it as a 
complete disproof This that Hertwig's concep- 

tion is based upon insufficient and erroneous observations ; insuffi- 
cient because he did not investigate the early condition of the 
mesoderm, and failed to recognize the fugitive and unessential 
character of parachordal grooves ; erroneous because the cavity 
in the mesoderm does not really communicate with that of the 
archenteron. There are other errors, which Schultze points out, 
and which are important. 

We find in amphibia, at a certain stage, the axial (Rabl's gas- 
trales) and lateral (Rabl's peristomales) mesoderm. The former 
is in the region of the completed concrescence, the latter around 
the edge of the anus of Rusconi. The former is connected with 
the entoderm alone ; the latter with the ectoderm also, since the 
entoderm is connected with the ectoderm around the uncon- 

2 Some of them are reproduced in Hertwig's Lehrbuch der Entwickelungsgeschichte, 



The American Naturalist. 



cresced blastoporic rim. The connection with the ectoderm 
renders it possible that the middle layer receives cells from the 
outer layer, but there is no direct proof of this. When the con- 
crescence is completed the mesoderm severs in the posterior axial 
region its connection with the entoderm, but retains awhile its 
connection with the outer germ-layer. The same phenomenon 
recurs in the amniota. It cannot, however, be taken to signify 
that the middle layer originates from the ectoderm, since at an 
earlier stage it is clearly entodermal. 

Mesoderm of Sauropsida. — We may consider reptiles and birds 
together, since the early history of the mesoderm is very similar 
in the three classes. In birds, the exclusively entodermic origin 
of the mesoderm is in my opinion conclusively demonstrated by 
the researches of Duval, 8, 104-117; the entoderm gradually 
thickens by migrations of its cells over a considerable axial area; 
the upper stratum of this thickened area separates off as the 
mesoderm, except that in the axial line it retains its connection 
with the entoderm ; when concrescence takes place, the three 
layers are of course united in the axial line, and hence, as shown 
by Duval, the mesoderm is connected with the ectoderm. Hence 
we have two axial regions : i°, the region of concrescence, char- 
acterized by the union of the mesoderm with the ectoderm, and 
known as the primitive streak ; a little later the connection be- 
tween the mesoderm and entoderm is lost in the posterior part of 
the streak, but retained in the anterior part; 2°, in front of the 
streak the region of completed concrescence known as the head- 
process, in which the mesoderm is united with the entoderm 
only. The secondary stage is the one best known through the 
investigations of many embryologists. It forms the starting of 
Rabl's investigations, 29, 129-140, who accordingly failed to 
recognize the true origin of the mesoderm, having mistaken a 
secondary for a primary condition. After the mesoderm is once 
separated from the entoderm, it apparently receives no further 
cells from it, except in the axial region ; it is not improbable that 
along the primitive streak cells are also thrown off from the ecto- 
derm and added to the mesoderm. 

In reptiles, so far as our present unsatisfactory knowledge 
enables us to judge, the development is similar; that is to say, 



iSgo.] 



The Mesoderm and : 



the mesoderm arises by delamination from the entoderm, but re- 
mains connected with it along the axial line in front, i.e., in the 
head-process it remains connected with the entoderm only, but 
along the primitive streak it becomes secondarily connected with . 
the ectoderm. After its delamination the mesoderm expands 
independently of other germ-layers, except along the axis. That 
the relations are like those in birds has been shown clearly by 
Strahl, 39, and also by Weldon, 43, whose figure is reproduced 
{ante p. 7 1 4, Fig. 2 2, A). The intimate connection of the mesoderm 
with the entoderm at the blastodermic rim before concrescence is 
sufficiently established by Kollman, 23, 403-406, though his 
conception that this part of the mesoderm is a separate structure, 
which he terms akroblast, renders it difficult to follow certain 
parts of his description. C. K. Hofmann may also be cited, 
though his account (Bronn's Thierreich, Reptilien, p. 188 1) is of 
doubtful accuracy in several respects. L. Will, 44, 11 27, finds 
that in the Gecko the mesoderm is united with the entoderm in 
the head-process, but omits to describe its exact connection with 
the primitive streak ; the stages showing the origin of the meso- 
derm he does not mention. The processes involved will un- 
doubtedly be understood as soon as the concrescence of the axis 
has been worked out, — a fundamental question which as yet not a 
single investigator has heeded. 

Mesoderm of Mammals. —In this class, according to the best 
recent investigations, the mesoderm appears to have a distinctly 
two-fold origin. According to Bonnet, 6, 196, part of the meso- 
derm grows out from Hensen's knot, at a time when the knot is 
a thickening of the ectoderm, and has not yet acquired any con- 
nection with the inner layer ; another portion is produced peri- 
pherally (Fig. 1 8 ante p. 705) by delamination from the inner layer ; 
the two anlages grow toward one another, and unite into one 
continuous mesoderm, in which all trace of the primitive double 
origin is obliterated. K611iker has recorded (Wurzburger Fests- 
chrift) the outgrowth of the mesoderm from Hensen's knot in the 
rabbit, and his statement has been confirmed by Fr. Carius, 7, 17. 
In later stages we find the relations of the layers similar to those 
.n Sauropsida, there being a head-process with the mesoderm 



884 The American Naturalist. [October, 

connected axially with the inner layer, and a primitive streak in 
the front part of which the three layers are connected axially, and 
in the hinder part of which the middle layer is connected with 
the outer layer only. This stage is quite well known; cf, 
Heape, //, on the mole; Bonnet on the sheep, 6 ; Kolliker on 
the rabbit {Grundriss) ; Selenkaon the opossum, 37 ; Lieberkiihn, 
28, and others ; especially the veiy careful descriptions of the 
rabbifs layers by C. Rabl, 2g. 

Now, we do not yet understand the homologies of the mam- 
malian blastodermic vesicle, hence we cannot explain the pecu- 
liar relations of the mesoderm to Hensen's knot, as the homology 
of the knot is unknown. However, since mammals are in all 
respects related to the Sauropsida, and especially since there is a 
close likeness between the subsequent stages of the two' classes, 
it is probable that the origin of the mammalian mesoderm will 
be shown ultimately to be essentially the same as in reptiles. At 
present it seems to me impossible to offer any satisfactory 
interpretation of the observed double origin of the mammalian 
mesoderm. 

The Vertebrate Type of Origin of the Mesoderm.— The preceding 
paragraphs show that in all classes of vertebrates the origin of the 
mesoderm is essentially the same, except in the mammals. The 
relations in the mammals we do not understand. In the non- 
mammalian vertebrates the mesoderm first appears as a thicken- 
ing of the entoderm over a "not inconsiderable area around the 
concrescing blastodermic rim, and it becomes separated from the 
entoderm by the gradual parting of the upper cells to form the 
true mesoderm from the lower cells or permanent entoderm ; this 
delamination does not take place next the blastodermic rim (or 
after concrescence in the axial line), hence in the region of the 
primitive streak the three layers may be connected for a time ; 
further in the prolongation of the axis in front of the streak the 
mesoderm does not separate from the entoderm, thus forming the 
head-process. It is important to note that the mesoderm arises 
over a considerable area during the same period ; that its forma- 
tion may be more or less advanced before concrescence of the 
rim ; and that after concrescence it stretches across the axis of 



i89o.] 73k* Mesoderm and the Calom. 885 

the embryo between the ectoderm and entoderm, thus becoming 
a continuous sheet or layer. This fact, that the mesoderm is a 
single anlage, needs to be specially emphasized. So tar as 
known to me, there is not a single vertebrate which has been 
shown to lack this stage; but on the contrary, its occurrence is 
established for all classes, and by so many observers, that we may 
well assert that there are few facts in embryology better estab- 
lished. Later on the mesoderm becomes divided m the axial 
line, and a too exclusive consideration of this secondary condition 
has led to several theories of the mesoderm, which would hardly 
have been brought forward had their authors not neglected to 
take into account the earlier condition of the middle layer. Some 
of these theories are discussed below. 

After its delamination the mesoderm is a distinct layer, and 
grows independently, receiving no accretions from the other 
layers, except in the axial line, where it receives cells from the 
entoderm, and in the region of the primitive streak. The edge 
of the expanding sheet of mesoderm is free, as has been pointed 
out in the previous chapter, resting upon the yolk, but not fused 
with it. It is, therefore, it seems to me, impossible to admit that 
there is a peripheral ingrowth of tissues arising from the yolk, 
and entering the mesoderm to form the blood, etc. (compare 
below, Theories of the Mesoderm). 

The origin of the mesoderm in Amphioxus and invertebrates 
differs in many respects from that in vertebrates, and no attempt 
to establish the homologies of the processes throughout the ani- 
mal kingdom has been successful. I accordingly merely give a 
brief notice of the mesoderm of Amphioxus, adding a mention 
of the mesodermal bands of invertebrates. 

The ovum of Amphioxus is discharged from the body and 
impregnated externally; it is about 0.105 mm. in diameter, and 



egmentatic 



small amount of yolk undergoes 1 

vhich results in a well-marked blastula 



stage (Fig. 24), followed by a gastrula stage. The gastrula elon- 
gates, the blastopore remaining open at the posterior extremity. 
Differentiations now take place, by which the ectoderm forms 
the axial anlage of the nervous system, and the entoderm pro- 




duces the notochord and the mesoderm ; the three processes 
going on simultaneously. The accompanying Fig. 24 represents 
larva with segments. The ectoderm, Ec, 
everywhere bounds the section ; on 
the dorsal side a portion of the ecto- 
derm has been separated off to form 
the medullary plate, Md, above 
which is a small cavity. The cavity, 
In, of the archenteron is irregular, 
but symmetrical in outline ; theento- 
derm bounding it can be separated 
into four parts: i°, the lower por- 
tion, which forms the permanent en- 
toderm, j5>z/; 2 , the upper median 

Amphioxus embryo ; after Hatschek. portion, which becomes the noto- 
chord; ^/entoderm- Ec ecto- cnor d, Ck\ 3°, 4°, two lateral por- 

derm; /«, archentenc cavity; Ms, tions, constituting the diverticula, 

meso ermic segments. ^ , ^^ <-li ver tJ cu l urn j s a sepa- 

rate pouch, and as the development progresses, there are 
formed a series of pairs of pouches, stretching on either 
side along the notochord ; later the pouches separate altogether 
from the archenteron, each becoming a closed sack ; the first 
pair of pouches, however, retain their connection for a con- 
siderable period with the archenteron, and have been described 
by older writers as glandular organs. The development of the 
pouches is, with the exception noted, most advanced anteriorly, 
and as we go tailwards the pouches are less and less advanced in 
development, until, as shown in Fig. 25, they merge into the 
general entoderm as a band of cells, Mes ; the last of which is the 
" mesoblast," Mb, a large granular cell, quite distinct from the 
remaining cells of the band or pouches. The pouches are the 
primitive segments (Ursegmente, mesoblastic somites of Balfour). 
In Amphioxus, then, the mesoderm arises from the entoderm 
along two lines, and is divided into paired hollow segments before 
it is separated from the mesoderm. Some writers, especially the 
brothers Hertwig, think this process of development to be primi- 
tive, and that the vertebrate type is derived from it. In true ver- 



1890.] The Mesoderm and tJie Ccclom. 887 

tebrates the mesoderm arises on each side, but also in the axis, 
and becomes two masses, when the medullary groove and noto- 
chord appear. In Amphioxus the medullary plate and notochord 
appear very early, and the division of the mesoderm may be due 
to that fact. Amphioxus is undoubtedly a lower type, but 
whether it really preserves the older type of development in its 
purity is doubtful ; indeed, it is probably a tunicate rather than a 
vertebrate. 

_^_ a - . B 




Hatschek, in a series of brilliant investigations, has shown that 
in many bilaterally symmetrical invertebrates the mesoderm 
arises as two bands of cells, which subsequently divide into a 
series of closed sacks (segments), and which, during their own 
formation, terminate each in a single large posterior cell (meso- 
blast), which throws off cells to add to the mesodermal band 
(germ-band, Keimstreif ). This " mesoblast " by its- appearance 
and position appears to be a derivative of the entoderm. As a 
matter of speculation, we may assume that in Amphioxus we 
have the germ-bands, but characterized by an exceedingly pre- 



; segmentation. 



1 further assume that in vertebrates 



888 The American Naturalist. [October, 

we have the germ-bands also, but that they are modified, I °, by 
the loss of the distinct terminal mesoblast; 2°, by precocious 
fusion in the axial line; and 3 , by extremely retarded segmen- 
tation. A great deal may undoubtedly be said in favor of these 
two assumptions, which together constitute the only " Theory 
or the Vertebrate Mesoderm" which of the many theories 
which have been advanced is at all likely, in my opinion, to 
prove of permanent value. 

Expansion of the Mesoderm.— After the mesoderm is once 
formed as a distinct layer, without connection with the primitive 
layers except in the axial line, it expands independently, — that is, 
by the proliferation of its own cells. During its early expansion 




l definite series of charac- 
It is at first pear-shaped (Fig. 26, A), the 
; pointed ; it extends a short distance only in 
front of the primitive streak, and is widest a little distance behind 
the area pellucida, Ap. The same stage is found in mammals 
(see Kolliker, Grundriss, p. 93, and Fig. 71). The condition in 
the chick at about the twentieth hour of incubation is indicated 
by Fig. 26, B, drawn on the same scale as A, and at the close 
of the first day by Fig. 27. In the last-mentioned figure it will 
be noticed that the mesoderm is expanding unequally in front, 
having sent out two lateral wings, which leave a median space 
between them without mesoderm. These wings continue their 
growth, and finally meet in front, so that in the anterior part of 
the area pellucida there is a small tract without any mesoderm, 
although there is mesoderm all around it. This tract is the pro- 




i89o.] The Mesoderm and the Calom. 8S9 

amnion, of which I shall give a fuller history elsewhere. The 
expansion does not take place by any means with the exact regu- 
larity indicated by Figs. 26 and 27, 
but, on the contrary, in birds, as 
shown by Zumstein, 46, the outline 
of the middle layer is always irreg- 
ular and more or less asymmetrical. 
Although there are not yet many 
observations available as to the out- 
line of the growing mesoderm, yet 
it is probable that the preceding 
description is essentially correct, not 
>nic merely for birds but for all amniota. 
A l\ It is certainly so for the rabbit (Van 
Beneden et Julin, 4). 



Early in the course of development there appear ir 
derm two large cavities, one on each side, which togethe 
the ccelom or embryonic body cavity. In the adult mammal the 
coelom is represented by the pericardial, pleural, and abdominal 
cavities ; the ccelom also gives rise to the cavities of the muscular 
segments (proto vertebras), and probably also to certain tubular 
parts of the urogenital system. But, although its subsequent 
changes are complex, when it first appears the ccelom consists of 
a pair of fissures in the mesoderm. 

Only one precise account of the development of the ccelomatic 
fissures is known to me, namely, that of Bonnet, 6, 202, for the 
sheep at about thirteen days. Around the embryo, at some dis- 
tance from the axis, there appear a series of irregular fissures of 
rounded or elongated form, which may in part open on the meso- 
dermic surface ; gradually the fissures enlarge and fuse, at the 
same time becoming more closely bounded by the mesodermic 
cells ; thus there arises a continuous cavity in the mesoderm, 
which is for a time crossed by cells and cell 
while the cells which are loosely put together form 
layer of epithelium bounding the cavity, which w 
designate as the axiom, or primitive body cavity. 



890 The American Naturalist. [October, 

processes the ccelom grows toward the axial region, but never 
penetrates it, the primitive streak and head-process never devel- 
oping a ccelom. The changes which have taken place have now 
divided the mesoderm into two tissues: i°, the mesothelium or 
epithelial lining of the body cavity ; 2°, the mesenchyvia com- 
prising all the non-epithelial mesoderm. Whether in all cases 
the ccelom begins as a series of small spaces, which subsequently 
fuse, we are unable to say ; but it is my no means improbable 
that such is the case. It is, I think, also probable that the ccelom 
begins always to appear at a little distance from the embryo, and 
spreads both centripetally and centrifu gaily. In the sheep the 
large size of the ccelomatic cavity is connected with the preco- 
cious development of the amnion. 

Of other vertebrates we can say only that the ccelom appears, 
and is at first merely a narrow fissure. It divides the meso- 
derm into an upper leaf (Hautfaserblatt) and an inner or lower 
leaf (Darmfaserblatt) ; the former may be called the somatic, 
the latter the splanchnic mesoderm, as proposed by Balfour. 
The upper leaf lies close against the ectoderm ; the two 
layers together form the somatopleur, or body wall. The 
lower leaf lies close against the entoderm ; these two layers to- 
gether form the splanchnopleur, or wall of the alimentary tract. 
Both the somatic leaf of mesoderm and the splanchnic comprise 
mesothelium and mesenchym ; axially the two layers become 
continuous, both with one another and with the axial mesoderm. 
The mesothelium continues for some time to throw off cells, 
which add themselves to the mesenchym, but except for this the 
two tissues have each an entirely separate history, and the adult 
tissues derived from them form two well-defined and natural 
groups. 

The morphology of the ccelom is so important that it is diffi- 
cult to understand why so many investigators have slurred over 
the question of its embryonic development. Exact observations 
on its first appearance and on the first stages of its expansion in 
various types are urgently needed, and would certainly do more 
than anything else to throw light on the still obscure problem of 
the origin of the mesoderm. 



Entw'ckelungsgeschichte, of which the first part appeared in 
1828, until 1868, when W. His's great monograph on the chick, 
16, was published, embryologists recognized the three layers, and 
regarded the mesoderm as a natural unit. His led the way to 
our present conception by a little-known article, /j, on the mem- 
branes and cavities of the body, and his monograph, 16, above 
mentioned fully established the necessity of recognizing two main 
groups of mesodermic tissues. Accordingly he divided the 
mesoderm into two parts, the archiblastic * and f>anto/ast:,\ 
corresponding respectively essentially to mesothelium and 
and mesenchyma. Under archiblast, His included not only 
the mesothelial tissues proper, but also the smooth or organic 
musculature ; under parablast the mesenchymic tissue, except the 
smooth muscle. The terms used corresponded to his theory of 
the origin of the two parts of the mesoderm, for he believed that 
the archiblast arose in the axial region, and was contained in the 
embryo from the start, while the parablast arose peripherally, and 
grew in towards the embryo, a conception which was perhaps 
suggested by the appearance of the blood-vessels first outside the 
embryo proper. Seeking still further for the source of the sup- 
posed peripheral parablast, he believed he had found it in the 
germinal wall. The study of the relations of the wall in the 
chick induced him to think that the elements of the white yolk 
became parablast cells; moreover, the study of the hen's ovary 
led him to the conclusion that the white yolk was developed from 
the granulosa cells, and that these cells arise from leucocytes. He 
thus traced back the parablastic cells to maternal leucocytes. It 
has been shown that the granulosa cells are not leucocytes, and that 
the granulosa cells do not enter the ovum ; the white yolk-grains 
never become cells, for it has been proved that all nuclei of the 
segmentating ovum come from previous nuclei, and lie in proto- 
plasm, not in the yolk-grains ; and finally it has been shown in 
this chapter that the mesoderm arises, as a whole, not from double 
sources. Professor His's views as to the origin of the parablast 



892 The American Naturalist. [October, 

must, in my judgment, be given up; but this is no reason for 
overlooking, as certain writers have done, the fundamental sig- 
nificance of the distinction drawn between the two primary groups 
of mesodermic tissues. Subsequent research has made only one 
important change necessary, namely, the transfer of smooth mus- 
culature from one group to the other. In view of this change and of 
the fact that parablast has been used with various other meanings, 
and of the unaptness of His's names, since we renounce the 
theory they correspond to, it will be well to use exclusively the 
newer terms mesothelium and mesenchyma. 

The parablast theory has been defended by His, ij, and modi- 
fied by him, 18. At present he holds to the distinction originally 
drawn, but is inclined to withdraw his hypothesis of the origin 
of the parablast. A number of writers have agreed with His as 
to the separate peripheral development of the mesenchyma (para- 
blast). Among those may be mentioned Rauber, jo, Ji, and 
several authors who have dealt with the development of the 
blood. The most important of the disciples of His is Kollmann, 
who, in a series of articles, 22, 23, 24, 25, has maintained the 
double origin of the mesoderm. Of these papers the most im- 
portant is that on the " Randwulst," or germinal wall, of the 
structure of which in the chick it gives an excellent description. 
Kollmann regards the germinal wall not as a part of the ento- 
derm, but as a distinct organ composed of segmentation spheres, 
and destined to produce blood-vessels with blood, and probably 
also connective tissue ; this peripheral anlage (Randkeim) he 
designates as acroblast, and the single cells derived from it he 
names poreuten. Waldeyer, 4.2, has accepted the parablast 
theory, but with a modification by which he seeks to reconcile 
conflicting observations. His article is written with charac- 
teristic clearness and exhaustive mastery of the literature, and 
will be found especially valuable by those who wish to pursue 
this subject further. Waldeyer distinguishes between the pri- 
mary and secondary segmentation; the former producing the 
ectoderm, entoderm, and archiblastic mesoderm ; the latter occur- 
ring later, and giving rise to the parablast. This remnant of the 
ovum in holoblastic ova consists of cells ; in meroblastic ova of 



i8go.] The Mesoderm and the Gvlom. 893 

e SS protoplasm, which has its cell division (segmentation) re- 
tarded, and the cells, whether early or tardily produced, immi- 
grate into and between the germ-layers already developed. 

The opposition to the parablast theory is the sum of numerous 
observations which, as pointed out in the previous part of this 
chapter, prove, it seems to me, that the mesoderm arises in all 
vertebrates (except mammals?) as a unit, ami subsequently separ- 
ates into mesothelium and mesenchyma. The leading opponent of 
the separate origin of the parablast is Kollikcr, in both his text- 
books (Entv. : , etc, and Grundriss),andin separ- 
ate articles (see especially /cj,jo, and his criticism, j>/,<>f Kallmann). 
I agree with Kolliker that it has been sufficiently demonstrated that 
the " acroblast" belongs to the entoderm, and that after delamina- 
tion of the mesoderm the acroblast is transformed into the epi- 
thelium of the yolk-sac ; for a conclusive demonstration that this 
is so in reptiles, see H. Strahl, 40. 

The ccelom theory of the brothers Hertwig includes a funda- 
mental modification of the parablast theory. The main features 
of the ccelom theory are not original with the Hertwigs, but may 
be found in previous writers. Nevertheless, they were the first 
to present the theory in a complete formula, and with a backing 
of facts, both new and collected from others, so extensive as to 
compel attention. In justice to E. Ray Lankester it must be 
stated that he is really the author of the ccelom theory, having, 
in 1877 (<?7, A), published the hypothesis that the ccelom is de- 
rived from the archenteron, and that the mesoderm of vertebrates 
represents solid entodermal diverticula. It is unfortunate that 
the Hertwigs have not made due acknowledgment of what they 
owed to Lankester and others. They made a series of investiga- 
tions on the germ-layers of various representatives of the animal 
kingdom, and presented their general results in a comprehensive 
article (O. and R. Hertwig, 14). O. Hertwig has again ex- 
pounded the theory in his text-book of embryology. The 
ccelom theory consists of two parts : i°, the ccelom is formed by 
diverticula of the archenteron and its lining ; the mesothelium is 
part of the entoderm; 2°, the mesenchyma consists of cells 
thrown off by the germ-layers, and is essentially distinct from the 



894 The American Naturalist. [October, 

mesothelium. The value of this theory lay in the clearness of 
its formulation, thus facilitating discussion, and also in its bring- 
ing out the difference more clearly between the epithelial and the 
non-epithelial portions of the mesoderm. As we have seen, there 
is no evidence of a character to render even probable that part ot 
the ccelom of vertebrates represents archenteric diverticula ; 
the whole mesoderm appears as a single germ-layer, which is 
subsequently differentiated into mesenchyma and mesothelium. 
Hence both essential parts of the ccelom theory are inapplicable, 
at least in the present state of our knowledge, to vertebrates. 
For further discussion of the difficulties of the Hertwigs' theory, 
see Rabl, 29, 198-202. The Hertwigs recognized the signifi- 
cance of the parablast, and added the important rectification, which 
Flemming's observations had already rendered necessary, of sep- 
arating the smooth muscles from the striated skeletal muscles, a 
separation the propriety of which was wrongly questioned by 
Balfour {Comp. Embryol., II., 359). By this advance the two 
groups of mesodermal tissues became properly delaminated. 

C. Rabl's theory of the mesoderm is based, it seems to me, 
wholly upon his failure to understand the law of concrescence. 
That the mesoderm appears (perhaps in all vertebrates) while 
concrescence is going on is well ascertained ; consequently there 
is an axial mesoderm (Rabl's " gastrules mesoderm ") where . 
concrescence has taken place, and a lateral mesoderm (Rabl's 
" peristomales mesoderm ") in the part of the blastodermic rim 
which has not concresced. Until Rabl proves that his " peristo- 
males " mesoderm does not become axial mesoderm in later 
stages, his theory can have no standing. His memoir brings out 
one point of very great importance for the elucidation of the 
early stages of vertebrates, namely, that the " peristomal " meso- 
derm — in other words, that of the blastodermic rim in selachians 
and of the lips of the anus of Rusconi in amphibians — is repre- 
sented in the amniota by the mesoderm of the primitive streak. 
If this interpretation, which is much strengthened by L. Will's 
researches on the Gecko, 4.4., be verified, then the primitive streak 
is the homologue in amniota of the anus of Rusconi, and is the 
region where concrescence is incomplete ; the head-process is 



i89o.] The Mesoderm and the Cadom. 895 

then the part where concrescence is finished. This concords 
with the observed fact that the head-process grows at the expense 
of the primitive streak, as it would do if concrescence continued. 
The So-called Panblastic Nuclei of the Yolk. — In meroblastic ver- 
tebrate ova, after the embryo is formed, there appear in the yolk 
near its surface, underneath the extra embryonic blastoderm, 
peculiar large nuclei, which are commonly designated as the pan- 
blastic nuclei. The following description applies to Pristurus. 5 The 
extra embryonic ectoderm is a rather thin, much-flattened epithe- 
lium lying close to the yolk ; below the ectoderm is the super- 
ficial layer of the yolk, a broad stratum of protoplasm with 
scattered small yolk-granules ; a little deeper down a row of 
irregular vacuolar spaces, and again, a little deeeper, a layer of very 
big nuclei, each with a distinct intra-nuclear network and several 
deeply stained nucleoli ; the nuclei vary in size, being from 2-5 
times the diameter of the nuclei in the embryo. The upper part 
of the protoplasmatic stratum contains numerous small and a few 
larger yolk-grains, and contains near and under the embryo small 
* nuclei ; the middle part of the stratum contains the vacuoles, the 
big nuclei, and but few yolk grains ; the deepest part contains 
larger granules, and merges gradually into the yolk proper (see 
also His, 18, 75, and Ruckert, 32). Ruckert designates these 
nuclei as "Merocytenkerne," and the cells which they represent as 
"Merocytenr The special function of the protoplasmic layer 
appears to be the assimilation of the nutritive yolk. Ruckert 
also maintains, but without proper evidence, it seems to me, that 
merocytes become cells, some of which join the ectoderm, some 
the entoderm, and yet others the mesenchyma. In the Saurop- 
sida we find similar nuclei and similar relations of the nucleated 
layer, but in this type the protoplasmic layer becomes the epithelium 
of the yolk (see especially H. Strahl, 40), and I consider it prob- 
able that these parablast nuclei in all meroblastic ova belong to 
the vitelline entoderm. 

In holoblastic mammalian ova the vitelline entoderm is cellular, 
and no nuclei are known similar to the large " parablastic " 
nuclei of mesoblastic ova. 



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40. . Die Dottersackswand und der Parablast der Eidechse. Z. Z., 

XLV., No. 1, 283-307. Taf. XVI., 1887. 

41. Swaen, A. Etudes sur le Developpement de la Torpille {Torpedo 
ocellata). Arch, de Biol., VII., 537-585, Pis. XIV.-XVI., 1887. 

42. Waldeyer, W. Archiblast and Parablast. Arch. f. Mikr. Anat., 
XXII., 1-77. Z. thiel Allgemeine Anatomie, 1883. 

43- Weldon, A. B. Note on the Early Development of Lacerta muralis. 
Q. J. M. S., XXIII., 134-144, Pis. IV.-VI. Also in Sedgwick's Studies, II., 
1-12, Pis. I.-III., 1883. 

44- Will, L. Bericht iiber Studien zur Entwickelungsgeschichte von 
Platydactylus mauritanicus . Sitzb. Kon. Preus. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, LII., 
1121-1228, 1889. 

45- Ziegler, H. E. Die Embryonale Entwickelung bei Salmo salar. 
Freiburg (Diss.), 1882. 

46. Zumstein, J. J. Ueber das Mesoderm der Vogelkeimscheibe (Huhn 
und Ente). 8 vo., p. 56. Bern (Inaug. Diss.), 1887 



': of Mind. 



THE EVOLUTION OF MIND. 



"DEFORE entering on this subject we must consider the nature 
of mentality. Mental acts display a great range from sim- 
ple to complex. An attempt is made to exhibit their relations in 
t*he following table . 

Class I. Perceptions (presentations). 
Class II. Ideas (representations). 

Division A. Memory of Perceptions. 
Division B. Affection (taste, emotion). 
Division C. Imagination. 
Division D. Ratiocination. 

Method a. Conception (generalization). 

2d Grade. 
3d Grade, etc., etc. 
Method b. Induction (inference). 

2d Grade. 
3d Grade, etc. 
Method c. Deduction (predication). 
Division E. Will. 
The divisions of this table are not mutually exclusive. With 
regard to the methods of Ratiocination as above enumerated, it is 
to be noted that Induction and Deduction are distinct in kind 
from Conception, and are based on the latter, as well as on the 
simple Memory of Perceptions (Division A). While Conceptions 
are classifications, Induction and Deduction follow the Memory 
of Perceptions whether classified or simple. Will is expressed in 
action induced by any of the faculties embraced in the four pre- 
ceding divisions. 



900 The American Naturalist. [October, 

In this chapter I will first compare the mental faculties of man 
and the animals below him, and will then consider their progres- 
sive evolution. 



The faculties of perception or observation, form the primary- 
division of mental processes, and the most simple. They include 
those of general sensation and of special sensation. To the latter 
belong smell, hearing, taste, and sight ; to the former, touch, tem- 
perature, muscular sense, etc. It may be inquired, What have 
these functions in common with the affections, the intelligence, and 
the will ? They have the important characteristic in common, 
that they are all forms of consciousness, or self-knowledge. All of 
these functions are forms of consciousness, although some of the 
representative faculties may become automatic and unconscious after 
education. Consciousness, then, is the one common property of 
all mind; and, from the point of view of the evolutionist, progres- 
sive development of mind is the advance from the simpler to the 
more complex, or from the generalized to the specialized forms of 
consciousness. Mind, then, in this general sense, embraces every 
and all kinds of metaphysical condition, including the unconscious 
derivatives of conscious antecedents. Of this latter mental type 
more will be said later. 

That many of the higher animals possess mental faculties which 
must be referred to the divisions of the intelligence and the affec- 
tions, is evident to every person who is familiar with the animals 
themselves. That the simpler affections or " instincts " are present 
in animals very far down in the scale, is also obvious. That 
special senses exist in animals as low down as the Ccelenterata 
has been shown by Dr. Romanes and Prof. Eimer. General sen- 
sation is probably present in still lower forms of life; but which of 
them possess this simplest form of consciousness, and which do not, 
is at present very difficult to state. We may, however, form an 
estimate of probabilities in the case by observing the movements 
of Protozoa under stimuli, as well as those of the spermatozooids 
and phagocytes, which have a free existence within the bodies of 
all but the lower forms of life. 



1890.J The Evolution of Mind. 901 

The test of the presence of conciousness as the condition of the 
performance of an act is to be found in the nature of the act. Con- 
sciousness may be supposed to be necessary to the performance of 
an act which displays a definite relation to the satisfaction of some 
need of the animal; but such an act does not necessarily prove 
that consciousness is present at the moment of action. It is well 
known that designed acts may be performed by the higher 
animals which have been deprived of their nervous sensory cen- 
ters. Thus many vertebrates respond to stimuli applied to the ex- 
tremities of their peripheral nervous system after the removal of 
the brain ; such movements are entirely appropriate to the stimulus, 
being directed to the removal of the source of the irritation. 
The presence of consciousness (or sensation) cannot be predicated 
on movements of this kind. In fact, many kinds of movements 
of considerable complexity are unconsciously performed by man 
with uninjured sensory centers, in consequence of their sub- 
jection to the process of automatization, which is education, of the 
centers. By continued repetition a given movement may be 
learned, so that consciousness is not necessary to its performance, 
as for instance, knitting and reading aloud. Walking and other 
comparatively simple movements may be still more readily per- 
formed in unconsciousness. It is certain that even some of the 
higher functions of the brain, as classification, may be so performed. 
On account of these well-known phenomena it is supposed by a 
class of thinkers that consciousness has not been necessary to the 
original performance of any act, no matter how complex it may 
be, and no matter how evident the design. They suppose that 
action has been promiscuous or multifarious, and that natural se- 
lection has preserved those individuals whose movements chanced 
to be beneficial, and that those whose movements have been of a 
useless or injurious kind have been destroyed. 

There are two objections to this explanation of the origin of 
designed movements. The first is, that in all cases where we 
have the opportunity of observing the origin and development of 
such acts, we find that they have to be learned, and that they 
only become automatic after a more or less prolonged period of edu- 
cation. This process of education is one that involves the pres- 






The American Naturalist. [October 



the experience of pleasures and pains, 
he movements are first per- 
formed under the experience of the necessity of securing the one, 
and of avoiding the other ; a desire which is a condition of con- 
sciousness wherever it exists. Another objection to the explana- 
tion of the origin of designed acts by fortuity and natural selec- 
tion, is identical in character with that which has been urged 
against the similar explanation of the origin of permanent varia- 
tions of structure. The chance of the accidental performance of 
profitable movements among all possible movements, is very 
small ; and the chance of the repetition of such movements by a 
sufficiently large number of individuals to cause them to be pre- 
served by reproduction and inheritance is much smaller. In order 
to preserve such movements so that they should become habitual 
in a single individual, it would be necessary they they should be 
performed by it frequently, — a probability which diminishes 
directly in proportion to the frequency required to produce that 
result. Thus our negative knowledge of this subject agrees with 
our positive knowledge in impressing us with the extreme im- 
probability of a single habitual designed act having arisen and 
been perpetuated by chance. 

It is sometimes doubted whether consciousness can exist in 
such simple beings as the Protozoa. But this doubt seems to be 
unnecessary after a consideration of the organization of such 
higher forms of life as we know to be conscious. The higher 
multicellular animals, or Metazoa, consist of a colony of cells 
which display different degrees of specialization for the perform- 
ance of the different functions to which evolution assigned them. 
Their degree of specialization is of course measured by their 
degree of departure from the simple, primitive nucleated cells 
from which they have been derived by descent. Perhaps the 
most specialized are those which have become the threads of the 
connective and elastic tissues, and those of the tendons. Those 
of the modified epithelial tissues which cover the integument of 
the body, with its appendages, as scales, nails, horns, and hairs, 
are also highly modified. Muscular tissue is a little less specialized. 
In none of these tissues do we find consciousness. It is not cer- 



i89o.] The Evolution of Mind. 903 

tain that sensation resides in any but the cells of the nervous 
system, and if those of the peripheral parts of the system possess 
it, they do not retain it if they lose their connection with the central 
system. Now the cells of this system are the least modified of 
all those that constitute the soma of the metazoon, and thus 
they resemble most nearly the simple beings which constitute the 
lowest forms of the Protozoa. If they are capable of sensation 
in the one case they are likely to do so in the other. It appears 
that the conscious cell is the primitive cell, and the unconscious 
cell is the modified or specialized cell. And this conclusion coin- 
cides with what we know of the relation of consciousness to func- 
tion in the animals in which we can examine the history of both. 
Specialization of structure means specialization of function ; and 
specialization of function means accomplished education. Com- 
pleted education, as we have already seen, means unconsciousness, 
while consciousness is necessary to the beginnings of education, and 
to its successive steps up to completion. We are then led by the 
analogies of the education of tissues, as well as by their structure, 
to the belief in the presence of consciousness in the Protozoa. 
The demonstration of a sense analogous to sight in the Infusoria 
by Klebs and Pouchet, and in the Ccelenterata by Romanes and 
Eimer, renders it unnecessary to pursue the argument further into 
the next higher type of the animal kingdom. 

Were the above reasons insufficient to lead us to our conclusion, 
a consideration of the movements of the Protozoa would do so. 
All authorities agree that some of the actions of the Infusoria are 
in no sense automatic, but display a design as appropriate to the 
occasion as do those of the highest animals. The movements of 
the body of these animals are definitely directed towards their 
food or prey, and towards their opposite sex, and as definitely 
directed away from dangerous enemies. The movements of par- 
ticular parts of their bodies, as of their cilia and flagella, have 
definitely designed movements for special occasions. Some of 
the movements of the Amoebae have been, probably correctly, 
regarded as having a purely physical origin, due to the mobility 
of their protoplasm, and their contractility; but others, such as the 
projection of pseudopodia towards food with which they are not 



904 The American Naturalist. [October, 

already in contact, cannot be explained in this way. Their selec- 
tion of food and rejection of injurious substances, though not 
always performed without errors, indicates the presence of sensa- 
tion. The building of external protecting envelopes composed 
of grains of solid substances by the Diffiugiae cannot be explained 
by the action of physical causes only ; and the arrangement of 
pieces in regular order as an envelope by the Rotifer Melicerta 
indicates still more definitely the presence cf consciousness in 
some form. 

We cannot discover any such design in the movements of 
phagocytes and of spermatozo6ids. The former engulf leu- 
cocytes and other bodies with which they come in contact, very 
possibly for physical reasons, but do not pursue them, nor indicate 
their perception of their presence in any way. The movements 
of spermatozooids appear to be without direction other than that 
given them by the vibrations of their flagella, by the cilia of the 
canals which they traverse, and perhaps by some physical attrac- 
tion not at present explainable. The attraction of the sperma- 
tozooids of certain ferns and hepaticaj by solutions of malic acid 
and cane sugar have been regarded as chemical, but this can 
scarcely be the correct explanation. A physical relation is much 
more probable, if sensation is excluded. 

The presence of predication cannot be inferred from the exist- 
ence of consciousness in the lowest forms of life. An action .is 
designed if it is a response to a present stimulus or sensation, 
even if there be no memory, and the act is a new one 
every time the stimulus is applied. It is evident, however, that 
education commences low in the scale, since some of the acts of 
the Infusoria indicate an adaptation of means to ends which can- 
not be supposed to be possible to a totally new experience. The 
discharge of the weapon-like cilia of the Dinidium at its prey 
would indicate that the animal knew the effect of the act from 
past experience, and anticipated that food would be secured in 
this way from its success in previous performances of the kind. 
Memory is, so far as we know, a general attribute of living pro- 
toplasm, and it is probable that it enters into the psychic acts of 



1890.] The Evolution of Mind. 905 

memory, — merely the habit of identical response to identical 
stimuli, on the principle that energy in organic substances most 
easily traverses accustomed channels. But it is not easy to 
believe in a stimulus which is not consciously felt producing any- 
thing but an undesigned, indefinite movement; and memory, 
conscious or unconscious, could only repeat it. A movement 
directly related to the satisfaction of sensation could only origi- 
nate in a sensation, and the unconscious memory would repeat it 
blindly on the occasion of the experience of an identical stimu- 

Variations in the act appropriate to variations in the stimulus 
would become possible. We may suspect conscious memory in 
the exact ratio of the appearance of predication under slightly 
n narrower resemblan 



are evidently to be taken into account. In such cases c« mipansons 
of memories are necessary, and rudimentary classification begins. 
Mr. Romanes, in his work, " Mental Evolution in Animals," 
gives the following as his " criterion of mind ": " The criterion of 
mind, ejectively considered, consists in the exhibition of Choice, 
and the evidence of Choice we found to consist in the performance 
of adaptive action suited to meet circumstances which have not 
been of such frequent or invariable occurrence in the life-history 
of the race as to have been specially and antecedently provided 
for in the individual by the inherited structure of its nervous sys- 
tem." This is an excellent definition of mind which has reached 
the stage of predication. But for purposes of classification, I 
should include all the phenomena of consciousness in the domain 
of mind, as distinguished from that of no-mind or physical energy. 
Such is the custom of metaphysical writers, who include percep- 
tion within the range of their science, as it seems to me properly. 
The simple sensations should be included within the realm of 
mind. Here also should be included the " subconscious " state, 
with which we are all more or less familiar. Thus an impression 
may be made on the mind while its principal 
otherwise occupied, and this impression may lead to 
which is followed by a more distinct impression, if the < 



906 The American Naturalist. [October, 

is still present. And the subconscious impression may be recorded 
as a memory, but not so thoroughly as if the impression were 
more distinct Thus, the fleeting pictures of dreams are feebly 
impressed and but slightly recorded as memories. Such subcon- 
scious states may well be frequent in animals, especially in those 
where the external conditions are uniform, and new stimuli infre- 
quent, for longer or shorter periods. But vigorous stimuli, as ap- 
peals to the general or special senses, quickly rouse animals, as well 
as man, to intense degrees of consciousness. 

Since the sense-perceptions are well known to exist in animals, 
I will not give further special attention to them. Memory need 
not be especially considered, as its existence is necessary to the 
activity of all mental processes. I therefore proceed to the illus- 
trations of the affections and the reason as observable in animals 
below man. Equally necessary to the existence of both affection 
and reason is association. Association of pleasures or pains with 
given objects forms the basis of liking and disliking, and of 
designed or rational action with regard to them. The more 
especial characters displayed by association will be especially 
treated of under the head of the reason or intelligence. 

2. THE AFFECTIONS. 

Preferences for especial articles of food and drink are known 
to characterize animals, not only on the ground of physiological 
necessity, but for reasons less easily explained. Reasoning from 
our own experience, we may ascribe the latter class of preferences 
to the gustatory sense, which is stimulated by certain flavors, 
and which rejects others. The gustatory sense, together with 
its near ally, the olfactory, is generally a safe guide to the func- 
tion of assimilation, but not always, and in mankind it is often 
quite whimsical. In general, all of the " appetites " are common 
to man and the other animals. 

More pronounced likes and dislikes are common among ani- 
mals, and these are to be generally attributed to the action of 
association of memories, pleasant and unpleasant. The smell 
and sight of blood create the greatest excitement among animals 
of the ox kind, so much so that even the color red stimulates the 



1890.] The Evolution of Mind. 907 

antagonistic passions of the bull. The action of association is 
here evident. The dog associates the gun with the chase, and 
as soon as he sees his master take it up his passion for hunting 
his food is aroused, and his joy is demonstrative. Sudden move- 
ments near a hive of bees or a nest of hornets ( I \s/\> ntdcnlatti) 
are unsafe, as these insects evidently anticipate danger, and pro- 
ceed at once to attack the supposed enemy. The emotion of fear 
of all degrees is well-nigh universal in the animal kingdom, 
as few species, from the Protozoa upwards, do not endeavor to 
escape a present or anticipated danger. In no animal is fear 
more strongly developed than in some of the monkeys. A Ccbns 
capucuiHs and a C. apella in my possession sometimes escaped 
from their cage, and could only be caught after a vigorous chase. 
In pursuit they became so terrified as to fall in an unconscious 
condition on the floor. They were cold when picked up, but 
they soon recovered. I have never known any other species of 
animal to faint from fright. 

The social affections are seen low in the scale, and the maternal 
instinct is the first to present itself to our notice in the order of 
development. The endeavors of females to protect their eggs 
may be due to the fact that they regard them as part of their own 
bodies, as in the case of spiders, but an altruistic feeling (in the 
selfish sense of the word) must be admitted to be present in the 
exercise of the care of the young. This affection appears spo- 
radically among invertebrate animals, but is very general among 
Vertebrata, becoming a master passion in many of them. The 
attraction of the female for the male is seen in low forms of life, 
where it is transient, and often little or not at all reciprocated on 
the part of the female, so that contrivances for the compulsory 
fertilization of the latter by the former are numerous. In the 
higher forms the affection is more or less reciprocal, and in the 
highest forms a distinct conjugal affection is developed. Whether 
this exists in forms below the birds is uncertain. Rattlesnakes 
; do also sword-fishes. An account is given 
md successful assault on a boat 
made by a sword-fish whose mate had been harpooned and cap- 
tured by the boat's crew. Mutual affection between two individ- 



by Brown Goode of ; 



908 The American Naturalist. [October, 

uals of the same or of different species, without regard to sex, is 
not uncommon among birds and in mammals, and is probably an 
outgrowth of the maternal and sex instincts. The affection of 
many of the Mammalia for their human masters is well known, 
although this sentiment differs greatly in degree in individuals 
o fthe same species, as, for instance, in the dog. 

Shame is evidently experienced by some of the Mammalia, 
especially by monkeys and by dogs. This affection is an antici- 
pation of the ethical sense, a quality which will be considered 
under the head of the intelligence, further on. 

Jealousy is strongly developed in Mammalia, especially among 
dogs. It is quite as obvious anion-; these animals as among hu- 
man beings. An illustration of jealousy on the part of a chim- 
panzee used frequently to amuse the visitors to the Zoological 
Garden of Philadelphia. It was the custom of the keeper to feed 
a pair of these animals together with bread and milk, using a 
spoon. One sat on each side of him with an arm placed about 
his waist, and the keeper fed them alternately. At times he would 
intentionally neglect one or the other of them. As this continued 
the neglected animal showed his displeasure by pouting the lips, 
and finally he would rush from the side of the keeper, and throw- 
ing himself on his back would give way to a burst of jealous 
rage. He kicked his feet, threw straw into the air, and screamed 
vigorously, the whole proceeding resembling what one sometimes 
sees in a spoiled child. On the offer of renewed attention from 
the keeper, the chimpanzee was pacified, and took his original 
position with great satisfaction. 

Another and older chimpanzee confined in the same garden 
became paralyzed in the posterior limbs. Two lemurs {L. catta.) 
were # given to it for company. Their playful activity was at times 
a source of irritation to the chimpanzee. Her grimaces and 
cries of rage at these harmless creatures were laughable, and her 
impotent attempts to dislodge them from their hold above her, by 
shaking the wood-work on which they rested, was an exhibition 
of passion which was quite ridiculous. 

Admiration for brilliant or impressive colors or forms is evidently 
experienced by the vertebrate animals. It is probably present 



1890.] The Evolution of Mind. 909 

much lower in the scale. Protozoa collect about the light, and show 
a decided preference for certain colors. This attraction is of course 
of a low type of mentality, expressive of a simple form of conscious- 
ness, but it cannot certainly be ascribed to chemical or physical 
causes. In any case it acts through sensation. Insects are be- 
lieved to be attracted by showy flowers. Among vertebrates, 
birds show the most evident admiration for bright colors. The 
bower-birds (Ptilonorhynchus, Chlamydera, etc.) collect brightly- 
colored objects and arrange them about their play-houses and 
nests. The attention which the females of many birds which have 
brilliantly-colored males give to their exhibitions of themselves 
by the latter, is well known. The attractions thus offered to the 
females give opportunity for the sexual selection of Darwin and 
Wallace, which has no doubt had much to do with the preserva- 
tion of beauty and other admirable variations of animal type. 

A most evident illustration of admiration for brilliant color and 
extraordinary form was furnished by the monkeys in the Zoolog- 
ical Garden of Cincinnati. A large adult male mandrill {Cynoce- 
phalns mormon) was confined in a large cage with numerous 
smaller species of the old world monkeys. The mandrill had 
reached the age when the crest, beard, and bright blue, vermilion, 
and purple colors of the skin were in perfection. The smaller 
monkeys displayed the most respectful admiration for the huge 
beast, who stood or sat in the middle of the cage and received 
their adulation. The smaller species gazed upon the wonderful 
harlequin and moved about him in a deferential manner. His 
majesty occasionally seized one of them by the tail or the hind leg, 
and after submitting him to an examination, flung him from him 
with an expression of contempt. This did not seem to check 
their devotions, however, and they continued moving about him 
in circles and gazing at him. 

2. RATIOCINATION. 



In this section I will endeavor 



character of the 



_ntality of animals with respect to the faculty of reason, and to 
compare the latter with the corresponding department of the 
mind of man. Considerable light as to the essential nature of 



gi The American Naturalist. [October, 

reason must be gained from this research. It is well known 
that three distinct views may be taken of the source of this im- 
portant faculty. These positions are the two extremes of realism 
and idealism, and the intermediate one maintained by Kant. 
According to Locke and the experiential school reason is a pro- 
duct of sense-perception or experience, and is a posteriori. Ac- 
cording to Berkeley, Hegel, and the idealists, this faculty is a prion 
or intuitive, and creates the material world in its own likeness. 
Of this likeness sense-perception is the expression. According 
to Kant, sense-perception of a real universe is the material of 
thought, but it can only be comprehended through the necessary 
logical form of thought, which therefore presents a real material 
world to us in this form, but not as it is in itself. The relation 
which the evolution of mind has to this question will be consid- 
ered in another essay. 

Conception.— While perception and emotion are very generally 
granted to animals, it has been often denied that they are capable 
of conception or generalization. The formation of a concept is a 
result of classification, and the general idea which is a concept, is 
not an object, but a mental picture of several objects or parts of 
objects in combination. Concepts are of various grades of gen- 
erality, as may be exhibited in the following table : 



In the above analysis three grades of generalization are repre- 
sented; all derived from the individual objects enumerated in the 
bottom line. Each one requires successively greater mental 
grasp, and in the case of the highest generalization, the especial 
knowledge attained only by the scientific man. But the first or 
lowest grade of generalization is clearly within the scope of the 
animal mind. Thus the bull attacks a red object without ascer- 
taining especially whether it is blood or a red cloth ; he sees only 



1890.] The Evolution of Mind. 911 

the redness. So with the water-fowl seeking water. He alights 
on a surface of water when and where convenient, without dis- 
crimination as to the particular piece of water. The crow and 
other animals avoid man in general, without discrimination as 
the particular man, in the absence of special instruction. That 
this is an exact generalization is shown by the usual indifference 
of such birds, etc., to cattle and other, to them, innocuous animals. 
In fact, it is quite easy to show, as Mr. Romanes has done, that a 
low grade of generalization is common to most animals, and that 
it is quite as natural to them as the particularization of individuals. 
That they are at the same time not incapable of particularization 
is easily seen. The water-bird ultimately seeks its accustomed 
locality for breeding. The bird or mammal learns to know its 
master, and to distinguish him from other persons by their con- 
fidence and friendship. 

It is claimed by Professor Max Miiller and other persons, that 
conception is impossible without language ; i.e., that it is impos- 
sible to form concepts without words to represent them as sym- 
bols. Now this is clearly not the case. The naturalist con- 
ceives his genera, orders, classes, etc., before he names them. 
One can readily conceive of redness, yellowness, etc., without 
naming them, and it is perfectly evident that many animals below 
man do the same. 1 It is only a question of the mental power 
of the individual as to how wide a generalization he can thus 
conceive. 2 I see no reason why this power may not extend to 
the highest possible grade of generalization in the most able of 
human minds. Nevertheless to most persons symbols or names 
are necessary to the accomplishment of the higher concepts. 
Names constitute an invaluable aid in the construction of ra- 
tional edifices. They are well compared to a scaffolding to 



lilding, and it is quite 



Romanes remarks, 



a grade of conception thus attained to need the aid of 

Human Faculty, Chap. III. 



9 I2 



The American Naturalist. [Oct 



no longer, and to become automatic, and a part of the men- 
tal furniture. That the use of words has been the cause of 
an acceleration of rational development in man there can be no 
doubt; but the mentality of the lower animals contradicts the 
supposition that it was entirely essential. 

Many of the mammalia understand human language. They 
understand the meaning of words apart from tone and gesture. 
This can be most frequently seen in dogs, some of whom become 
remarkably expert in carrying out orders from their masters. 
Examples of this kind are familiar to many persons. Now the 
giving of orders involves the use of verbs. Verbs do not repre- 
sent objects, nor do they represent even single acts, but they 
express a class of single acts. In the comprehension of a verb, 
a dog performs an act of simple generalization, distinctly above 
the mere recognition of an object by a name. 

Induction. — Most evident is the existence in animals of the 
faculty of induction, which involves a generalization ; i.e., the 
drawing of a single general inference from a number of 
instances. While pure conception expresses cognition only, in- 
duction infers action on the part of its objects. From such and 
such premises, such and such events will follow, either as coin- 
cidence or as effect. 

I now give some illustrations of experiential inference, and 
deductive or practical application, among the lower animals. 

A great many animals adopt methods of concealment to es- 
cape observation, both of enemies and of the prey they seek. 
Certain species of crabs attach to their carapace pieces of algae, 
which then vegetate and cover the animal with a growth which 
conceals it. Others carry a stone above the posterior part of the 
carapace, which serves as a basis of attachment for foreign or- 
ganic growths which conceal them. Still others permit the 
growth of sponges and actiniae on various portions of their sur- 
face, which sometimes cover them completely from view. Among 
birds peculiar attitudes are adopted, which serve as an effective 
concealment ; such are those of some of the herons, which stand 
bolt upright in growths of reeds and thickets, so as not to be 
distinguished from the surrounding stems and trunks. So the 



// of Mind. 



913 



Gallinae and some of the snipe family squat on ground, which 
they resemble in color, until danger has passed. An ingenious 
device is employed by certain green snakes of North America 
(IJopeltis vemalis). They burrow under the earth, and then per- 
mit the head and a few inches of the body to emerge. This por- 
tion of the body is held rigidly vertical, and is not distinguish- 
able on a cursory view from the shoots and stems of green vege- 
tation which surround it. 

Fear sometimes stimulates an animal with the desire to inspire 
fear in return. I once observed this in the conduct of a Hetero- 
d u Wdi r'," i ,0 (hog-nose addei ). which was kept in a cage with 
a water-snake (Matrix sipedon) and a copperhead {Ancistrodon 
contortrix). Both of the harmless species were evidently greatly 
frightened on the introduction of the copperhead into the cage. 
The water-snake sought the lowest spot in the sand on the bot- 
tom of the cage, and coiling up kept close to the ground, not 
even raising his head. The Heterodon, on the contrary, inflated 
his long lung, swelling the greater part of his body into the 
form of a cylindrical bladder. He at the same time extended 
the anterior ribs, so that this part of the body resembled the thin 
blade of a paper-cutter. He then plunged his nose into the 
sand, and covered the top of his head with as large a pile of that 
substance as it would carry. In this disfigured condition he 
paraded slowly about the cage in front of the copperhead. The 
latter moved but little, and showed no disposition to provoke a 
quarrel with its singular companion. The Heterodon p 
when disturbed by man, throws itself into vigorous contortions, 
spreads the anterior ribs, and opens the mouth widely, after 
the manner of a venomous snake. The habit of erecting, under 
the stimulus of fear, the feathers and hair in order to increase the 
apparent size of the body, and so inspire fear, is common among 
birds and mammalia. The artificial ferocity of many monkeys, 
while under the influence of the very opposite emotion, i.e., fear, 
is often very amusing. Monkeys generally look away from a per- 
son whom they wish to attack, so as to throw the latter most 
completely off his guard. 

(To be eon tinned.) 



The American Naturalist. 



THE HARVEST SPIDERS OF NORTH AMI 



THE harvest spiders, harvest men, daddy-long-legs, or grab- 
for-gray-bears, as they are variously known in different parts 
of the United States, form a distinct family — Phalangidse — of 
Arachnida, which has as yet received comparatively little attention 
at the hands of American entomologists. In zoological classi- 
fication the family belongs to the suborder Opileonea, of the order 
Arthrogastra, and sub-class Arachnida. 

The Fhalangidae are at once distinguished from other Arach- 
nids by the united cephalothorax and abdomen, the long legs 
with multiarticulate tarsi, the well-developed palpi and tarsal 
claws, the five or six ventral segments, the first of which is 
abruptly contracted in front and prolonged forward between the 
coxae, and the two eyes close together upon an eminence at the 
middle of the dorsum of the cephalothorax. 

Our knowledge of American harvest spiders dates from the 
time of Thomas Say, who, in 1821, described four species under 
the genus Phalangium. Half a century later Dr. H. C. Wood re- 
described Say's species, and added eleven others to the list. Since 
then five additional species have been described by the present 
writer, who has also referred the others to their modern genera. 

During a recent study of the Phalangidae of the United States, 
as represented by collections made, largely through the kindness 
of entomological friends, in thirteen widely separated States, I 
have been able to recognize all of the described species, except 
two, viz., P. grande Say, occurring in the Southern States, and 
P. exilipes Wood, from the California coast. At least four of 
our forms fall into the subfamily Schlerosomatinae, which has not 
before been recognized in our fauna. One species, the P. nip-mn 
of Say, apparently belongs to the genus AstrobunusThorell, while 
two of Wood's species, tricolor and favosum, will apparently re- 
quire the erection of new genera to contain them, although at 



i89o.] The Harvest Spiders of North America. 915 

present provisionally retained under Astrobunus, where also Say's 
grande may conveniently remain until the discovery of speci- 
mens enables it to be properly placed. 

At least four genera of the subfamily Phalangiinae occur in 
our fauna. Three of these have before been characterized, while 
the fourth is new. The first, and in number of species by far the 
largest, genus is Liobunum of C. Koch, which is characterized by 
having the palpal claw denticulate, and the maxillary lobes of the 
second pair of legs clavate in shape, enlarging from the base to 
the apex. Ten of our species, one of which is yet undcscribed, 
belong to this genus, and two others — exilipes and calcar — are 
provisionally retained in it. 

Closely allied to Liobunum, but easily distinguished from it, is 
a genus as yet uncharacterized, for which the name Forbesium 
is proposed, in honor of Professor S. A. Forbes, Director of the 
Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. Its characters are 

Teguments very soft. Anterior and lateral borders of the 
cephalothorax smooth. Eye-eminence* distinct, entirely smooth, 
not canaliculate ; separated from the anterior border by a space 
equal to its diameter. Lateral pores large, oval, marginal, with a 
deep oblique sinus behind each. Entire dorsal surface smooth, 
without tubercles or spines. Anal piece large, transversely oval. 
Mandibles short, similar in the two sexes, the first joint provided 
on the under side, near the base, with a distinct tooth. Palpi 
slender, rather long, the patella having a well-developed conical 
tubercle on its inner distal angle; claw denticulate. Maxillary 
lobes of second legs in the form of elongate triangles, as shown 
at Fig. 3, Plate XXX. Legs rather stout, and of only moderate 
length. 

Members of this genus are at once distinguished from those of 
Liobunum by the elongated triangular maxillary lobes of the 
second pair of feet, the conical projection on the palpal patella, 
and the perfectly smooth uncanaliculate eye-eminence. In 
Simon's synopsis of European genera it comes between Lio- 
bunum and Prosalpia, but it also differs materially from the 
latter. 



gi6 The American Naturalist. [October, 

Two species of Forbesium occur in our fauna, the first, F. for- 
mosum, having been described many years ago by Dr. H. C. 
Wood, and the second, which may be called F. hyemale, being un- 
described. The former is a distinctively northern species, rang- 
ing from New York to Colorado, while the latter is evidently its 
southern representative. Both are exceptional in that they 
hibernate as adults rather than in the egg state. 

The undescribed species is represented at Plate XXXI., Fig. I, 
showing its natural size, and Fig. 2 its structural details magni- 
fied : a, representing a dorsal view of the body ; b, a side view of 
the eye-eminence ; c, a front view of the same ; d, a side view of 
the palpus ; and e a similar view of the palpal claw. It may be 
described as follows : 



hyemale.— Female.— PI. XXXI., Fig. 


1, 2. Length, 


. Legs: I., 32 mm.; II., 60 mm.; 


III., 31 mm, 



dark central marking begins at eye-eminence, and runs two-thirds of the 
way to the posterior extremity* it contracts near the anterior border of the 
abdomen, then expands in an even curve, and again contracts in a similar 
way. There is a deep oblique sinus just back of each lateral pore of 
cephalothorax. On the abdomen are scattered dark spots, arranged in 
irregular transverse series. Eye-eminence perfectly smooth ; black about eyes 
with a light-brown longitudinal central marking ; slightly longer than high ; 
not at all canaliculate. Mandibles light gray, with tips blackish ; sparsely 
provided with short black hairs. Palpi slender ; mottled grayish -brown ; 
all the joints provided with short, black, stiff, spinous hairs. Patella arched ; 
its inner lateral distal angle produced into a pronounced conical tubercle. 
Tarsal claw distinctly pectinate. Ventral surface light gray. Legs long, 

Described from three specimens taken at Auburn, Alabama, by Pro- 



Plate XXX. represents Forbesium formosum, the mature female 
eing shown natural size at Fig. 1 , structural details magnified at 
'ig 2, and the maxillary lobes of the second legs at Fig. 3. 
ioth plates are from drawings by Miss Freda Detmers. 

The genus Phalangium as at present restricted contains but two 
f our forms, cinereum Wood and longipalpis Weed. P. cincreum 
species, and occurs from New York to 



PLATE XXX. 



/ \ 







PLATE XXXI. 




I \ iSl 



i8 9 o.] The Harvest Spiders of North America. 917 

Nebraska, though apparently not extending into the Southern 
States. P. longipalpis is a southern form, — having been received as 
yet only from Arkansas, — which is remarkable for the extremely 
long palpi and abnormal chelicerae of the male, while in the 
female the palpi are of the usual length and the chelicerae nor- 
mal in form. 

Two species of the genus Oligolophus occur in our fauna. The 
first, 0. pictits Wood, has been taken in Massachusetts, New York, 
Illinois, and Ohio. It is quite rare, though not so much so as the 
other, 0. ohioensis Weed, which has as yet been found only in Illinois 
and Ohio. 

Summarizing these statements, we find that, so far as at present 
known, the phalangid fauna of North America includes but 1 
ty-two species, belonging to two subfamilies. The first subfamily, 
Sclerosomatinae, claims four forms, one of which belongs to Astro- 
bunus, while the generic position of the other three is at present 
in doubt. The subfamily Phalangiinae in udes four genera, 

with 

t be confessed that, for the area represented, this is a 
small showing, and undoubtedly the list will be greatly length- 
ened when the fauna of the mountainous regions and the more 
remote sections of the country is better known. France has a list 
of fifty-nine of this family, and the phalangid fauna of other Euro- 
pean countries is proportionately large. 



List of North American Speci 

Family PHALANGIID&. 

Subfamily SCLEROSOMATINAE, 

Genus Astrobunus Thorell. 

1. A. nigrum Say. 

2. A. (?) bicolor Wood. 

3. A. ( ?) favosum Wood. 

4. A. (?) grands Say. 



Liobunum with twelve species; 
Phalangium with two species; 


Forbesium with 
and Oligolophi 


species. 





The American Naturalist. 

Subfamily PHALANGIIN^. 
Genus Liobunum Koch. 
5. L. dorsatum Say. 

7. L. longipes Weed. 

8. L. maculosum Wood. 

9. L. nigripalpis Wood. 

10. L.politus Weed. 

1 1. L. similis Weed (M S.). 



13. L. verrucosum Wood. 

14. L. vittatum Say. 

15. L. (?) exffipes Wood. 

16. /-.(?) calcar Wood. 

Genus Forbesium Weed. 

1 7. jF". hyemale Weed. 

Genus Phalangium Linn. 

19. P. cinereum Wood. 

20. P. longipalpis Weed. 

Genus Oligolophus Koch. 

21. (9. ohioensis Weed. 

22. O. pictus Wood. 



EDITORIAL. 

AWHILE the pursuit of pure science deals with the abstract, 
since nature has a physical basis the scientific man can- 
not neglect the practical. Like other men he must live, and he 
must have a career. In order to live he must have a reputation, 
or in other words he must, like other men, advertise his wares. 
Such is the practice of the worker in science, and happily such 
practice coincides with his direct line of work, which is the de- 
velopment of human knowledge. His pursuit advertises itself to 
the intelligent, so that the investigator need not go out of his way 
to become known if his work is good. And his reputation means 
a position and support for himself and his family. 



/..■■'.-.■ 



9 i <) 



It is not uncommon, however, to hear very exalted sentiments 
uttered by the enthusiastic devotee, to the effect that he cares noth- 
ing for the ordinary indications by which he may be known. He 
particularly disclaims the vulgar desire to give names, when it is 
fully within his right to do so, and he looks down with contempt 
on the man who thus affixes a trade-mark to the goods which he 
has himself produced. Now this is nothing but a mild form of hy- 
pocrisy, pleasing to him who entertains it and to the groundlings 
who know nothing of life, but it deceives no others. Let another 
step in and try to set up his shop in the "preserves " of these gen- 
tlemen, or let him try to attach his label to what he may discover 
therein, and human nature displays itself in vigorous forms. They 
are not so indifferent as they pretend to be. 

We sometimes hear suggestions that the scientific field shall be 
divided. A shall do this, B that, and so on. Such propositions 
are most likely to emanate from some person who fears the in- 
dustry or the ability of some one else, and desires to preempt a 
claim from which " depredators" shall be excluded. This also is 
human nature, but it is not the right kind. The defenders of 
such methods, however, assure us that it is in the true interest 
of science ! 

These remarks are apropos of a recommendation contained in 
the address before the Geological Section of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, of 1890, by its chair- 
man, Prof. Jno. C. Branner, who is director of the Geological Sur- 
vey of Arkansas. He recommends that the State Geological Sur- 
veys confine themselves to economical geological work, and leave 
the solution of all scientific problems to the United States Geo- 
logical Survey. Perhaps Professor Branner intends to do this in 
the case of the survey which he directs, but if he does so we should 
consider him derelict in his duty to the people who have appoint- 
ed him. We doubt, however, whether he will or can do so. As 
to other geological surveys, his proposition will be apt to provoke 
a smile. The scientific geologist, wherever located and however 
situated, will not probably confine himself to economic questions. 
Nor will the literature of geology be diminished as Prof. Bran- 
ner professes to desire. If scientific geology is to be restricted 



9 2 o The American Naturalist. [October, 

to the U. S. Geological Survey, and economic geology to the State 
Surveys, where do the Universities come in ? and where private 
investigators working at their own expense ? 

It has been said that most men, if they had the opportunity ; 
would be despots, and they would at the present time, as they 
have often in the past, plead some public good as their excuse- 
But in science most especially despotism is impossible. The inves- 
tigator has the " inalienable right " to " life, liberty, and the pur- 
suit of happiness" in the direction of scientific researches, and no 
man is competent to tell him what he shall do and what he shall 
not do. His raison d'etre is the quality of the work he does, and 
if his work is bad, it simply sinks out of sight. What good he 
does will be credited to him in the court of approval of the world 
of science, where everything stands on its merits, and local ambi- 
tions and political tactics are unknown.— C. 

—While there were a goodly number of entomological papers 
read at the recent Indianapolis meeting of the Society for the 
Promotion of Agricultural Science and the Entomological Club 
of the A. A. A. S., there was a notable scarcity of such papers 
before the Biological Section of the Association. This paucity 
only among entomologists, but 
It is very desirable that in future 
years students of insect life furnish more papers of general 
biological interest, following in this respect the excellent example 
set by the botanists. While there is just now an urgent demand 
for the solution of many purely economic problems in entomology, 
and official workers are wisely devoting much of their time to 
these, they can scarcely afford to neglect entirely the biological 
side of their subject. Not only is there great need of the eluci- 
dation of insect life-histories, many of which are complex and 
difficult to determine, but there are hundreds of points where 
entomology touches the problems of general biology, and is able 
to aid greatly in their solution. No better illustration of this can 
be cited than the admirable researches of Professor and Mrs. 
Peckham upon the senses of wasps and sexual selection and mim- 
icry in the spiders of the family Attidae. Papers upon the classi- 



I »9o-] Editorial. 92 1 

fication and distribution of insects seem also of late to have 
become unfashionable at the association meetings, without suffi- 
cient reason. In the present craze for purely practical entomology 
it should be remembered that there is very little entomology that 
is not in some sense economic, and that if entomologists wish 
to attract to their ranks a desirable class of amateur students, 
they must show that in the world of insects there are other prob- 
lems than those of spraying with the arsenites or fighting the 
codling moth. — W. 

— The electric execution law of New York State should be 
repealed pending the development of our knowledge on the sub- 
ject. The course of an electric current in or on such a bad con- 
ductor as the human body is difficult to foresee, and in the case 
of Kemmler it seems to have disappointed the expectations of the 
designers of the apparatus. The current did not traverse the spinal 
cord as was intended, but followed the dorsal muscles, which were, 
according to the reports, completely roasted. What is then to 
prevent its taking a superficial direction on the head as well ? 
The frequent statements which are made of men receiving shocks 
of higher power than that used in the execution of Kemmler 
confirms the belief that the direction of the current is an uncer- 
tain quantity in the problem. So long as this uncertainty remains, 
so long will electrical execution be a trifling with the subject, 
which is inexcusable. In the present state of our knowledge of 
the subject the law is a disgrace to the statute-book of the State 
of New York. Execution by hanging is not thought to be a 
painful manner of death, although the guillotine is probably 
less so. 

We expect to have some comment on the subject, in a future 
number of the Naturalist, by a well-known expert, who was 
present at the execution of Kemmler. 



The American Naturalist. 



RECENT BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS. 

:t. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XII., pp. 635-640. From the Mtml - „ „. I-si tutmn 
ALLEN, J. A.— Notes on a Collection of Mammals from Southern Mexico, with De- 
Species of the Genera Sciurus, Tamias, and Sigmodon. Ext. Bull. 

On North American Ground Squirrels. Ext. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. From 

Annual Report of the Canadian Institute, 1888-9. 

Annates de la Societe Beige de Microscopic Tome XII. 

Annalen des K. K. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums. Redigirt von Franz Ritter Von 

n.Jour. Sei., Vol. XXXIX., May, 1890. 

BLACKMAR, F. W.— The History of Federal and State Aid to Higher Educ 
! United States. From the Bureau of Education. 

Boettger, O.— Ueber die Leistungen in der Herpetologie WShfenddN 
Verzeichnis der von Hernn Si i ciner Reise von K 



BOLI.MAN, C. H— Notes on a Small Collection of Myriapods from the Bermuda 



Bonaparte, C. J.— Civil Service Reform as a Moral Question. From the author. 
BONNEY, T. G.-Notes on Two Traverses of the Crystalline Rocks of the Alps. 
Quar. Jour. Geol. Set., FeB., 1889. From the author. 

Bonwill, W. G. A.— The Philosophy of Eating and Drinking from a Dental and 
lical Standpoint. From the author. 

Boulenger. G. A.— A List of the Reptiles and Batrachians of Amoorland. Ext 
. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Feb., 1890. 
Note on Python curtus. Ext. Proc. London Zool. Soc, Nov.»i889- 



1890.] Recent Books and Pamphlets. 923 

BURMEISTER, H.-Bericht iiber Mastodon andium. Sitzungsb. K. Preuss. Akad. 



; The English Spar- 



Crosby, W. O— Physical History of the Boston I 
DALL, W. H— Preliminary Report on the Collect^ 



-Sandstone Dykes. Bull. Geol. ! 



Haeckel, E— Natiirlichen Schopfungs-Geschichte. 

Report of the Deep-Sea Keratosa Collected by H. M. S. Challenger, 1873-76. 






Palaeontographici, XXW'I B. : 



The American Naturalist. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 



Dall on Dynamic Influences i 
esting paper we find that Mr. Dall tu 

It is generally admitted, he says, that in natural selection we have 
a theory which accounts for the perpetuation of favorable, and the 
elimination, in the long run, of unfavorable variations in organic 
beings. It is equally admitted that the origin of variation is not 
accounted for by this theory. To round out our conception of the, 
mode of evolution it is necessary that this deficiency should be sup- 
plied. It should also be supplemented by some conception of the 
mode by which variation is sustained in a given direction until it has 
reached a point of usefulness sufficiently marked to enable the selective 
process to operate. 

He accepts the relation of the organism to its environment as the 
desired factor, and for this adopt the name of Dynamic Influences. He 
maintains that acquired characteristics are inherited. The organism 
suffers during its entire existence a continuous series of mechanical 
impacts, none the less real because invisible. Since individual organ- 
ism.-, usually appear free to wander or remain quiescent, the idea that 
they are under constant stress does not ordinarily suggest itself, and to 
this fact he ascribes the slowness with which the dynamic element in 
evolution has received recognition. The characters developed in an 
organism in response to impacts are acquired, but that which is trans- 
mitted is a facility of response in the same line. This, under favor- 
able conditions and a series of generations subjected to similar 
impacts, may promote and establish the physiological habit, which is 
the directive influence towards the development of the characters in 
question. 

The dynamics of environment vary within comparatively narrow 
limits, when consistent with organic existence. On the other hand, 
owing to the narrowness of the limits, the dynamic variations to which 
organic forms are subjected become relatively more important. It i s 
probable that no two organisms have ever been subjected to exactly 
the same dynamic influences during their development. Differences 
of impact necessarily imply differences of response, hence variation is 
inevitable. The origin of variation, therefore, presents no difficulties. 



e Biological Society c 



, H. Dall. 



Lite; 



9^5 



The question is, How are the small necessary and admitted differences 
stimulated to develop into the obvious differences recognized by syste- 
matic biologists ? To this he answers that the reactions of the organ- 
ism against the physical forces and mechanical properties of its 
environment are abundantly sufficient, if we are granted a simple 
organism, with a tendency to grow, time for the operation of forces, 
and the principle of the survival of the fittest. 

It is often assumed that the possibility of variation is equal in every 
direction. A consideration of the dynamic conditions of life shows 
that this is not the case. Under conditions whicli would permit it, 
resulting organic forms would be sub-spherical, and would have to pass 

came to rest, it would be subjected to unequal stresses. Light, 
gravity, nutrition, etc., would be unequally distributed, forcing an 
unequal growth and specialization of regions. Inequality established, 
locomotion, with attendant friction and resistance, would confirm the 
inequality. Organic matter, as such, is in no sense released from the 
servitude of matter to the operation of physical forces. 

Mr. Dall divides the operation of biologic selection into two cate- 
gories : ist, That in which fitness and unfitness are determined by 
the perfection in adjustment of the individual to the mechanics of the 
environment ; 2d, That in which intelligence becomes a factor. The 
latter includes sexual selection, mimicry, protective coloration, etc. 
It is not necessary that the organism which is modified should possess 
even consciousness; but one of the two parties to the modification 
must possess intelligence of a certain grade. It is probable that 
influences of the second category operate more rapidly and produce 
greater diversity in development than could have been expected from 
the working of purely physical forces. 

If the dynamic evolutionist brings forward an hypothesis which 
explains the facts of nature without violence to sound reasoning, that 
hypothesis is entitled to respect and consideration until some better 

the dynamic hypothesis only those characters can be considered which 
arise from permanent physiological reactions due to the impact of 
external forces. Mutilations rarely fall into this category, and are 
essentially sporadic. A pathologic incident may affect the progeny, 
but only in trifling numbers, and it is of no importance to the dynamic 
hypothesis whether it can be proven or not. The forces invoked by 
dynamic hypothesis, on the other hand, affect every individual of a race 
and every generation as long as the environment continues unchanged. 



926 The American Naturalist. [October, 

It seems to the writer that Mr. Dall has not given the full value to 
pathologic cases. These may result from unfavorable surroundings ; 
or at the close of the natural life of a species or group, pathologic 
changes may be taken on, as clearly shown by Prof. Hyatt in fossil Ce- 
phalopods. In these cases, all the individuals of a race and successive 
generations in a given locality or geological horizon may be induced 
to take on features of a pathologic character, and form a degradational 
series of individuals, species, or genera. 

In studies of the development of the hinge of Pelecypods, and the 
columellar plaits of Voluta, Mitra, and other Gastropods, Mr. Dall gives 
concrete examples of dynamical genesis. These appeal strongly iff 
in favor of this hypothesis, on account of the simplicity of the prob- 
lem as he presents it, and the complete way in which the facts illustrate 
the mechanical stresses to which the parts have been exposed. 

Mr. Dall's paper suggests to me what I believe is a new way in 
which to consider natural selection in its relation to dynamic influ- 
ences. In their mutual relation it is clear that natural selection is not 
a new force coming in where dynamic influences cease ; but rather it 
comes as a corollary of dynamic influences. It is not a foreign force, 
acting in some other and special way ; but it acts in harmony with, 
and as a natural outcome of dynamic influences. If dynamic forces 
tend to push a series of organisms in any given time of variation, some 
individuals will evidently be pushed further on that line of variation 
than other individuals, on account of greater plasticity or other causes. 
Those which have yielded most fully to the acting forces will be as a ne- 
cessity more completely in harmony with the mechanical requirements 
of the environment ; therefore they will be more likely to successfully 
propagate and hand down the modified features which fit them for the 
environment, and have been fitted on to them by the environment. 
That such individuals will propagate especially freely may be legiti- 
mately inferred from the well-known principle, that complete har- 
mony with environment is one of the prime factors in the successful 
reproduction of animals and plants. Such especially well-fitted indi- 
viduals are not exceptional and sporadic cases ; they are in direct 
accord with the ascendant line of the series to which they belong, and 
would therefore be naturally selected because they have most com- 
pletely filled the mechanical requirements of their environment. 
During successive generations individual advantages naturally selected 
on this principle will not tend to become merged and lost sight of in 
the general average ; they will tend to elevate and bring into greater 
perfection of equilibrium the oncoming generations. 

Robert T. Jackson. 



1890.] Recent Literature. 927 

Poulton on the Colors of Animals. 1 — The meaning and uses ot 
animals are stated systematically in this monograph, a valuable addition 
to the literature of this department of natural history. The classifica- 
tion shows an intimate knowledge of the subject from personal observa- 
tion and a wide acquaintance with the studies of others, whether 
embodied in occasional papers or the proceedings or transactions of 
various scientific societies. Mr. Poulton adopts the general title.. 
"The Colors of Animals," in order to indicate the contents of this 
volume, although the majority of the examples are taken from insects, 
chiefly from a single order, the Lepidoptera. 

In investigating the physical cause of animal colors, their produc- 
tion is conveniently grouped under two heads. — pigmentary and 
structural. The first includes, under a first head, colors caused by 
absorption, the effects varying with the chemical nature of the sub- 
stance (pigment). The second head includes the colors produced in 
all other ways, the efficient cause being the structure of the substance 
rather than its chemical nature. No pause is made to discuss the 
details of the causes of color by absorption, except to. mention the 
observance of vibrations of very different rates. The existence of 
vibrations of light above and below the visible series is proved in 
other ways, and reference is made to the conclusion reached by Sir 
John Lubbock (?« The Senses of Animals ") that it is certain that some 
animals can see vibrations which do not affect our eyes. The slowest 
vibrations that we can see produce the effect of red ; the most rapid, 
the effect of violet ; "while the intermediate vibrations cause the 
other well-known colors of the rainbow or the spectrum." 

The white markings of animals are produced in various ways. The 
writer explains the snow-like appearance of white hairs and feathers by 
the number of minute bubbles of gas which are contained in their 
interstices. "Interference colors," due to thin films of air in- 
cluded between layers of horny consistence, are then treated with 
reference to their probable production of iridescent coloring. In 
some cases it is supposed that the chinks between the layers of tissue 
are kept open by films of liquid, producing the brilliant metallic ap- 
pearance of many chrysalides. An interesting observation showed a 
brilliant golden beetle lost all its lustre after hibernating in captivity, 
but entirely regained it after drinking some Avater. After brief con- 
sideration of the colors due to diffraction and refraction (prismatic 



928 The American Naturalist. [October, 

colors), the writer passes to the uses of colors, the chief object of this 
inquiry. 

Mr. Poulton supports his own theory of the direcj: physiological 
value of the uses of color to animals by a large amount of experi- 
mental evidence brought together from many sources. Some interest- 
ing conclusions were brought forward by Lord Walsingham upon the 
predominance of dark varieties of insects and white varieties of birds 
and mammals in northern latitudes. The most widespread use of color 
appears to be its assistance to an animal in escaping from enemies 
and in capturing prey ; the former is called Protective, the latter 
Aggressive Resemblance. 

The general recapitulation of the colors of animals gives (i) non- 
significant colors j (2) significant colors, which are subdivided into 
colors of direct physiological value, protective and aggressive resem- 
blance, protective and aggressive mimicry, warning colors, and colors 
displayed in courtship. Mimicry is an important section of special 
resemblance; when an animal gains advantage by a superficial resem- 
blance to some other species which is well known and dreaded, because 
of some unpleasant quality, it is called protective mimicry ; when, 
however, an animal resembles another so as to be able to injure the 
latter, the mimicry is considered aggressive. 

Warning colors are advantageous to enable an animal to escape 
experimental "tasting," for, when it possesses an unpleasant attribute, 
it is well to advertise the fact as publicly as possible by conspicuous 
patterns and strongly-marked colors. The colors and markings of 
butterflies and moths often represent some familiar appearance of 
withered or decayed leaves. A detail of great interest is added to the 
disguise by the semblance of a small hole to indicate piercing by 
insect larvae. Mr. Poulton allows himself to say SaXferhaps the most 
perfect concealment attained by any butterfly is seen in the genus 
Kallima, described by Wallace. This resembles in outline a withered 
and somewhat shriveled leaf, when at rest ; along the supposed leaf 
runs a distinct mark like a mid-rib, with oblique veining on either side. 

The color and markings of birds' eggs are supposed to be of high 
protective value as observed in their natural surroundings. 

Some remarkable instances of rapid adjustment are cited in the 
chapter on "Variable Protective Resemblance in Vertebrata," etc. 
Fishermen know that trout caught in a sandy-bottomed stream are light 
colored, while those caught in a muddy stream are dark. « It is also 
well known that the same fish will soon change in color when it passes 
from one kind of background to the other." Other animals possess the 



1890.] Recent Literature. 929 

same power of adjusting their color to correspond with a peculiar 
environment. It is well known that the common frog can change its 
tints to a considerable extent. In asserting that the changes of color 
depend upon the eye, and blind animals cannot vary their color pro- 
tectivelv, Mr. Poulton supports his position by the results of the in- 
vestigations'- of Lister, Briicke, and Pouchet on the physiological 
mechanism of these rapid changes of color. The change of color in 
Arctic mammals is a difficult problem. The seasonal change of color 
in birds is referred partly to aid in concealment, and also to loss 
of susceptibility to cold supposed to result from the white winter coat. 
A never-failing interest attaches to the subject of " Warning 
Colors." The history of the discovery of warning colors in cater- 
pillars is quoted with many examples, showing that the education of 
enemies is assisted by the fact that " warning colors " and patterns 
often resemble each other, and there is abundant evidence to show 

tion the writer passes to a consideration of colors and markings 






, and which 



are not attended by unpleasant qualities. An inquiry of great charm 
directs attention to the importance of recognition markings, and the 
principles as set forth by Messrs. Wallace and Tylor. A familiar 
illustration will occur in the white upturned tail of the rabbit, by which 
the young and inexperienced are shown the way to the burrow by the 
individuals in advance of the expedition. 

In discussing the mimetic appearances of unprotected classes, it is 
made plain that the term mimicry is used for convenience, for the 
mimicking is of course unconscious, so that the use of the word is not 
likely to mislead. 

Mr. Poulton believes that the habits of Bower Birds are evidence 
for the existence of strongly-marked aesthetic taste in birds. 

In conclusion, Mr. Poulton brings together the results arrived at by 
investigations, and shows their relation to each other in a system ot 
classification. A detailed table gives the colors of animals classified 
according to their uses, one or more examples accompanying the 
definition of the terras, not those used in the body of the book, which 
were better adapted to illustrate the meaning. The writer believes 
that existing knowledge is well represented by the provisional arrange- 
ment suggested by this table. ■ The book is thoroughly illustrated ; the 
frontispiece is a chromo-lithographic plate exhibiting remarkable in- 
:rflies. Mr. Poulton's scien- 



3Q 



The American Naturalist. 



small a degree, and to illustrate by new examples, the great principles 
of biology enunciated by Darwin, and in especial "the preeminent 
principle " of natural selection. 

To the above general description of Mr. Poulton's work, which we 
take, with some alterations, from a contemporary, we add the follow- 
ing comments : 

The author remarks in his preface: " It is common enough nowa- 
days to hear of new hypotheses which are believed (by their inventors) 
to explain the fact of evolution. These hypotheses are as destructive 
of one another as they are supposed to be of natural selection, which 
remains as the one solid foundation upon which evolution rests. " 2 As 
this book is a conspicuous example of the type of thought which 
regards natural selection as the cause of evolution, we give some atten- 
tion to its method of treatment of this Interesting question. This 
treatment consists, as in the case of other post-Darwinians, as Wallace, 
Lankester, etc., in a failure to consider the problem of the origin 
of the variations between which there is a struggle for existence, and 
which are therefore the materials of natural selection. It would appear 
that these scientists are generally insensible to the fact that there is 
any such question. I say generally, for occasionally each of them 
slips into an attempt to assign some physical or mechanical cause to 
a variation. The question will not down, as is illustrated in several 
places in Mr. Poulton's book. One which cannot be avoided is the 
of the origin of significant colors, where our author, in one 






"gives away" the whole question. On page 13 1 



remarks: "All animal color must have been originally non-signif 
for although selective agencies have found manifold uses for color, 
this fact can never have accounted for its first appearance." The 
prompt avoidance of the question of origin, however, immediately 
follows, as he goes on to say : " It has, however, been shown that this 
first appearance presents no difficulty, for color is always liable to 
occur as an incidental result." We should like to know something 
about the origin of color and its distribution in animals, but of this 
we find scarcely a hint in the entire book. On the other hand, the 
book consists of full and rich illustrations of the utility of color shades 
and patterns after they have been produced. 

The question of mimicry is fully illustrated and discussed, and the 
conclusion is reached that its existence can be fully explained by 
natural selection. The real question of the origin of mimetic color- 
ation is not considered, except in a foot note OH page 224. The 

1 The italics are our own. 



1890.] Recent Literature. 931 

author quotes Mr. Skertchly as endeavoring to explain the origin of 
such coloration as follows : " This theory « presupposes (a) that danger 
is universal; (6) that some butterflies escape danger by secreting a 
nauseous fluid ; (c) that other butterflies noticed this immunity ; (</) that 
they copied it.' The opinion expressed in the words 1 have italicised 
will hardly be accepted by a single naturalist. I imagine that even 
the American Neo-Lamarckians do not follow their founder so far as 
to believe that the volition of an animal could account for all the 
details of mimetic resemblance." 

Both Mr. Skertchly and his critic illustrate the misunderstanding 
which may arise from a neglect of the physiology of the origin of 

fact that it is a mine of information for the investigator in tin's direc- 
tion. Thus, on page 113 and afterwards are narrated the author's 
remarkable experiments on the imitation by the pupas of butterflies of 
the colors of the bodies to which they are attached : experiments 
already commenced by Mr. W. W. Wood, Prof. Meldola, Mrs. McE. 
Barber, Mr. Mansel Neale, and others. Green, yellow, and reddish- 
brown surroundings were closely imitated by the colors of pupas of 
the same species placed in proximity to them. Mr. Poulton found 
with pupas of Vanessa urticce, which have normally some gilt spots, 
that when they were placed within black surroundings they were, as a 
rule, extremely dark, with only the smallest traces, and often no trace 
at all, of the golden spots which are so conspicuous in the lighter 
forms. He then tried white surroundings on 150 chrysalides. In this 
case " not only was the black coloring matter, as a rule, absent, so that 
the pupas was light-colored, but there was often an immense develop- 
ment of the golden spots, so that in many cases the whole surface of 
the pupas glittered with an apparent metallic lustre." A gilt back- 
ground was then employed, with the result that a much higher percent- 
age of gilded chrysalides, and still more remarkable individual in- 
stances, were obtained. 

That these results are due to the direct influence of the light 
reflected from the surrounding surfaces on the body of the pupas seems 
extremely probable. The analogy, suggested by Wood, to photo- 
graphic process, is probably correctly rejected by Poulton as an 
explanation, though that some analogous process is at work seems 
very probable. The fact that where the color when once produced 
cannot be changed by exposure to another color, urged by Poulton 
as conclusively disproving Wood's theory, has no such value, since 
the process is one which is coincident with growth, and cannot be 



93- 



'uralist. [Oct 



seconded any more than a sensitive plate once used can receive a 
second photographic impression ; nor is it necessary with Mr. Skertchly 
to suppose that the pupa "notices" the color of its surroundings, 
though we do not know whether it is conscious of them or not. I 
have myself suggested 3 that mimetic analogy is to be explained by 
the impression produced on the reproductive elements by a sense 
impression, as in the cases of " maternal impressions," of which some 
real cases exist. Nor does such a theory require that any " volition " 
be present, such as Mr. Poulton ascribed to " the founder " of Ameri- 
can Neo-Lamarckianism. Such a hypothesis is confirmed by a fact 
mentioned by Mr. Poulton on page 238. He says : " This example 
enforces a conclusion arrived at by the study of mimetic butterflies in 
all parts of the world,— that the females are far more liable to assume 
this method of defense than the males. Thus Mr. Wallace found that 
the eastern Morphidae and the special group of swallow-tails were only 
mimicked by the females of other swallow-tails ; and similar facts have 
been observed in America. ' ' The male young have developed beyond 
the effects of the impression, while the female young have not. — 
E. D. Cope. 

Billet on the Life History of Bacteria. 4 — In addition to 
elborate laboratory work with the Cladothrix dichotoma, Bacterium 
balbianii, Bat' Isartrrium frinuiticnm, following 

them step by step through the filamentous, dissociated, entangled, and 
zooglceic states, and giving conclusive proof that the present classifi- 
cation of microbes is erroneous, this work has a bibliographic index of 
662 references, including the names of over four hundred authors. 

The author does much to clear up the history of this subject, and also 
points out clearly that more attention has been paid to the effects upon 
the animal economy than to the morphology. He calls attention to 
the fact that the " Cohn school " declares for one unchangeable form,, 
and that Zopf merely specifies types according to the forms. 

Billet very properly claims that one form may be derived from 
another, and cites that Ray Lankester first recorded that the forms 
were not sufficient for classification, the latter being confirmed by 
Cienkowski. Billet shows that the bacterium (the short rod form) is 
able to take on sufficient length to represent the bacillus ; that a num- 
ber of these can form chains ; and that the vibrio is found indifferent 
media to change into the spirillum. He follows the cladothrix through 

3 Proceedings American Philosophical Society, 1871, p. 261. Origin of the Fittest, p. 213. 

♦Contribution a Tetudede la Morphologieet.lu Mvekwpemenl des I 
Albert Billet, Docteur en Medecine, Medecin-Majur 2 I \, 
la France etde la Belgique^^o. 



l8 9<>.] Recent Literature. 933 

all the known forms of microbes, and shows that these microorganisms 
have different powers of receiving stains according to their ages. 

If he be correct in the foregoing statements, many genera will be 
done away with. It is very interesting to follow his experiments show- 
ing the growth and development of one form into another, noting his 
methods of detecting the cells, etc., which methods show much labor 
and careful manipulation. 

In treating of the typhoid germ he claims that it is not rhromogenic. 
The work shows a marked difference in the variotn forma of the Bac- 
terium balbianii (found in marine algae), and the Mieroeoeeus prodi^iosus 
and the Bacillus violaceus, and follows them through the filamentous, 
dissociated, entangled, and zooglceic forms ; it shows that they can li ve- 
in air and may resist ioo° C, that they assume an orange color on the 
surface of certain solid media, and that they undergo endogenous spore 
formation. It also shows that the Bacterium osteopkilium is mostly 
found in macerated human bone surrounded with yellow fat. and that 
this also undergoes endogenous spore formation. He shows an evolu- 
tion cycle, divided into the filamentous, dissociated, entangled, and 
zooglceic states. These different states correspond to a morphological 
grouping, and are due to the nutritive media, temperature, pressure, 
amount of oxygen, etc. Consequently, many morphological forms 
represent the same species. The zooglceic state merely represents a 
state of preservation. As has been said, the forms cannot determine 
the genera ; and as we do not know at present the principal genera, we 
must not attempt to classify them. 

It will be seen that Billet is working in the right direction to reduce 
bacteriology to an exact science.— S. G. Dixon. 

Corals and Coral Islands. By James D. Dana.— About a 
half-century ago two exploring expeditions were almost simultaneously 
circumnavigating the globe; one under the command of Captain 
(afterwards Admiral) Fitzroy of the English Navy, the other under the 
command of Lieutenant (afterwards Admiral) Wilkes of the United 
States Navy. These two expeditions are chiefly memorable for the 
work of two brilliant young naturalists by whom respectively they were 
accompanied. In the English expedition went a recent graduate of 
Cambridge, Charles Darwin, whose dust now rests in Westminster Ab- 
bey near to that of Sir Isaac Newton, and whose discovery of natural 
selection — the law of gravitation of organic nature— makes his name 
an epoch-making one in science since that of Newton. In the 
American expedition went a recent graduate of Yale, who still lives, 
full of years and honors, his eye not dim and his natural force not 
abated, facile princeps of American geologists, James D. Dana. Among 



934 The American Naturalist. [October, 

the results of those voyages, the most important (excepting, perhaps, 
the influence of the experiences of travel upon the growing minds of 
the great naturalists themselves) was the theory of the origin of barrier 
reefs and atolls, independently developed by Darwin in the study of 
the coral formations of the Indian Ocean, and by Dana in the study 
of those of the Pacific. 

The problem of barrier reefs and atolls may be briefly stated. The 
I reef-forming corals grow only in shallow water, seldom, if ever, reach- 
ing a depth of much more than one hundred feet. Their skeletons are 
broken by the waves, and their comminuted fragments consolidated 
into the reef rock. A belt of reef is thus naturally formed immediately 
adjoining the shore of a continent or island, or separated from the 
shore by a shallow channel, having a width of a mile, more or less. 
Such a channel is very apt to exist, since the water immediately in con- 
tact with the shore is apt to be too impure for the luxuriant growth of 
corals, while the conditions are most favorable for such growth on the 
outer margin of the reef. Such a reef is called a fringing reef, and its 
formation presents no perplexing problems. But the case is very dif- 
ferent with the barrier reefs, which are separated from the shore of the 
continents which they border, or of the islands which they surround, by 
a deep channel, ten, twenty, one hundred, or more miles in width; 
and with the atolls, which are more or less irregular rings of reef rock, 
entire or broken by channels, standing out in mid ocean away from 
any land, and enclosing lagoons, which are sometimes small and shal- 
low, but which sometimes have a diameter of scores of miles and a 
depth much exceeding the limit of coral growth. On the outside of 
both barrier reefs and atolls the bottom generally slopes off pretty 
rapidly into truly oceanic depths. 

The solution of the problem was given by Darwin and Dana in a 
theory which may be expressed in one word,— subsidence. Darwin had 
the priority in the formulation and publication of his views, and the 
theory is most commonly called by his name ; but Dana's work was 
equally independent, and he was able to illustrate the theory with a 
much more extensive series of observations than Darwin had the oppor- 
tunity to make. It seems, therefore, most, just to link together the two 
illustrious names, and to call the theory the I > irwin-I tana theory. Let 
the earth's crust in a region of coral reefc undergo a subsidence not 
more rapid than the rate of coral growth, and fringing reefs will ob- 
viously be converted into barrier reefs. Since the i orak always grow 
most rapidly at the outer margin of the reef grounds, the inevitable 
'ill be the widening and deepening ..f the channel 



Recent Literature. 



W5 



between the reef and the shore ; and this is exactly what is required to 
transform a fringing into a barrier reef. If the reef was formed 
around an island, continued subsidence will suffice to convert the bar- 
rier reef into an atoll, the original island disappearing beneath the 
waters of the lagoon. Since the outer wall of the reef, though some- 
what steep, is never precipitous, subsidence still continued after the 
formation of an atoll must diminish the size of the atoll and tend to 
obliterate the lagoon. The last stage of a coral island disappearing by 
continued subsidence is therefore a mere dot of coral rock. 

The theory, in its charming Minp!i< it v. reminds one of Columbus's 
egg. It accounts for the facts with a marvellous perfection. And the 
correlation which it traces between the formation of those 



in continental changes ot 
, opens one of those glimp- 
ses of the unity of nature which give to scientific speculation a poetic 
sublimity. The Darwin-Dana theory was immediately and well-nigh 
universally accepted. Probably the first thought of almost every 
geologist, when the theory was announced, was, " Why did I not think 
of that myself?" 

The subsidence theory, however, has had a rather curious history. 
After an undisputed reign of a third of a century, its title to the throne 
has been recently questioned, and, in the judgment of some of the 
ablest geologists, its days are numbered. The Duke of Argyll, who often 
(as King James said of Lord Bacon) ** writes of learning like a Lord 
Chancellor," has made the assumption of the certain falsity of the sub- 
sidence theory the basis of a wholesale charge against the morality of 
scientific men, alleging that the majority of geologists have formed a 
" conspiracy of silence " to suppress the new views, in order to main- 
tain before the public the infallibility of the idolized Darwin. It is, 
then, with a special interest that we turn, in this new edition of Dana's 
classical work, to the pages in which he deals with the recent discussion 
of the subject, and, after the mature deliberation of a half-century, 
defends the theory whose discovery was one of the earliest of his great 
achievements. 

It is undoubtedly true that both barrier reefs and atolls may be 
formed without subsidence. If the water off the shore of i 
or island deepens very gradually, the water near the shore 1 



936 The American Naturalist. [October, 

In such situations the primary condition of the reefs would be that of 
barrier reefs (though differing from most barrier reefs in not sloping off 
rapidly into very deep water). The reefs of Florida are probably ex- 
amples of this sort. Moreover, it was long since recognized by Cham- 
isso, that, if the summit of a submarine volcano (or a shoal of any 
origin whatever) should be within the hundred-foot limit, the coral 
formations thereon would naturally assume the atoll form — a ring of 
reef encircling a lagoon— as the result simply of the more luxuriant 
growth of the corals on the outside than in the middle of the reef 
grounds. Murray, in his theory of atolls, in addition to the more 
luxuriant growth of corals on the outside, calls in the solvent action 
of the sea-water in the middle of the reef grounds in explanation of 
the lagoon, — an action whose importance he seems greatly to overrate. 
A strong objection to Chamisso's theory of the origin of atolls has 
been found in the amount of coincidence which it requires. All atolls 
must represent submarine volcanoes (since no other shoals are likely to 
occur in mid-ocean), rising to within a hundred feet of the sea-level. 
The occurrence of so many independent volcanoes attaining so nearly 
the same altitude appears improbable. Murray meets this argument 
with the suggestion that forces are in action which tend to reduce all 
oceanic volcanoes to a uniform altitude, since rain, streams, and ocean 
waves tend to degrade to sea-level all peaks that rise above that level, 
while deposits of skeletons of pelagic life tend to raise the level of 
shoals which are yet too deep for coral growth. An island of any height 
could of course be leveled in time by the combined effects of subserial 
and marine denudation ; and, as it is not unlikely that volcanic islands 
may have been formed in various geological periods, it is conceivable 
that scores or even hundreds of oceanic volcanoes, originally of var- 
ious heights, might all exist to-day in the condition of shoals. But it 
is certain that wave-action could never degrade an island much below 
the water-level. The formation of atolls with deep lagoons, on the 
basis of volcanic cones truncated by wave-action, would seem impossi- 
ble without subsidence. The depth of the lagoons, which is generally 
considerable in the larger atolls, and which sometimes amounts to more 
than three times the extreme depth of coral growth, seems, in fact, a 
conclusive argument for the subsidence theory In commenting on the 
theory of Murray, which proposes to account for the foundation ot 
coral islands by the accumulation of the remains of pelagic life, and 
to account for deep lagoons by the solvent action of the water, Dar- 
win is reported to have said to a friend, not long before his death, that 
he could not understand how the water could possess so great solvent 



Recent Lit 



917 



power in the lagoon of an atoll, and so little solvent power anywhere 
else. We find ourselves in very much the same state of mind. 

The distribution of coral formations in the Pacific accords exceed- 
ingly well with the Darwin-Dana theory. South and west <»f the 
Sandwich Islands there lies a large area nearly or quite destitute <>t 
islands of any kind. Passing southward and westward from tins area 

verse zones characterized respectively (though with much local irregu- 
larity, as might be expected) by the predominance of small atolls and 
lagoonless islands, of large atolls with broad and deep lagoons, and ot 
high islands encircled by barrier reefs, reaching at last an apparent 
limit to that area of subsidence in the fringing reefs of New Hebrides 
and the Solomon Islands. 

Dana has pointed out a very interesting evidence of subsidence In 
the dissected form of the coast-line of the high islands encircled by 
barrier reefs,— narrow ridges radiating outward in " spider-leg " fashion 
between deep bays. A deeply-dissected coast-line, on continent or is- 
land, is rightly regarded as evidence of subsidence, since valley-making 
is the characteristic work of rivers or glaciers. 

The limits of this article allow only a mention of the blocks of lime- 
stone on the submarine slope of Tahiti far below the reach of wave- 
action, and the discovery of coral rock hundreds of feet below the sea- 
level in the artesian borings at Honolulu, rightly regarded by Dana as 
evidences of subsidence. 

We are inclined to find a confirmation of the Darwin-Dana theory 
in a consideration which many will regard as too speculative to have 
any weight. Although there are some exceptions, Darwin's generaliza- 
tion appears, on the whole, to be well established, that areas of barrier 
reefs and atolls are destitute of active volcanoes, while active volcanoes 
are found in areas of fringing reefs. If we adopt the view that the 
interior of the earth, though solid, is mostly in a state which might be 
called potential liquidity, the relations of temperature and pressure 
everywhere, beneath a thin, cold crust,being such that the slightest local 
diminution of pressure will (faction, — a theory which 

seems perhaps most satisfactorily to harmonize the apparently conflict- 
ing indications of geological and physical evidence bearing on the 
subject, — it seems probable that the fire-lakes from which volcanoes are 
fed may be developed generally in areas of local elevation and conse- 
quent local diminution of pressure. If, then, the presence of barriers 
and atolls may be accepted as a mark of regions undergoing subsi- 
dence, in distinction from regions stationary or undergoing elevation, 



938 The American Naturalist. [October, 

Darwin's generalization would be seen to be hot a mere coincidence, 
but a dynamical law. 

We believe, in view of all the evidence brought forward in recent 
discussion, that it is altogether probable that extensive subsidences of 
the ocean's bed have taken place in Tertiary and Quaternary times, 
and that the majority of barriers and atolls are the result of such subsi- 
dence, though conceding that both barriers and atolls may be formed 
without subsidence. 

*We have devoted most of this review to the examination of the 
theory of barriers and atolls, in view of the interest which recent dis- 
cussion has aroused. The book before us is, however, by no means a 
controversial work, nor is it chiefly occupied with the presentation of 
the Darwin-Dana theory. On the contrary, in a remarkably many- 
sided way, Professor Dana has given us all phases of the subject : the 
structure, physiology, and taxonomy of the coral animals j the mode 
of formation of reefs and islands ; the far-reaching geological inferences 
which the facts suggest ; the fantastic beauty of those gem-like islands ; 
and, in sad contrast, the lack of the essential conditions of an indige- 
nous or self-supporting civilization, — 

And only man is vile." 

The professional geologist will turn to the book for the latest and 
most matured views of one preeminently entitled to speak with 
authority. The student will find in it a well-digested encyclopedic 
work of reference. The general reader will follow with delight the 
steps of one who, with a love of nature so pure and childlike, 



In regard to the externals of the book, it is enough to say that the 
publishers have got it up in a style worthy of the contents. The book 
is richly illustrated. In this edition several new maps are added, and 
a few beautiful colored plates of corals and 1 
North Rice, in New Publications. 



Geography and Tra;\!. 



(General Notes, 

GEOGRAPHY AND TRAVEL. 

Honduras. — The geography of Honduras is too well 1 
here treated in a detailed manner. Its territory stretches 
latitude 13 degrees 10 minutes to 16 degrees, and in west 1< 
tween 83 degrees and 89 degrees 45 minutes. 

Honduras contains 46,000 square miles, with a populati 
450,000. Of these we may reckon 35,000 as belonging I 



The country is of a very mountainous character. A scries of 
large streams drain Honduras, mainly toward the north and south. 
On the Pacific slope of the Cordilleras we have two main streams, the 
Rio Choluteca and Rio Goascoran, both entering the Gulf of Fonseca. 
The north coast is better supplied with streams. We encounter 
the rivers Cuyamee, Chamelican, Rio Ulna, Rio Caballo, Rio 
Caymanes, Rio Patook, and a number of others which, though 
large enough to float canoes, are not of sufficient importance to be 
mentioned in this general geographical sketch of Honduras. The 
rivers Ulna and Patook, which have their sources far in the 
interior near Comayagua and Tegucigalpa, are most important for 
navigation. Although at present scarcely navigated except with small 
boats, they might be with little expense, made navigable for river 
steamboats with light draft. These two rivers traverse one of the 
richest territories of Honduras, covered with a luxuriant growth of 
valuable wood, well adapted for raising coffee, sugar cane, cocoanuts, 
cocoa, cotton, and a great number of agricultural products. The 
mountains are traversed by lodes of gold and silver ore ; also cop- 
per, lead, zinc, mercury, and coal occur ; and yet the whole district is 
entirely undeveloped in spite of the navigable rivers Ulna and Patook, 
which connect the rich interior with the Atlantic ocean. 

In a northeasterly direction we have the Rio Segovia, entering the 
Atlantic at the Cape Gracias a Dias. This river forms for hundreds 
of miles the boundary between the Mosquito territory of Honduras 
and Nicaragua. Though one of the largest rivers of Honduras, its 
course, as well as the territory through which it passes, is nearly un- 
known. The banks of these rivers are inhabited by the tribes of the 
Payas Indians, who have not only kept their independence, but also 
their seclusion from the outside world. 



TJie American Naturalist. 






nguage spoken in Honduras is principally Spanish. In the 
inhabited by the Mayas and Mosquito Indians various dialects 
of the Maya idiom are encountered. 

Let me commence just here a description of our journey, starting 
from Panama. 

A large coasting-steamer has, after a voyage of seven days, safely 
transferred us from old Panama to the fine and magnificent bay of 

Already accustomed to the gigantic and picturesque display of the 
Cordilleras on the Pacific slope, we find in the bay of Fonseca, united 
in the supreme works of Nature, majestic greatness and idylic 
beauties. A large sheet of blue water of 1 20 square miles extends before 
our eyes. From its smooth surface rise, in most variegated forms, 
volcanic islands; some covered with tropical vegetation, others as 
barren and torn as if only formed a short time ago in the wild contest 
of fire and water. 

These picturesque groups of islands are dominated by still larger 
cone-shaped mountains. We see afar the volcano de San Miguel, its 
head crowned with black rounded clouds of smoke, which are heaped 
upon each other; closer to us is the famous Cosequina, and in our im- 
mediate neighborhood is the volcano de Sagate, now inactive, a ruin 
of a mountain, which on its ragged and torn surface, even to the pres- 
ent time, is bearing the marks of a terrible struggle between it and 
volcanic agency. The features of death imprinted upon its surface 
seem to have made the whole mountain destitute of animal and vege- 
table life. Our native guide pronounces the mountain to be haunted 
by the " evil spirit." 

We cannot but show a badly-concealed smile while listening to a 
sad tale of a still sadder mountain ghost. 

Our offended guide only very reluctantly consents to our proposal 
to hunt for the foe. We soon encountered a number of skeletons 
of animals, and with them his traditional bad spirit in the form of 
carbonic dioxyd or carbonic acid, which exudes from the interior 
through the open crevices of the mountain, and which proves fatal to 
animal life. This is the « evil spirit " the simple natives talked of. 

Nearly opposite the now inactive volcano Sagate is the flourishing 
island of Tigre, about twenty-two miles in circumference, which forms 
the base of the cone-shaped, inactive volcano Tigre, about 3500 feet 
high, abundantly covered with vegetation. At its foot is the port and 



^9°] Geography and Travel. 941 

We embark, and though we are strangers to the Hondurian people, 
we receive at nearly every step marked attention and proofs of Central 
American politeness. 

Our kind host is not satisfied with offering us all that his house 
affords. He asks us to accept with his " a la disposicion de Vm," any- 
thing that he imagines has attracted our attention. I have no doubt 
our host means to be sincere (?) in his offer, but we would most likely 
seriously grieve him in accepting his numerous extravagant tokens of 
hospitality. Most of the Hondurians are of good and noble character, 
hospitable and charitable toward sick people, as I myself once had an 
opportunity of learning. On my journey from the interior towards 
the north coast I was attacked with fever, when thirty miles from the 

A ride of thirty miles a day in a country which has no roads, but 
only paths over high mountains and thickly o ver gro w n plains, is a 
fatiguing task, and more so for one who is sick. I arrived late at a 
house, asked permission to enter, which was cheerfully granted me, 
and during a severe illness of seven days I was carefully nursed and 
provided with native remedies for my complaint. 

Leaving the hut and its charitable and hospitable inhabitants, I 
asked permission to offer, beside my thanks, a small amount of money 
to remunerate them for their expenses and time, but scarcely could in- 
duce them to accept money. " Senor Estrangero " (stranger), said 
the old Indian woman, "we have given you shelter because you have 
needed it ; we have nursed you to restore your health, but not to have 
the holy duty of charity made a profitable business to us. We must 
refuse your money, and are contented with your thanks." A woman 
who takes care of a sick person is called " mujer de Dios " (woman 
of God). If she needs herbs or food for her patient, any one will 
furnish them to her, and the few words, " Soy mujer de Dios " (I am 
a woman of God), are more powerful in securing aid for her than 

Life and property are well secured in Honduras. Speaking from my 
own experience, I never had the least difficulty in my travels through 
this country, and although I carried sometimes a considerable sum of 
money, I never was attacked or robbed. On the road I often met men 
carrying a large amount of crude silver and gold from the mines 
towards the capital and the coasts. Frequently they were not even 
armed, and, nevertheless, I never heard that the carrier was plundered 
or had absconded. The Hondurian is, as a rule, indolent, as a result 
of the abundant products of nature, which furnish him all he needs 



94 2 The American Naturalist. [October, 

with the least amount of work. But once aroused from his lethargy, 
he will endure harder work and more fatigue than his northern brother. 
Peaceable by nature and most anxious for the preservation of his 
health,- he will, incited by the furies of war, become desperate and 
even cruel. His life, once so dear and precious, now becomes value- 
less to him. He prefers to die, face to the foe, than to retreat before 
a powerful enemy who attempts to invade his beloved country. 

History has thrown immortal glory upon those 300 men of Sparta 
who fell in the defence of their country. In Honduras no records tell 
the story of the soldiers, buried or left where they died, far out in the 
wilderness. Only a number of heaps of stones with some weather- 
worn crosses indicate the places of rest of those brave fellows who 
died with the cry of "viva la patria," and no Hondurian will pass 
these monuments without uncovering his head and adding a new stone 
to his memory. 

The Hondurians pass their leisure hours in gay and social entertain- 
ments, in which guitar, song, and dance form the main part. They 
enjoy themselves to the utmost, but the frank expression of joy is half 
concealed under the grave Spanish features, which seldom reproduce 

Gambling is frequently met with in Honduras, and this vice extends 
to nearly all classes of society. Their national sport is equestrianism, 
in which they are very expert. Of their national games, we may men- 
tion hunting, bull-fighting, and cock-fighting. 

The women of Honduras are superior to the men. They have the 
good qualities of the latter, but are more industrious, more peaceable 
and charitable. 

Having thus given you some of the main features of the Hondurian 
character, we proceed with our journey from Amapala to the village 
of La Brea. 

A small boat, with a good breeze, is rapidly ploughing its road 
through the bay of Fonseca, and within four hours we reach the estu- 
aries of the Rio Choluteca which empties by seven mouths into the 
Pacific Ocean. We enter one of the river branches, and, pulling up 
through tropical forests with thick undergrowth, we reach in two 
hours more the village of La Brea. On our journey up the broad 
river our boat at times became entangled in the roots and branches of 
the mangrove trees, which abound on this coast. 

The tree is, at present, not utilized by man, although it might be- 
come an important article of commerce on account of its containing 
tannin. But nature has already made use of the mangrove tree. Its 



i89o.] Geography and Travel 943 

roots and branches form a kind of breastwork against the dashing 
waves of the sea, and not only prevent the destruction of the shores 
by the erosive action of the waters, but retain in the network of their 
roots a considerable quantity of organic and inorganic debris, carried 
from the interior toward the sea. As soon as the roots have accumu- 
lated enough material to form firm land, the tree dies, and new sprouts 
spring forth again toward the sea to recommence the same process. I 
have no hesitation in saying that the whole of the low diluvial and 
aluvial coast land on the Pacific and Atlantic shores of Honduras was 
formed by the aid of mangrove trees, and that the same process of 
formation of new land will continue as long as there are mangrove 
trees, and debris carried away from the interior towards the coast. 

The phenomenon of a continuous process of land formation on 
Central American shores is certainly interesting in the fact itself ; but 
more so if viewed in regard to its causes. We haw vegetable hie in 
mechanical and chemical co-operation with meteorology, and it results 
in building up new formations from mineral substances, which had 
once appeared in different combination and positions in the geological 
and topographical structure of Honduras. Nature's laws of economy 
thus appear before us. We see a constant change of forms in all 
organic and inorganic matter, but the amount of material remains 
stable, as well as the laws of nature. 

I beg to continue with a few remarks on the natural drainage of 
Honduras, be it of its water or of its debris, which together must 
materially influence the topographical aspect of the country. The 
desire and intention of nature to equalize height and depth is strik- 
ingly manifested in Honduras. We would, perhaps, suppose that after 
the struggle of the palaeozoic Hondurian continent with the tertiary 
epoch and its eruptions of rhyolites, basalts, and lavas, an epoch of 
rest, a time of peace, would follow. Our supposition is correct in one 
respect. The periods of continuous eruptions are over, and the un- 
dulations of the disturbed crust have ceased, with the exception of a 
few sudden earthquakes, which are mainly felt where large sheets of 
water lie above mineral substances undergoing decomposition. 
Meteoric events, besides, seem to stand in some direct relation with 
earthquakes, as we know that the latter principally occur after the rainy 
season, and with a low state of barometer. 

Although earthquakes may cause some local disturbances, yet they 
are too insignificant to produce a material alteration in the character of 
the scenery. But at the present time a continuous change in the topo- 



944 The American Naturalist. [October, 

graphical features of Honduras is nevertheless in operation, perhaps 
not noticed in the short time of days, but the more strikingly in the 
long periods of geological ages. 

These alterations of the form of mountains and valleys we may 
mainly attribute to meteoric agency, in particular to rainfalls, and to 
the lithological character of a great portion of the material of which the 
Hondurian mountains are composed. The rocks on the Pacific slope 
consist principally of rhyolite, andesite, volcanic, tufas, and augitic 
lavas, most of which are not apt to resist the erosive and destroying 
action of water and air, not only on account of friable structure, but of 
the want of stability in their chemical constituents. We see those « 
mineral aggregations undergo metamorphic alterations, and thus we 
have, instead of the original finely crystalized hard material, accumu- 
lations of soft tufas, or common clay. A material thus altered can- 
not preserve its original outlines, and cannot resist the ponderous 
waves of water sweeping during the rainy seasons from the heights 
of the interior towards the level of the oceans. 

There are no other meteorological records in existence which might 
inform us of former and ancient events in Honduras, but those which 
were registered by nature herself in form of striking alterations, to 
which the early topographical aspect of that country has been sub- 
jected during a series of epochs up to the present time. 

The changes in the topography of Honduras, and principally those 
produced since the elapse of the tertiary period, as already mentioned, 
are caused by heavy falls of rain, the erosive action of which the 
half-decomposed rock-material could not resist ; it became detached 
and stored away in the depths of the valleys or on the levels of the 
sea-shores, thus producing, after the long periods of geological ages, 
material alterations and changes on the surface. 

At the present time the amount of water in the rivers is in direct 
proportion to rainfalls, and without much doubt has been always de- 
pending upon this phenomenon. We are, therefore, justified in calling 
those huge mineral accumulations of the diluvial and alluvial age, 
on thecoastlands or in the interior, direct data and records in regard 
to the quantity of former rainfalls. In order to receive an adequate 
idea of the quantity of debris already used by nature for her process of 
buildingnew plains, let us examine some features of the erosive action 
of water on the mountains themselves. 

We traverse the plain between La Brea and Gnoscoran, and on en- 
tering the latter village we come upon tertiary grounds. A series of 
isolated volcanic mountains rise before us. Some are of the shape of a 



1890.] Geography and Travel. 945 

perfect cone ; others are long but narrow, their tops presenting fre- 
quently from 3 to 5 peaks or cones which are arranged in linear succes- 
sion. This peculiar shape is not caused by erosion, nor can it be a 
mere freak of nature, as this mountain-form presents itself too often to 
us in our excursions through Honduras. It must be based upon similar 
physical and mechanical laws which we find effect the columnar, 
pentagonal, or hexagonal structure of a great series of volcanic rocks. 

We continue our journey, and encounter, towards the interior, in a 
north-easterly direction from Gnoscoran, the interesting crater-ranges 
or crater-vali ; of die village of Langli. From 

there we proceed to the mountains of Curraren. 

The official topographical map of Honduras, made in i860, which 
is usually considered the most correct, proves useless to us as soon as 
we enter the interior mountain wilderness of Honduras. It is impossi- 
ble to locate ourselves by aid of the map. as even the principal moun- 
tains and villages or towns have been too incorrectly determined in 
regard to their relative positions. Twice I became lost in the wild 
mountains of Honduras on account of some grave error in the map, 
having each time a narrow escape from starvation. As we proceed to 
Curraren we are surrounded by high walls and mountains of white 
andesite tufa, which are built upon each other in the form of terraces. 
On the white surface of the mountains numerous veinlets or lodes of 
mineral deposits, such as copper, silver, and lead, intersect each other, 
indicating, in the distance, by their greenish or reddish colored out- 
corps, the probable existence of some valuable mineral deposits. We 

mountain, and find a large vein of argentiferous gold quartz, which 
is worked at present by some enterprising native. 

It is impossible to speak of series or ranges of mountains in this 
district ; the whole neighborhood is but a chaos of mountains, some 
half-destroyed or gone, others only deprived of their original " caps " 
of porphyry, which at one time crowned their gigantic forms. 

The terraced fronts of the mountains before us are of a decidedly 
columnar sub-arrangement, and principally so when most exposed 
to the action of water and air. 

The tendency of basalt, andesite, rhyolite, and a number of other 
eruptive rocks to assume a columnar structure appears mainly after 
original coherent and firm material has undergone some alteration 
and decomposition by aid of atmospheric influences. 

There is no stability in those columnar walls, traversed with hori- 
zontal bands or layers of clay. As soon as the latter are taken away 



946 The American Naturalist. [October, 

by the action of water, the columns will fall and form a pile of debris 
at the foot of the mountain, till it is slowly reduced to material light 
enough for transportation by aid of the rains and rivers. 

The duration of the picturesque aspect presented by these mountain 
facades is limited. With nearly every year new architectural forms 
of columnar structure appear, until the whole of the mountain has dis- 
appeared. 

This process of continuous detachment of masses of rock is materi- 
ally assisted by vegetable growth, which rises in the fissures of the 
walls. During the dry season the process of vegetation ceases, and 
dies off. The dry material usually becomes ignited, enveloping the 
whole district in a slowly-consuming fire. During night time the ap- 
pearance of those mountain fires is fearfully magnificent. In my 
memory I see at the present time those burning mountains before 
me. I remember my hurried ride, on muleback, and I still hear the 
noise of the bursting and falling rocks. 

The occurrence of prajrie and mountain fires, principally in the hot 
and low regions of Honduras, contributes, to a great extent, towards 
a rapid decay of the present mountain forms. — M. J. R. Fritz- 
Gaertner, Ph.D. 

{To be continued) 



GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY. 

The Barking Sands of the Hawaiian Islands. — The 
following is an abstract of a paper read on this subject read before the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, at Indianapo- 
lis, August, 1890 : 

About a year ago I read to this association a condensed account of 
an examination of the Mountains of the Bell (Jebel Nagous) on the 
Gulf of Suez, and of the acoustic phenomenon from which it is named. 
In continuation of my researches on sonorous sand, which are con- 
ducted jointly with Dr. Alexis A. Julien, of New York, I have now 
visited the so-called " Barking Sands " on the island of Kauai. These 
are mentioned in the works of several travelers (Bates, Frink, Bird, 
Nordhoff, and others), and have a world-wide fame as a natural 
curiosity; but the printed accounts are rather meagre in detail, and 
show their authors to have been unacquainted with similar phenomena 
elsewhere. 



1890.] Geology and Paleontology. 947 

On the south coast of Kauai, in the district of Mana, sand-dunes 
attaining a height of over one hundred feet extend a mile or more 
nearly parallel to the sea, and covering hundreds of acres with the 
water-worn and wind-blown fragments of shells and coral. The dunes 
are terminated on the west by bold cliffs (Pali), whose base is washed 
by the sea ; at the east end the range terminates in a dune more sym- 
metrical in shape than the majority, having on the land side the 
appearance of a broadened, truncated cone. The sands on the top 
and on the landward slope of this dune (being about 100 yards from 
the sea) possess remarkable acoustic properties, likened to the bark of 
a dog. The dune has a maximum height of 108 feet, but the slope of 
sonorous sand is only sixty feet above the level field on which it is en- 
croaching. At its steepest part, the angle being quite uniformly 31 , 
the sand has a notable mobility when perfectly dry, and on disturbing 
its equilibrium it rolls in wavelets down the incline, emitting at the 
same time a deep base note of a tremulous character. My companion 
thought the sound resembled the hum of a buzz-saw in a planing-mill. 
A vibration is sometimes perceived in the hands or feet of the person 
moving the sand. The magnitude of the sound is dependent on the 
quantity of sand moved, and probably to a certain extent upon the 
temperature. The drier the sand, the greater the amount possessing 
mobility, and the louder the sound. At the time of my visit the sand 
was dry to the depth of four or five inches ; its temperature three 
inches beneath the surface was Sf Fahrenheit, that of the air being 



8 3 °in the shade (4-3° p - M -> 



When a large 



of sand was moved downward I heard 1 



105 feet from the base, a light wind blowing at right 
angles to the direction. On one occasion horses standing close to the 
base were disturbed by the rumbling sound. When the sand is clapped 
between the hands a slight, hoot-like sound is heard ; but a louder 
sound is produced by confining it in a bag, dividing the contents into 
two parts, and bringing them together violently. This I had found to 
be the best way of testing seashore sand as to its sonorousness. The 
sand on the top of the dune is wind-furrowed, and generally coarser 
than that of the slope of 31°, but this also yielded a sound of unmis- 
takable character when so tested. A bag full of sand will preserve its 
power for some time, especially if not too frequently manipulated. A 
creeping vine with a blue or purple blossom (kolo-kolo) thrives on 
these dunes, and interrupts the sounding slope. I found the mam slope 
120 feet long at its base, but the places not covered by this vine gave 



sounds at intervals 160 paces westward. At 94 paces further the sand 



The native Hawaiians call this place Nohili, a word of no specific 
meaning, and attribute the sound caused by the sand to the spirits of 
the dead (uhane), who grumble at being disturbed ; sand-dunes being 
commonly used for burial-places, especially in early times, as bleached 
skeletons and well-preserved skulls at several places abundantly show. 

Sand of similar properties is reported to occur at Haula, about three 
miles east of Koloa, Kauai ; this I did not visit, but, prompted by in- 
formation communicated by Hon. Vladimar Knudsen, of Waiawa, I 
crossed the channel to the little-visited island of Niihau. On the 
western coast of this inlet, at a place called Kaluakahua, sonorous 
sand occurs on the land side of a dune about iqo feet high, and at 
several points from 600 to 800 feet along the coast. On the chief 
slope, thirty-six feet high, the sand has the same mobility, lies at the 
same angle, and gives when disturbed the same note as the sand of 
Kauai, but less strong, the slope being so much lower. This locality 
has been known to the residents of the island for many years, but has 
never been before announced in print. This range of dunes, driven 
before the high winds, is advancing southward, and has already covered 
the road formerly skirting the coast. 

The observations made at these places are of especial interest because 
they confirm views already advanced by Dr. Julien and myself with 
regard to the identity of the phenomena on sea-beaches and on hill- 
sides in arid regions (Jebel Nagous, Rigii-Rawan, etc.). The sand of 
the Hawaiian Islands possesses the acoustic properties of both classes of 
places ; it gives out the same note as that of Jebel Nagous when rolling 
down the slope, and it yields a peculiar, hoot-like sound when struck 
together in a bag like the sands of Eigg, Manchester, Mass., and other 
sea-beaches, — a property that the sand of Jebel Nagous fails to possess. 
These Hawaiian sands also show how completely independent of ma- 
terial is the acoustic quality, for they are wholly carbonate of lime, 
whereas sonorous sands of all other localities known to us (now over 
one hundred in number) are silicious, being either pure selex or a mix- 
ture of the same with silicates, as feldspar. 

The theory proposed by Dr. Julien and myself to explain the 
sonorousness has been published elsewhere, but may properly be briefly 
stated in this connection. We believe the sonorousness in sands of 
sea-beaches and of deserts to be connected with thin pellicles or films 
of air, or of gases thence derived, deposited and condensed upon the 
surface of the sand-grains during gradual evaporation after wetting by 



1890.] Geology and Paleontology. 949 

the seas, lakes, or rains. By virtue of these films the sand-grains be- 
come separated by elastic cushions of condensed gases, capable of 
considerable vibration, and whose thickness we have approximately 
determined. The extent of the vibrations, and the volume and pitch 
of the sounds thereby produced after any quick disturbance of the 
sand, we also find to be largely dependent upon the forms, structure*, 
and surfaces of the sand-grains, and especially upon their purity or 
freedom from fine silt or dust. (Proceedings American 
Advancement Science, 38, 1889.) 

" I should be lacking in courtesy to close this without e xp rflrtng my 
great obligations to Mr. H. P. Faye, of Mara, and to M .. 
Gay, of Niihau, for both a generous hospitality and a sympathetic as- 
sistance in carrying out my investigations." 

The speaker exhibited photographs of the locality and a specimen 
of the sand. 

In his search after this remarkable sand, Dr. Bolton has had many 
interesting adventures. He thus describes his first discovery that such 
a thing as musical sand existed : 

" I was walking along the ocean beach at a small place on the north- 
eastern coast of Massachusetts. Suddenly it seemed a dog was barking 
at me with a peculiar hoarse bark. I stopped and looked around, but 
the barking had ceased, and there was not a dog nor a living being 
near. I walked on, and the sound immediately began again. I was 
puzzled until I looked down and found that my steps in the sand 
caused the noises. I then gave a vigorous kick into the dry sand, and 
a prolonged, dismal howl answered me, as though I had kicked a dog. 
I was astounded. I called some boys to me, and asked them if they 
had ever noticed that the sand made a noise when people walked 

"'Oh, yes ! ' they said, ' this is the famous musical beach.' 
" I felt pretty cheap, for I had never heard of the famous mus 
beach. I asked them if there was any other place where such sj 

" 'Not in the United States,' answered the oldest boy, 'but 
papa says there is some of it in the Sandwich Islands, where he « 

"When anybody tells me a thing is the only one of its kin. 
immediately begin to doubt it. I determined then and there to 
vestigate the subject of ' barking ' sand. That was in 1883, and m 
of my time since then has been occupied in my investigations, 
have found the sand in small quantities in some seventy places m 



JSO 



The American Naturalist. [October, 



United States, one place in Mexico, one in South America, one in the 
Sandwich Islands, and one in Arabia." 

In 1 888, Dr. Bolton went to Arabia, where he had heard there was a 
beach of the remarkable sand. When he reached that country he 
found a journey of two weeks across a terrible desert would be necessary 
to reach the beach, which was on the Gulf of Suez. The Arabs had 
heard of the "singing " sand, and had a superstitious fear of it. The 
sheik of the tribe where he was refused to send any of his men with 
the explorer. Finally, persuasion and gold won him, and a caravan 
of fourteen camels and as many men set out. There was not a drop 
of water, no vegetation, no food, — only glaring, drifting sand. All 
the water and all the food had to be carried with them. It was four 
weeks before the caravan returned from the desert. It came back 
worn, weary, and nearly famished, but triumphant, for Dr. Bolton had 
found the finest beach of musical sand he had ever seen. 

Last year he went to the Sandwich Islands, and found more of the 
sand, just as the little boy had said when he gave the doctor 
his first information about this curious natural formation. In Southern 
California is a huge sand-dune, on which are patches of the musical 
sand. This dune is about seventy feet high ; shaped like the half of a 
lens. The following legend is connected with the spot : 

Many years ago there was a flourishing monastery at this place, but, 
owing to the wickedness of the monks, it was overwhelmed by drifting 
sand. The monastery bells, however, were not involved in the fall of 
the monks, having been blessed with due ceremony by high ecclesiastics, 
hence the sound of these holy bells are still heard at matins and 
vespers. The only similar sonorous dunes known are Jebel Nagous, in 
Arabia, Rig-i-Rawan, in Afghanistan, and one of a similar name in 
Persia, Nohili, in Kauai, and possibly one in Churchill county, Nevada. 

On Two New Species of Mustelidse from the Loup 
Fork Miocene of Nebraska.— Stenogale robusta sp. nov.— 
Established on a left mandibular ramus which lacks only the posterior 
border, and which contains in place the molars two to five inclusive, 
and the root of the canine. The technical characters are those of 
Stenogale Schlosser, differing only from Mustela in the cutting-blade 
of the heel of the inferior sectorial. The species is much more robust 
than those referred to the genus by Dr. Schlosser. The inferior border 
of the ramus below the coronoid process, is obliquely flattened, and 
inflected in a way not seen in the Mustda pennantii, forming a strong 
inferior border to the masseteric fossa. The dental foramen is a little 



r 89o."] Geology and Paleontology. 95 1 

above the angle of this inflection, and is below the middle of the 
coronoid process. There are several small mental foramina. The 
canine tooth is of large size. The fourth premolar is close to it, and 
is one-rooted. Other premolars with compressed crowns, the first 
with a weak posterior cutting lobe. The sectorial has the propor- 
tions seen in Mustela, and possesses a well-marked metaconid. The 
'blade of the heel is external, and there is a low internal basal 
cingulum of the heel only. Tubercular molar small, one-rooted. 

Measurements. — Length of dental scries, 47 nun. ; diameter of base 
of canine, 7 mm. ; length of premolar series. 22 nun. : length of sec - 
torial, 12 mm. ; length of heel of, do, 5 mm. ; depth of ramus at P. 
M. T , 13 mm. ; do, at sectorial, 14 mm. 

The depth and thickness (^' this ramus are identical with those of 
the jaw of the Mustela pennantti, but the length is considerably less. 

Brachypsalis pachycephalus gen. et. sp. nov. Char. gen. 
Dental formula : I. ? ; C. T ; P. M. T ; M. T . Inferior sectorial with a 
wide basin-shaped heel, which is as long as the contracted blade ; a 
metaconid. — This genus has the dental formula o( the typical Mus- 
telae, but it is extremely microdont, having a small sectorial blade 
and wide basin-shaped heel as in the genus Lutra, to which it is evi- 
dently allied. 

Char, specif.— Founded on a left mandibular ramus which lacks the 
portions anterior to the canine, and posterior to the coronoid. 
The sectorial is the only tooth preserved. Posterior border of the 
heel lobulate. P. M. T well developed, one-rooted. P. M. ¥ with 
the anterior root reduced. P. M. T and T very robust, no. T 
shorter than the sectorial. M. Y robust, the root grooved 
on each side. At the P. M. T the ramus is twisted externally. 
The anterior face of the coronoid is as wide as the ramus at 
the sectorial, and the M. T is in front of its internal border. The 
dental foramen is behind the base of the coronoid, a little nearer the 
alveolar level than the inferior border of the ramus. Masseteric fossa 
strongly defined in front and below, and with a distinct median 

Measurements.— Length of dental series from and exclusive of 
canine, 55 mm.; length of premolar series, 31 mm.; length of sec- 
torial, 14.5 mm. ; length of heel, 7 mm. ; width of, do, 8 mm. ; 
depth of ramus at sectorial, 25 mm. ; width of base of coronoid just 
behind M. T , 14 mm. 

central part of 



95^ 



The American Naturalist. [October. 



probably about those of the sea-otter {Enhydris marina). No form 
representing the otters has been known hitherto from this region ; but 
a much smaller species, Lutrictis lycoptamicus Cope, has been described 
from probable Loup Fork beds of Oregon.* — E. D. Cope. 

Macfarlane's American Geological Railway Guide. 1 — This 
book is one of especial utility to the geologist, since it is an index to 
the book of nature, whose pages are disclosed to us in the railway 
cuttings of the country. Such exposures are the principal source of 
geological knowledge in the eastern region of our continent, where 
the generous rain-fall covers the natural scars and abrasions of the 
earth's surface with ample vegetation. The preparation of such a 
work was a happy inspiration of the late James Macfarlane, and that 
a second edition is called for shows that it has met with deserved 
appreciation. The authorities of the country are generally cited, and 
information is compiled from all available sources. We think a few 
more maps would be of much utility. We also find the treatment of 
the Cenozoic formations to be less thorough than that accorded those 
of the ages which preceded them. The nomenclature adopted is 
generally that required by priority, the only exception being found in 
the reports of Messrs. S. F. Emmons and G. K. Gilbert, of the U. S. 
Geological Survey, where some names are used which are not warranted 
by the law of priority or by general custom. Such is the use of 
Niobrara instead of Loup Fork. Niobrara is the name of a Creta- 
ceous horizon, and has nothing to do with the Loup Fork Miocene. 

A Catalogue of British Fossil Vertebrata. 2 — This work 
supplies a want that paleontologists have felt who are desirous 
of learning the extended literature of vertebrate paleontology 
as developed by Englishmen or on English material. This literature 
is largely prior, of course, to that of America, and it is especially 
important for Americans to become acquainted with the sources o* 
information and of nomenclature so far as they apply to the paleon- 
tology of their country. In this work they will find it fully indexed, 
and full references given. A nomenclature has been adopted by the 
authors, so far as it has been personally investigated by them, based 
on the rules promulgated by all scientific bodies ; but in cases where 
they have followed others they have not adhered to them in that one 

1 An American Geological Railway Guide. By James Macfarlane, Ph.D. Second 
edition edited by James R. Macfarlane. New York : D. Appleton & Co. 1890. 8vo- 
pp. 426. 

1 A Catalogue of British Fossil Vertebrata, by Arthur Smith Woodward and Charles 



1890.] Geology and Paleontology. 953 

which requires a diagnosis or description for every name as a necessary 
condition of priority. Thus we find Platychcerops, Protosphyraena, 
and Hippar. . :hors published no separate diagnosis, 

adopted instead of Miolophus, Erisichthe, and Hippotherium. which 
were accompanied by diagnoses when first proposed. We hope that 
in a second edition the work may be made uniform in this respect. 

The Cretaceous Saurians of New Zealand.— Prof. James 

Hector's explorations in New Zealand have led to the accumulation of 
several tons of blocks of cement-stone containing fossil bones, which 
have been worked out of the hard matrix by Mr. McKay. The general 
result is that portions of 43 individual reptiles, mostly of gigantic 
size, and all of aquatic habits, belonging to at least 13 distinct species, 
have been discovered. These species represent two distinct groups. 
the first being true Plesiosaurians belonging to the genera Plesiosaurus, 
Maurisaurus Hector (gen. nov. allied to Elasmosaurus Cope), and 
Polycotylus Cope ; the other representing probably the order Python- 
omorpha. This order is represented by two distinct genera, Liodon 
Owen and Taniwhasaursus Hector (gen. nov. allied to Clidastes of 
Cope). In addition, there are several fragmentary remains, placed 
provisionally under one or the other of these groups, and two vertebrae 
belonging to an exceptional form of the genus Crocodilus. Lastly, 
there is a single vertebrate from Mt. Potts referred to the genus 
Ichthyosaurus. Plates with descriptions of these interesting fossils are 
found in the Transactions New Zealand Institute, Vol. VI. A fine 
series of these saurians has been recently received in Philadelphia by 
Prof. Cope, who will add them to his private collection. 

A Bison at Syracuse, New York.— A bovine skull was exhumed 
(in laying a sewer) from about ten feet below the surface of the ground, 
at Syracuse, N. Y. The formation was of black swamp muck under- 
laid by clay ; the skull being found at the junction of the two deposits. 
No other bones were found. I append a few measurements : Foramen 
magnum (superior border) to occipital crest, 4^2 in.; width of con- 
dyles, s% in.; width of skull between horns and eyes, 10% in.; width 
of skull between meati audit, ext., 9^ in.; from foramen magnum to 
end of premaxilla;, 20 in.; width from zyg. arch to its fellow, 9 y 8 in.; 
width of palatines opposite last molar, 3^ in.; width across premax- 
illary bones, 4 in.; length of alveoli, 6^ 8 in.; nearest approach of 
orbits to each other, ro# in.; length of nasals, 8% in.; width of 
nasals, 2}4 in.; occipital crest to nasal, io# in.; frontal suture closed 
except z}4 in.; circumference of horns at base, 14 in.; length of horn, 



9 5 4 The American Naturalist. [October, 

greater curvature, 15^ in.; length of horn, lesser curvature, 10 in.; 
distance from tip to tip of horns, 17^ in.; distance from base to base 
of horns, io# in.— Lucien M. Underwood, Syracuse University, 
Syracuse, N. Y. 

Note by Editor.— Photographs of this skull sent by Mr. Under- 
wood show that it belongs to the bison, Bos americanus. This is, I 
believe, the most northern locality at which it has been found east of 
the Mississippi valley.— E. D. Cope. 

Geological News.— Palaeozoic— In a review of Dr. Ells's Re- 
port on the Geology of a Portion of the Province of Quebec, C. D. 
Walcott agrees with the author in condemning the name Quebec 
group. In view of many new facts brought to light by the study of 
the past fifteen years it has become misleading and unintelligible. In 
its stead Dr. Ells's proposes to use the name Levis for the local develop- 
ment of the Calciferous terrane about Quebec, and the name Sillery 
for the passage beds and Cambrian strata of the St. Lawrence valley in 
the vicinity of Quebec. This suggestion has the hearty endorsement 
of Mr. Walcott. 

C. R. Van Hise (Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. L, pp. 203-244) con- 
firms Newton's views as to the eruptive origin of the granite core of 
the Blacks Hills, and its pre-Cambrian age. He further states that the 
zone of schists about it was developed and deeply eroded before the 
beginning of Palaeozoic time. 

Sir Wm. Dawson and Dr. G. J. Hinde have recently described some 
new species of fossil sponges from the Siluro-Cambrian at Little Metis, 
on the lower St. Lawrence. These specimens are especially interest- 
ing since they throw fresh light on the character of the earliest-known 
forms of these organisms, and their discovery is the more opportune 
from the fact that our knowledge of the existing hexactinellid sponges 
—the group to which nearly all these fossils belong— has been vastly 
increased by the work of Prof. F. E. Schulze, of Berlin, on the 
hexactinellid sponges dredged up by the Challenger Expedition, and 
thus we are now better enabled than hitherto to compare the fossil and 
recent forms. Twelve species, representing six genera, are described 
and figured. 

The second part of the Contributions to the Micro-Paleontology of 
the Cambro-Silurian Rocks of Canada has been prepared by E. O. 
Ulrich. It consists of a descriptive report on some fossil Polyzoa and 
Ostracoda from Manitoba, and is illustrated by two full-page litho- 



1890.] Geology and Paleontology. 955 

graphic plates. Of the twenty-five species of Polyzoa eleven arc new. 
The Ostracoda are few, and not in good condition. There are but 
nine species in all, five of which are new. 

The study of the Calciferous formation in the Champlain valley by 
Profs. Brainard and Seeley has brought a -eric-- of surprises: 1. The 
thickness of the rocks, — little less 2000 feet. 2. The amount of mag- 
nesian limestone. 3. The amount of pure limestone. 4. The abun- 
dance of fossil forms. 5. The almost entire exclusion of the bird's-eye 
formation from the Vermont rocks. (Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., pp. 501- 
5i6.) 

In the Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XII., are found description* by 
C. D. Walcott of fossils from the Lower Cambrian. < H seven comb, 
two, Arehceoeyathin, du-ijifii and Ethmophyllum mrrkii. are new 

teen new species. 

In a report on the Natural Gas in Minnesota Prof. X. H. Wine hell 
makes the following statement: "So far as science affords any evi- 
dence in favor of gas below the Trenton limestone in Minnesota, there 
is perhaps one chance in ten that the formation which is known in the 
northern part of the State as Animike slates and quartzites, underlies 
the county of Freeborn at a depth of 3000 feet. In case it were found 
at that depth there might be one chance in one hundred that it would 
contain some gas, and one in a thousand that it would afford enough 
for economic purposes." (Bull. No. 5, Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey, 
Minn.) 

Prof. Edw. Orton states as a law that " The pressure of Trenton 
limestone gas is due to a salt-water column, measured from about six 
hundred feet above tide to the level of the stratum which yields the 
gas." (Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. I.). 

In view of the fact that the use of the name Hudson River group 
has been attended with more or less uncertainty ever since it was pro- 
mulgated by the geologists of the New York Survey, Mr. C. D. Wal- 
cott proposes to use the term Hudson in a generic sense to include a 
group of formations that occur between the Trenton limestone horizon 



and the Upper i 



ull. Geol. Soc. Am., 



Vol. I., pp. 335"35 6 -) 

Carbonic— C. R. Keyes, in discussing variation of a carbonic gas- 
tropod, Platyeerus equilaterum {Am. Geol., 'June, 1889), emphasizes 
the fact that accidental station is not the only factor in modifying the 
form of the shell, but that gravitation also exerts a potent influence. 



9 g6 The American Naturalist. [October, 

In America there are probably about a dozen valid species of 
Naticopsis, the others described as such being identical with forms 
previously known. Patica littonana Hall, from the Warsaw limestone, 
apparently belongs to the globose group of So/eniscus, and will there- 
fore stand as S. littonanus. For Isonema depressa M. and W. it is 
proposed to substitute the name Naticopsis linearis. (C. R. Keyes, 
Am. Geo/., October, 1889.) 

H. A. Wasmuth, in the Am. Geo/., May, 1888, closes a description 
of the Pittsburgh Coal Bed with a reference to the Devonian forma- 
tions, reservoirs of gas and oil, that underlie it. Naturally, the 
greatest amount of gas should be found on the higher elevations (an- 
ticlinals), and of oil in the deeper portions of synclinals of the 
Devonian formations j but as this theory is refuted by geologists of 
reputation, there remains the influence of disconnections and disloca- 
tions of the oil- and gas-bearing strata by clay veins, etc., to explain 
the productivity of the oil- and gas-wells of Pennsylvania. 



\ the discovery of a new croco- 
3 m the Oxford clay of Peterborough. 
(Quar.Jour. Geo/. Soc, May, 1890.) 

A. Smith Woodward notes three small Ichthyolites from the Paper 
Shales of Wigston, referable to a small species of Pholidophorus, 
P. nitidus Egerton. (Trans. Leicester Lit. and Philosoph. Soc, April, 
1889.) 

R. Lydekker has referred two vertebrae, one from the Wealden of 
Cuckfield, the other from the Wealden of Brook, to P/eurocoe/us 
va/densis. Their especial interest lies in the circumstance that, in con- 
nection with some opisthocoelous teeth, they afford absolutely conclu- 
sive evidence of the occurrence in the English Wealden of a 
diminutive opisthocoelous Dinosaur, which was the contemporary 
of the huge Ornithopsis, and the still more gigantic Pelorosaurus. 
(Quar./ourn. Geo/. Soc., May, 1890.) 

Cretaceous.— According to Robert T. Hill (Am. Geo/., 1889) 
the Cretaceous exposures of the Texas-Arkansas region record two 
subsidences. Of the total sediments of the Lower, aggregating over 
2,000 feet, 1,500 are limestone, all but 100 feet of which are of foram- 
iniferal origin. Of the 700 feet of limestone of the Upper Cretaceous 
formation of Texas 600 feet are of foraminiferal origin. 

J. S. Newberry (Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci., Vol. IX.) gives the fol- 
lowing reasons for considering the Laramie the upper member of the 



i8go.] Geology and Paleontology. 957 

Cretaceous, as first determined by Cope : 1st. It contains an inverte- 
brate fauna that has in it many Cretaceous elements ; Mactra alta, 
Cardium speciosum, and several species of Inoceramus being also found 
in the Fox Hill group. 2d. It contains, according to Cope and 
Marsh, a vertebrate fauna which is decidedly Cretaceous in character. 
3d. The somewhat numerous mammals obtained from the I^aramie by 
Cope and Marsh are reported by them to have decided Mesozoic 
characters. 

Cenozoic— Some fossil fish remains found in the Oligocene strata 
in the Isle of Wight have been referred by Mr. E. T. Newton to the 
genus Clupea and named C. vectensis. (Quart. Journ. Geo!. Soc., Feb. 
1889). 

Of seven species of fossil butterflies from Florissant, Cal., described 
by S. H. Scudder, six are new, and are referred by him to five new 
genera. Five of the seven belong to the sub-family Nymphalinae, one 
to Pierime. The last represents a nearly extinct type, the sub-family 
Libytheinae, and is of especial interest. 

M. Deydier has found- in the fresh-water limestone deposits of Rata- 
voux, near Cucuron, a mandible of Castor jageri Kaup, a true 
Miocene species, which has not heretofore been recorded in the Leberon 
fauna. (Bull. Soc. Geol. de France, Tome dix-huitieme.) 

A fossil fish found in the Pliocene deposits near Antwerp has been 
referred by Raymond Stomes to the genus Thynnus, under the name 
T. caldisii. (Bull. Soc. Beige de Geol. de Paleon. et d'Hydrol., 1889.) 

Plistocene.-In the Trans. Roy. Soc, 1889, Dr. J. W. Spencer 
discusses in detail the best developed beach of the Ontario basin, to 
which he gives the name Iroquois Beach. He does not agree with Mr. 
Gilbert as to the existence of glacial barriers closing the St. Lawrence 
valley. Not only is it unnecessary to believe in the existence of such 
a barrier to keep out the sea-water, as witness the present Gulf of Ob. 
but it seems impossible to believe in the existence of great glacial 
dams above sea-level sufficiently permanent to develop such regular 
beaches and terraces as the Iroquois, which indicate a wave-action of 
as long duration as that upon the modern beaches of Lake Ontario. 

According to Dr. Spencer, in a paper read before the Geological 
Society of America, soundings demonstrate the presence of submarine 
valleys reaching upon all our coasts to depths of 3 000 feet or more; 
that these soundings show that within comparatively short distances 



958 The American Naturalist. [October, 

from their mouths the depth of the valleys, below the surface of the 
sea, sometimes did not exceed from 1,200 to 1,800 feet, but that be- 
yond there was a greater increase of depth, within the last few leagues. 
In the fiords of Norway, merging into rapidly-contracting valleys, or 
headed by great vertical walls, hundreds of feet in height, may be seen 
the counterpart of the coast of the American continent just preceding 
the Plistocene period. 



BOTANY. 
Botany at the Indianapolis Meetings.— In the several meet- 
ings held in Indianapolis in August, including the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science, the Botanical Club, and the 
Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science, there were many 
good papers on botanical subjects ; in fact, it may be said that the 
average rank of the papers was considerably higher than in previous 
years. In the sessions of the Soc iety for the Promotion of Agricul- 
tural Science the following botanical papers were read : 

1. Preliminary Note on the Rotting of the Potato, by T. J. Bur- 
rill; detailing experiments which show that in many cases, at least, 
the actual cause of the rotting is a Bacterium morphologically similar 
to B. termo, but differing from that species in its deportment towards 

2. The Rots of the Sweet Potato, by B. D. Halsted ; indicating 
that there are four or five apparently distinct kinds of rots, due to the 
attacks of as many species of fungi. 

3. Some Fungous Root Diseases, by L. H. Pammel ; referring mainly 
to the cotton and sunflower plants. 

4. The "Scab" of Wheat-Heads, by C. M. Weed; describing a 
disease of wheat which appears to be due to Fusisporium culmorum. 

5. Some Recent Observations on the Black-Rot of the Grape, by B. 
T. Galloway ; detailing the results of experiments in inoculating the 
grape and Virginia creeper with ascospores, pycnidiospores, etc., of 
Phyllosticta. 

6. A Comparative Test of Some of the Copper Preparations in the 
Treatment of Black-Rot of Grapes, by B. T. Galloway ; showing 
that by the use of such solutions the disease may be greatly reduced. 

7. Biological Factors in the Nutrition of Plants, by M. Miles; 
referring to the rdle of micro-organisms in plant nutrition, and giving 
the results of experiments upon " clover tubercles." 



1890.] Botany. 959 

8. The Forage Problem on the Plains, by C. E. Bessey ; discussing 
the native grasses and the factors which control their distribution, and 
suggesting those worthy of cultivation. 

9. Cucurbita an American Genus, by K. L. Sitrtkyant. In this 
paper, after referring to the fact that Cogniaux, in his Monograph of 
the Cucurbitacese (1881), recognizes ten species, of which six arc ac- 
knowledged to be strictly American, the author proceeds to show 
that the remaining species, viz. : C. maxima, C. pefo. C. nwschata, ami 
C.ficifolia, are also presumably of American origin. S iX lines of 
argument seem to show that the position is well taken, viz.: (1) 
the absence of authentic instances of the recognition of pumpkins, 
squashes, etc., by the ancients of prehistoric times : (2) the sequence 
of the European recognition which appears i 



nply ; 



the discovery of America ; (3) 



vernacular names of the four species appear from historical evidence to 
have originated after the discovery of America ; (4) the vernacular 
names on structural grounds appear to be of American origin ; (5) 
herbarium specimens (very scanty in fact) indicate American as much 
as Old World origin; (6) in the scanty notices by older writers on 
Asiatic plants these species appear, either by statement or implication, 
to be introduced. 

The botanical papers read before Section F numbered twenty-seven 

1 The Forest Trees of Indiana, by Stanley Coulter; being a 
commentary upon the list of foiest trees (106 species) of the State. 
The distribution appears to be dependent mainly upon the water 
supply, and not upon the richness of the soil, geological formation, or 
altitude above the sea. _ 

2 Preliminary Notes Upon a New and Destructive Oat Disease, by 
B. T. Galloway; calling attention to a disease which attacks the 
leaves and stems of the oat, causing a discoloration of the tissues. A 
Bacillus was found, and this was shown by inoculations to be the cause 
of the disease, which appears to be widespread, cases having been re- 
ported from New England to Illinois and southward. 

3. Observations on the Variability of Disease Germs, by Theobald 
SMiTH^citing certain variations by him in the bacilh of "hog 

Ch 4 1Cr The Trimorphism of Uromyces trifolii (Alb. and Schw.) Wint 

by J. K. Howell; detailing investigations made to show that the 
^cidium of clover {A. trifolii-repentis) is genetically connected with 
the teleutospore stage known as Uromyces trifolii. By means of care- 



960 The American Naturalist. [October, 

ful infections conclusive proof of the identity of the species was ob- 

5. Observations on the Life-History of Uncinula spiralis B. & C, 
by B. T. Galloway ; giving the results of a study of the germination 
of the ascospores. 

6. On the Seed-Coats of the Genus Euphorbia, by L. H. Pammel. 
From a study of the structure of the seed-coats it is evident that dis- 
tinguishing marks may be obtained from them. 

7. Observations on the Method of Growth of the Prothallia of the 
Filicinese, with Reference to their Relationships, by D. H. Campbell. 
The author called attention to the similarity between the development 
of the prothallia of Filicineae and the thalli of the Hepaticas, and sug- 
gested that the two groups are genetically related. 

8. Development of the Sporocarp of Griffithsia bornetiana, by V. 
M. Spalding. A careful study of alcoholic material enabled the 
author to follow the development of the sporocarp step by step. 

9. Contributions to the Life-History of Isoetes, by D. H. Camp- 
bell; giving many points in the development of the macrospore and 
the female prothallium. There are indications that Isoetes are related 
to the Marattiacese. 

10. The Relation of the Mexican Flora to that of the United States, 
by Sereno Watson ; giving first a sketch of the physical features of 
the continent as they aff.xt plant distribution, then recognizing and 
defining three botanical regions, viz. : the Atlantic, the Interior 
(Plains and Rocky Mountains), and the Pacific. After citing examples 
of families and genera the conclusion was reached that there is a closer 
connection between the Mexican flora and that of the Atlantic region 
than with that of either the Interior or Pacific. 

n. Distribution of the xNorth American Umbelliferae, by J. M. 
Coulter. The Umbelliferae of North America appear to be massed 
within the United States (especially northwestward), having spread 
southward from an Arctic and possibly from an Asiatic origin. The 
genus Peucedanum is the great North American umbelliferous group, 
and all its species are west of the Mississippi River, forty being peculiar 
to the Pacific States. Cymopterus is a Great Basin genus. The Great 
Plains contain but few species. 

12. Distribution of the Hepaticae of North America, by L. M. Un- 
derwood ; referring to our meagre knowledge of our species (but 265 
being known), and discussing as far as possible their general range. 
Four botanical provinces appear to be indicated for North America, 
viz. : Boreal, Medial, Austral, and Occidental, to which may also be 



i8go.] Botany. 

added the Mexican. The richest region ir 
extending from Washington southward along 
to Southern California. 

13. The Migration of Weeds, by B. D. h 
of the travels of some of the more common 

14. The Geographical Distribution of N< 
W. J. Beal. Of the 298 genera of grasses v 
introduced. Of the 3200 species in the m 
and 125 more introduced, making 975 in 
than one-fourth of the whole. Bouteloua 
species (27), as is the case also with a numbc 
of which are peculiar to North America. 

15. The Geographical Distribution of N 
by J. M. Coulter. Of the three genera 

Pacific region. Nyssa is eastern. Cornus 
origin, which has, while moving southward, 1 
Plains into a western and an eastern group. 

16. The General Distribution of North / 
Britton. The author divided the North Ai 
ern (British America, th 
Alleghanies) and a soutf 
ley, and a part of Calif 
glacial climate, he pointed 
accounting for the present northern flora. 

17. The Work of the Botanical Division of the Department of 
Agriculture, by F. V. Coville. Two main lines of work have been 
undertaken, viz. : (1) the study of economic problems, especially those 
relating to grasses and forage plants ; and (2) systematic woi upon 

. the flora of the country. Publications in two series (economic anc 
scientific) are made from time to time. 

18. The Development and Function of the So-called Cypress 
"Knees," with a Consideration of the Natural Habitat of the Tree, 
by W. P. Wilson : showing by means of lanten 

of structure of the root-system of the cypres, (Ta.vo^m dutuhum) 
of the Southern States. Several methods of the formats - 



ion i Atlantic 


c Coast, Mississippi Vt 


Referring 


to the influence of t 




i in the usual method 



i discussed. 
; physiological 
The Potato Scab, a Bacterial Di 






H. Bolley. Fo 



5 paper 1 



read before the Botanical Club. 



962 The American Naturalist. [October, 

20. The Continuity of Protoplasm Through the Cell-Walls of 
Plants, by W. J. Beal and T. W. Tuomey j giving i the results of a 
long series of observations. 

21. Preliminary Nofc on the Genus Rhynchospora in North America, 
by N. L. Britton ; being an enumeration of the species now known 
to inhabit North America. 

22. On Rusbya, a New Genus of Vacciniacese from Bolivia, by N 
L. Britton. An interesting new genus of parasitic plants. 

23. Notes on a Monograph of the Genus Lechea, by N. L. Britton. 

24. The Specific Germs of the Carnation Disease, by J. C. Arthur 
and H. L. Bolley ; giving the results of a very complete study of the 
bacterium, which is shown to be the cause of the disease. 

25. Notes Upon Plants Collected by Dr. Edward Palmer at La Paz, 
Lower California, by J. N. Rose. Read by title only. 

26. Notes Upon Crystals in Certain Species of the Arum Family, by 
W. R. Lazenby ; giving microscopical details of a study of thecrystals. 

27. Notes on Isopyrum biternatum, by C. W. Hargitt ; giving the 
results of the anatomical study of the root-tubers. 

The attendance upon the Botanical Club was very good, and the 
notes and papers were unusually numerous. • 

1. Dr. Britton, chairman of the club, in a short address upon the 
Present State of Systematic Botany in North America, noticed the ac- 
tivity in various centres by different investigators. A marked feature 
of the present is that there has lately been a great increase in the num- 
ber of specialists. 

2. Notes on Nomenclature, by B. E. Fernow ; referring to the 
need of a revision in both scientific and common names, and noting a 
considerable number of cases of recent changes in the scientific names 

I 3. An Eastern Station for Actinetta acaulis Nutt., by C. M. Weed ; 
noting the occurrence of this western plant in Northern Ohio. 

4. Notes on the Milky Juice of Plants as a Protection Against Stem- 
Borers, by C. M. Weed ; concluding that the milky juice is a protec- 
tion against stem-boring insects. 

5. Notes on the Root-Tubercles of Ceanothus americanus, by W. J. 
Beal ; noting the occurrence of root-tubercles similar in appearance 
to those on clover. 

6. The Genus Bacterium, by T. J. Burrill ; protesting against the 
loose practice in the application of names which prevails in bacteriol- 
ogy, and insisting that the genus Bacterium, which has latterly been 
ignored, has a right to existence. 



«89°-] Botany. 9 6 3 

7. A New Hollyhock Disease {Colic fotriclmm aitkam), by E. A. 
Southworth ; giving the results of studies of this destructive **»— u tr 
with an account of germinations and inoculations. 

8. The Nature of Palea? and Lodicules in Grasses, hv F. !.. Sckih- 
ner; discussing the homologies of the grass-flower and spikelet. and 
concluding (1) that pales are simply prophvlla beginning the floral 
branch, and (2) that the lodicules are true scales belonging to the epi- 
dermal system, whose function is to expand the glumes in anthesis. 

9. Two forms of Amp 

ing in the structure of their tendrils, developing discs in one (native 
form), and not in the other (cultivated form). 

10. On Pollination in the genus .Fsculus. by I.. H. I'ammkl: 
detailing the results of studies of several species. 

12. Notes on the Archegonia of Ferns. 

13. Germination of the Spores and the Protballia of Osmunda. 
Three papers by D. H. Campbell, giving the results of careful stm< - 
tural studies. 

14. Notice of a Descriptive List of the Junci of Tea 
Coville; referring to the work done on Junci for the forthcoming 
Manual of the Texan Flora. 

15. Apparatus for Vegetable Physiology, by J. C. Arthur : show- 
ing drawing of some new apparatus made in the physiological labora- 
tory of Purdue University. 

16. Report on the Botanical Exchange Club, by F. V. Coville ; 
reporting that the club is now ready :o make exchanges, having on 
hand about 5000 specimens. 

17. Plant Colonists at Akron, Ohio, by E. W. Clavpole; giving 
a few notes upon certain common introduced plants in Northern Ohio. 

18. A Serviceable Collecting Knife, by F. V. Coville; being, in 
short, the " cotton knife " of the Southern States. 

19. Double Flowers in Wild Morning Glory {Convolvulus sepium). 

20. Peculiarites of the Pollen of Epilobiumpalustrexzx. oliganthum. 

21. A Supposed Hybrid between Tragopogon porri/olius and T. 
pratensis. Three short papers by B. D. Halsted. 

22. A Mode of Spore Discharge in a Species of Pleospora. by MlSS 
E. Porter. 

23. Potato Scab, by H. L. Bolley ; concluding that the disease is 



964 The American Naturalist. [October, 

throughout, collecting by the way many plants of interest to those less 
familiar with the central Indiana flora. 

The officers of the club for the next year are : President, Wm. M. 
Canby ; Vice-President, L. M. Underwood ; Secretary, B. T. Gallo- 

Taken all in all, the botanists of the country have no need of feel- 
ing ashamed of the quality of the work done in the association and 
the related societies.— Charles E. Bessey. 



ZOOLOGY. 

Heliotropism in Animals.— Groom and Loob » think that the 
daily migrations of pelagic marine animals are to be regarded as 
caused by heliotropism. In the day-time this is negative, the strong 
light driving them from the surface ; while at night it exercises a posi- 
tive action, causing them to seek the surface waters. Their observa- 
tions show that light, and not heat, is the exciting cause. Driesch 
finds 2 that heliotropism influences the growth of the hydroid Sertulariella. 

Excretory Organs of Protozoa.— A. B. Griffiths states 3 that 
he has proved the existence of uric acid in the contractile vacuoles of 
Amoeba, Vorticella, and Paramecium. The Amoeba was killed under 
the cover-glass with weak alcohol. This was followed by nitric acid, 
the slide warmed, and then ammonia was drawn under the cover-glass, 
the result being the formation of crystals of murexide in the contractile 
vacuole itself, as well as in its excretion. This clearly shows that these 
organs are for the excretion of nitrogenous waste. 

Note on Some Gigantic Specimens of Actinosphaerium 
eichhornii.— In a small pond near the observatory of the State Uni- 
versity of Iowa I collected some material which now stands on a table 
in the laboratory. Minute whitish discs, plainly visible, however, to 
the unaided eye, may be seen in considerable numbers clinging to the 
stems and leaves of Ceratophyllum. An examination of these discs 
reveals the fact that they are gigantic Rhizopods belonging to the 
genus Actinosphaerium. Actinosphczrium eichhornii they probably are, 
but they are vastly larger than any individuals of this species usually 

1 Biol. Centralblatt., X., 160 and 210 . 



z,v, 



'#'. 965 



seen, and larger than any recorded by Prof. Leidy in his work on th< 
"Fresh-Water Rhizopods of North America." The first specimen ; 
measured, in place of being 0.4 mm., the maximum diameter given bj 
Leidy, was 0.85 mm. in diameter, with rays projecting 0.45 mm. be 
yond the margin of the body. There are scores of individuals in im 
jar, and the average diameter is in excess of 0.75 mm. The largest 
specimen measured had a diameter of 1.36 mm., and there are not a 
few individuals that seem to be equally as large. 

It is worthy of record that a large proportion of the specimens that 
passed under the microscope had been feeding on small specimens of 
Cyclops. Rotifers seems to be a favorite article of diet with Actino- 
sphaerium, and even the individuals that had succeeded in capturing 
Cyclops contained often three or four Rotifers. DHHugia was taken 
by a few, but none, so far as observed, had condescended to tlxd 00 
diatoms or other forms of algae. It has been a matter of surprise that 
a creature so sluggish as Actino*] Me to captor* 

Cyclops. How the capture is made I have thus tar not been aide to 
determine.— S. Calvin, Biological Laboratory , State University of Iowa, 
September 20, i8po. 

Portuguese Man-of-War.— Mr. Robert P. Bigelow studied* the 
habits of the Portuguese man-of-war (which has lost its familiar name 
Pkysa&a arethusa, and has been rechristened Caravella maxima in 
Haeckel's recent monograph). This form feeds largely on small fish; 
these, swimming against the tentacles, are caught and benumbed ; but 
apparently their struggles pull the tentacle, which contracts, bringing 
the prey up to the numerous feeding-bells. If the fish does not 
struggle the tentacle fails to contract. The feeding-bells spread them- 
selves over the fish and digest it. During the summer of 1889 these 
splendid siphonophores were very abundant at Woods Holl. Ma>s., 
but during the summer of 1890 not a single individual was seen. 

Dimorphism in Antipatharia.— G. Brook describes 5 an inter- 
esting type of dimorphism in the Antipathidae. In Schizopathes, 
Bathypathes, etc., the zooids have become elongated in the transverse 
axis, so that the six tentacles appear like three pairs. Corresponding 
with this there is a depression between the oral and lateral regions, so 
that from the surface each zooid appears like three lobes, each with a 
pair of tentacles. Internally the lateral portions are separated from 
the central by a mesoglceal partition, and since the lateral mesenteries 



966 The American Naturalist. [October. 

alone bear reproductive organs, and only on their distal portion, the 
result is that the division produces from each primitive zooid a gaster- 
ozoid flanked by two gonozoids. It is hardly necessary to say that 
this dimorphism is different from that in the Hydrozoa. 

Acanthocephali. — The systematic position of the Acantho- 
cephali has long been a problem, although from similarity of shape 
they were usually placed near the Nematodes, or round worms. Re- 
cently Dr. Hamann has been studying the subject, and finds 6 additional 
grounds in support of this view. He thinks that the water vascular 
system is homologous in each, while he recognizes the problematical 
acanthocephalan lemnisci in cervical or cephalic glands occurring in 
many Nematodes. 

On a New Species of Salamander from Indiana. — At the 
time of the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science of the present year, at Indianapolis, Mr. A. W. Butler, of 
Brookville, Indiana, presented me with three specimens of a species of 
Salamander which were taken in a spring near to Brookville. Two of 
these were living, while the third is an alcoholic specimen from a col- 
lection which embraces a number of other individuals from the same 
locality, belonging to Mr. Butler. 

The three specimens represent young, middle-aged, and mature in- 
dividuals, which have passed their metamorphosis. They agree nearly 
in their characters. They belong to a species which resembles the 
Spelerpes longicaudus, but are distinct in form, color, and habits, 
and belong, moreover, to the genus Gyrinophilus. The pre- 
maxillary bones are of feeble structure, and the spines are distinct 
and widely separated, contrary to the structure in the genus Spelerpes. 
The mature individuals, of which Mr. Butler possesses several, are 
much more robust than those of -5*. longicaudus, having a short body 
and relatively long preaxillary region and head. With this the tail is 
as long as in the 6". longicaudus, and is similarly compressed. The en- 
tire animal is larger. The color is different from that of the S. longi- 
caudus. It is vermilion -red, as in S. ruber, and the superior surfaces 
of the head and body are irregularly spotted with dark brown. The 
sides of the tail are similarly irregularly brown-spotted, the spots not 
showing the least tendency to form the vertical bars characteristic of 
the 6". longicaudus. The form of the series of vomerine teeth is differ- 
ent. Instead of commencing at the posterior border of the internal 
nares, they commence opposite to the anterior border of the same, and 



Zoology. 
branch along 



send posteriorly a she 
choana, thus giving a h 
portions are as follows : 

Width of head five times in length of head and body. Length of 
head to axilla two and a third times into total length of head and body 
to groin. Tail one and a-half times the length of the head and body. 
When the limbs are extended, the posterior toes reach the distal ex- 
tremities of the metacarpals. Thirteen costal folds. The width of 
the head is half the length to above the middle of the humerus. The 
canthus rostralis is distinct, though not so strongly marked M in 
Gyrinophilus porphyritiats. Total length, 152 mm.; length to angle 




I, propose to call th maculicaudus. In its 

habitat in cold springs it resembles Spelerpes ruber, with which it 
agrees also in color. The S. longicaudus is a terrestrial species. 

The first specimens of G. maculicaudus were found by Mr. H. R. 
Quick, of Brookville, Indiana.— E. D. Cope. 

An Apparently New Species of Chelys.— Only one species 
of Chelys has been known so far, the well-known fimbriated or bearded 
turtle, Chelys fimbriata Schneid. from South America. 

The osteological department of Clark University received lately 
from Ward's Natural Science Establishment, among other reptiles, a 
specimen of Chelys in alcohol. The label gave the locality Orinoco. 
When I examined the animal I found considerable differences from the 
description and figures given in Boulenger's catalogue. 



The American Naturalist. [October, 

is one of the generic characters of Chelys, "jaws 
(length of shell over curve, 430 mm. ; 
breadth over curve, 376 mm.) there is a very well-developed horny 
beak, not different in structure from that of other Chelonians. The 
structure of the skull also showed considerable differences with that 
figured by Boulenger. In Boulenger's figure the plates end in a sharp 
angle behind ; this region is quite different in my specimen, and agrees 
exactly with the figure given by Cuvier (Ossem. foss.). But the 
greatest difference is to be seen in the lower face of the maxillary. In 
Boulenger's specimen the lower alveolar face of the maxillary at the 
middle is not broader than the vomer, forming about one-sixth of the 
breadth of the palate. My specimen agrees with Cuyier's figure; the 
alveolar surface is considerably broader than the vomer, and forms less 
than one-quarter of the breadth of the palate. The figure given by 
Hoffmann is like that of Cuvier. I do not know how the figures pre- 
sented by Wagler and Bruehl compare with that of Boulenger, having 
the works of these authors not at hand. It is harely possible that the 
figure published by Boulenger is incorrect, since all the other new fig- 
ures in the catilogue are accurate. I can only think that there are two 
different species of Chelys. The common Chelys fimbriata, figured by 
Cuvier and Hoffman, and agreeing with my specimen, with well-de- 
veloped horny beak, and an other one figured by Boulenger as Chelys 
fintbriaia, which would represent a new species, which may be called, 
if future examination proves its distinctness, Chelys boulengerii. — G. 
Baur, Clark University, Worcester, Mass., Oct. 30th, i8qo. 

Snakes in Banana Bunches.— Editors American Naturalist: 
Referring to the item " Snakes in Banana Bunches," in the American 
Naturalist for August, 1890, I wish to say that nearly two years ago 
I obtained a snake, brought to this city in a bunch of bananas. It 
being in winter the snake was still alive, though lethargic, and which 
I identified as a young Boa imperator. It is about three feet in length, 
and is now in the museum of this Society.— J. A. Henshall, Secre- 
tary and Director Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist, Cincinnati, September 8, 
i8qo. 

Note by Editor.— Since our item above referred to, two cases of 
the Boa imperator having been found in banana bunches, in Phila- 
delphia, have come under my notice. It is a coincidence that since 
the banana is believed by some to have been the " forbidden fruit " of 
the Garden of Eden, serpents should be so readily concealed in its 
fruit.— E. D. Cope. 



*«9o-] Zoology, ' g6g 

The Brain-Weight of Birds.— In preceding pages of the 
American Naturalist (see Vol. XXL, p. 389, and Vol. XXII., pp. 
537-539) I have given ray results attained by an investigation into the 
relative weight of the brain to the body in birds. As an addition to 
the ones already given I have made the following new relative weights : 



Spizella monticola. 299 12^ £ 1-23 Mar. 15, 1889. 

Junco hy emails. 310 12^ S 1-25 " 

282^ n# S 1-24 " " 

Melosplza fasclata. 343 14 % 1-25 " " 

Troglodytes hi emails. 145 9 * 1- 16 

Parus atrlcaplllus. 184 11 9 1-17 Mar. 23, 1890. 

Slalla stalls : 628 15 S 1-42 

The above weights are given in grains, and the specimens were taken 
at Chicago, 111.— Dr. Joseph L. Hancock. 

Zoological News.— Vertebrata.— Sir William Turner has had 
an opportunity to study the placentation of dugong. He finds, 7 con- 
trary to Harting, that the placenta is zonary, and probably is non- 
deciduate. His material was older than that of Harting. 

J. S. Kellogg has studied the development of the primitive kidney 
of Amblystoma. In his preliminary paper 8 he finds that the pronephric 
duct is first to be formed, and, contrary to what has been described in 
other vertebrates, this arises not from the ectoderm, but from the 
somatic portion of the mesoderm. The tube is cut off from the rest 
of the ccelomic epithelium except at two points, where the connection 
persists as the nephratomes. With growth the funnels and their ducts 
become greatly convoluted. 

7 Proc. Roy. Socy. Edinburgh, XVI., p. 262. 



The American Ntauralist. 



ENTOMOLOGY. 1 



Entomology at Indianapolis. — The attendance of entomolo- 
gists at the recent meeting of the A. A. A. S., while not as large as could 
be wished, was fully up to the average. We give below abstracts of a 
number of the papers read, while several others are reserved for future 
discussion. The first three following were presented before the Society 
for the Promotion of Agricultural Science, while the remainder were 
read before tlv i> of the A. A. A. S. 

Insects Producing Silver-Top in Grass. — Professor Herbert 
Osborn, in an excellent paper, said the "silver-top" in grass is a 
whitening of the upper portion of the stalk, especially the head, 
which withers without maturing seed. Meromyza, Chlorops, and 
Thrips have been credited with being the cause of the mischief. 
Professor Comstock has shown that Limothrips poaphagus is often 
the cause. The injury may result from any attack upon the juicy 
base of the terminal node that cuts off the flow of sap to the head. 
Fully 90 per cent, of a large number of grass-stems examined contained 
no insects within the sheath. Many of them did show the punctures of 
Homoptera, especially Jassidae, about the upper node, and it is prob- 
able that these leaf-hoppers are responsible for much of the " silver- 
top." These insects are open to general attack, and the injury 
should be prevented by their destruction. 

Artificial Pasturage for Bees.— In a paper on this subject, 
Professor A. J. Cook reported experiments in planting Rocky Moun- 
tain Bee Plant (Cleome integri folia), Chapman Honey Plant (Echi- 
nops spherocephalus), and a foreign mint {Melissa sp.). None of the 
experiments were successful, and the conclusion is reached that it is 
doubtful policy to sow any plant for its nectar alone. The best results 
will probably come in combining nectar secretion with some other 

Fertilizers as Insecticides.— In a paper entitled Fertilizers as 
Insecticides and Insecticides as Fertilizers, Prof. J. B. Smith reported 
the results of some interesting experiments. The author has lost all 
faith in " repellents." No matter how bad a smell may be created, if 
it does not act destructively as well, it is useless. All sorts of decay- 
ing or decomposing matter is attractive rather than offensive to insects. 
Barnyard manure has no repellent or insecticidal value. Phosphates 

1 Edited by Dr. C. M. Weed, Experiment Station, Columbus, O. 



mealy bugs, bark-lice, and thousand-logged worm* i lulus,— called by 
the author of the paper " wire-worms," a misleading term). Kainit 
gave similar results. Hairv caterpillars, beetles, and bugs are not 
affected by these substances. Tobacco was also shown to be ol 
decided value, both as an insecticide and a fertilizer. 

Teaching Entomology.— Professor A. J. Cook, in his presiden- 
tial address before the Entomological Club, discussed the methods ot 
teaching entomology in use at the Michigan Agricultural College. 
All students are required to make drawings, and to dissect, rear, and 
collect insects. Reference collections are always within reach. The 
course of study should include botany, free-hand drawing. French, 
and German. The address was listened to with marked interest, and 
some admirable examples of drawing by Professor Cook's students 
were exhibited. 

A Water-Lily Moth.— Professor D. S. Kellicott described the 
life-history of Eustrotia caduca. The larva feeds upon the fruit and 
leaves of Nuphar advena. The eggs are placed on the upper side of 
floating Nuphar leaves in irregular patches of a few in number. They 
are hemispherical y i mm. in diameter, and with a waxy hue ; the sur- 
face is beset by about thirty meridianal, nodular ridges. The young 
escapes by cutting nearly off a round lid which it lifts on a hinge. 
The larva? mature in July, and spin delicate white silken cocoons 
upon the leaves. The imagos begin to issue after a pupal period of 
eight days. 

Opposition of the Sagittaria Curculio.— Dr. C. M. Weed 
reported observations showing that the Sagittaria Curculio {Listronotus 
latiusculus Boh.) deposits its eggs, largely during July, in small 
bunches, usually of between five and ten, upon the leaf and flower 
stalks of Sagittaria. After being laid they are covered with rmnute 
particles of the epidermis of the stalk, chewed off by the parent beetle 
and probably fastened together by some sticky secretion. Enough 



of these partic 



placed over the eggs I 



ical covering 1.5 mm. in diameter a 



When the larv* hatch from the small yellowish-white eggs they bore 
directlv into the stem, leaving the empty egg-shells and their protec- 



directly i 

tive covering stilfin place. 

Opposition of Dectes spinosus.-Iu describing the egg-laying 
habits of the Cerambycid beetle, Dectes spnosus, P 



, Dr. Weed said the 



972 The American Naturalist. [October, 

egg in a case observed was deposited obliquely in the pith of the stem 
of horse-weed (Ambrosia trifida). The outer fibres are first gnawed 
away to allow the insertion of the ovipositor. The egg is 2 mm. long 
by 0.3 mm. wide, elongate-oval, slightly curved, and pale yellow in 

Life-History of Evening Primrose Curculio.— The common 
borer of the evening primrose has been studied with some care by Dr. 
Weed, who reported finding a freshly-emerged adult Tyloderma foveo- 
latus in an Oenothera stem, July 22, 1890. This was early, as the 
main brood develops during August and September. The beetle hiber- 
nates in the adult state, the sexes mating early in June. The full- 
grown larva is 8 mm. long by 2.5 mm. wide, the body, including the 
thin cervical shield, being white in color, while the head is light brown. 
The pupa is 7 mm. long, white, and of the normal curculionid form. 
Pupation takes place in the larval burrow within the stem. Besides 
Oenothera biennis, the insect develops in Epilobium coloration. It is 
attacked by an external parasite, a species of Bracon. 

Life-History of Lixus concavus.— Dr. Weed also reported 
rearing Lixus concavus in numbers from the stems of a common dock 
(Rumex crispus). The larva bores the stem and upper portion of the 
root, pupating about midsummer, and soon after emerging as a beetle. 
The larva is attacked by an external Bracon id parasite. • 

Officers Elected.— The following officers were elected by the 
Entomological Club for the ensuing year : President, Professor Herbert 
Osborn ; Vice President, Miss Mary E. Murdfeldt ; Secretary, Dr. 
C. M. Weed. 

Crayon Drawing for Photo-Engraving.— The editor of this 
department has received so many queries concerning the methods and 
materials employed in preparing the drawings that have lately appeared 
in the Bulletin of the Ohio Experiment Station, and also in this depart- 
ment of the Naturalist, that Miss Freda Detmers, by whom they 
were made, was requested to furnish a brief statement of the main 
points involved. She has kindly done so, with the following result : 
" The materials to be used are (1) ordinary bristol board or other stiff 
white paper ; (2) a hard drawing pencil, a 5 H. Faber does very well; 
(3) a good quality of tracing paper, oiled on both sides ; (4) a supply 
of different grades of the Ross special process stipple drawing paper ; 
(5) Faber's black wax crayon pencils, No. 41; (6) a good black India 
drawing ink, such as Higgins's water-proof American India ink ; (7) 
Gillott's lithographic crow-quill pens, No. 659. Having these materials, 



1890.1 Psychology. 973 

the process of drawing is simple. My usual method is in the case of 
bisymmetrical insects to measure carefully with a pair of good dividers 
the length of the insect, transferring the measurements to a piece of 
paper, and drawing a straight line between the two end points. Then 
measure the length and breadth of every part of half of the insect, 
and locate these points on one side of the line. When the outline of 
half the insect is satisfactory, trace it. straight line included, on the 
transfer paper. Now reverse the transfer paper, placing the traced 
outline on the opposite side of the straight line, and rub over it with 
some hard point, — the point of a lead pencil, for instance. Remove 
the transfer paper, and the outline of the whole insect appears. This 
completed outline is then transferred by means of tracing paper to the 
special process stipple paper, and the drawing proper is made with the 
wax crayon. Pen and ink is used occasionally to indicate fine hairs, 
etc. Many beginners make outlines in ink, where simple crayon 
outlines would be better. It is important to keep the black and white 
points distinct, not blending them by rubbing." 

To this it may be added that all drawings should be reduced about 
one-third or one-fourth, *. <?., to two-thirds or three-fourths the size of 
the drawing. The engraving should be done by a good establishment. 
It does not pay to have the cheap processes of zinc-etching, etc., tried 
on good drawings. Many engraving establishments return soft metal 
cuts*, in which case they should be saved as originals and electrotypes 
made from them.— C. M. W. 



PSYCHOLOGY. 

Jastrow on a Writing Test.— In a paper entitled "A Study in 
Mental Statistics," Prof. Jastrow describes the results of a mental test 
in which fiftv students of a class in psychology, at the University of 
Wisconsin (twentv-nve men and twenty-five women), took part. The 
task , . .nsisted in writing 100 words as rapidly as possible. The mate- 
rial thus collected was utilized to shed light upon (1) the similarity of 
our ideas and habits of thought, (2) the links that bind our ideas 
together, and (3) the time required for these processes. 

(1) The general tendency to regard one's mental habits and products 
as singular and original, and consequently to look upon every evidence 
of similarity of thought as a strange coincidence, receives a set-back 
from the result of the present and similar studies, for it is found that 



974 The American Naturalist. [October, 

these fifty persons, independently a 
many thousand with which they ar 
the same 2,024 ', *'■*-, of the five thousand words written only 2,024 are 
different. Again, 1266 words occur but once in the aggregate lists, 
and omitting these we find that about three thousand of the words are 
formed by the repetition of only 758 words. Passing to an analysis 
of this "mental community," it becomes clear that it is greatest at 
the beginning of the list, and becomes less towards the end ; i.e., the 
habit is to write first the most common, and when these are exhausted, 
the more unusual words. A very interesting point is the comparison 
of men and women in their tendency to repeat one another's thoughts. 
The evidence is unmistakable that the lists of words drawn up by the 
women are much more like one another than are those written by the 
men. The women use only 1,123 different words, the men 1,376; 
the women write but 520 words that occur but once in the lists, the 
men write 746 such words. 

(2) A study of the processes involved in these lists bases itself upon 
a careful analysis of the ideas therein represented. The relative sizes 
of such classes, in a measure, indicate the prominence of different 
classes of objects in the minds of the writers. It may be interesting 
to mention that the five best represented classes (of the twenty -five 
adopted in the paper) are " Names of Animals," " Articles of Dress," 
"Proper Names," "Actions," "Implements and Utensils." The 
sexes present characteristic preferences for the various classes. The 
women contribute most largely to "Articles of Dress," writing 224 
such words, while the men write but 129 ; they show an equal favor- 
itism for " Articles of Food," writing 179 such words to but 53 for the 
men. The men, on the other hand, show fondness for "Implements 
and Utensils," "Names of Animals," "Professions," "Abstract 
Terms," etc. 

Of the various links by which the one word suggests its successor, it 
may suffice to indicate as prominent types, (a) association by sound, 
in which words are rhymed, or begin with the same letter ; (J>) by be- 
longing to the same class, as when a series of animals or articles of 
dress is formed ; and (V) by more general but not briefly describable 
relations. One may combine the two inquiries (1) and (2) to ask 
how often the same word is associated with the same word in different 
lists. If we take the twenty words most frequently occurring, we find 
over 500 mentions ; and if we examine in each case the word 
preceding the given word we find it to be the same in in cases, and 
the succeeding word the same in 145 cases, — certainly a remarkable 



than the men. 

(3) Regarding the time occupied in the pnx 
is that (roughly speaking) it takes on the fcveng 
such a list of 100 words ; that 210 seconds are 
act of writing, 114 seconds in thinking of w 
seconds in which both may be done. 

These results are offered, in addition to wha 
possess, as an illustration of how, by simple exp 
may become more intimate with the processes t 



ANTHROPOLOGY 



a, beginning on Tuesda\ . 


Angus 


t 19th, 1890, and 


The meetings were 


held 


in the 


new State House, 


offices of the Local 


Con 


miittce 


and Permanent 


eting was the fiftieth 


an n; 


versary 


of the organ iza- 



Indianapolis, India 

continuing ten day 

where were also th 

Secretary. This m 

tion of the Association of Geologists arent of the 

A. A. A. S., which added greatly to its interest. Indianapolis, with its 

wide, well-shaded streets, its large, comfortable hotels, and the unusual 

accommodations afforded by which all the sections could meet in large 

halls under one roof, made this the most important meeting ever held 

in the West. The Local Committee are to be commended for their 

admirable arrangements for the comfort of the large number of mem- 

The department of Anthropology held its meetings in the Hall of 
Representatives, with Dr. Frank Baker, of Washington, D. C, as 

president, and Prof. Joseph Jastrow, of the University of Wisconsin, 

The address of the President of the Section was listened to with 
much attention, and created much interest. Dr. Baker is professor in 
the Medical College of the Georgetown University, lecturing on 
human anatomy, and is well qualified to speak as he did upon the 
"Ascent of Man." His arguments were in favor of the theory of 



97 6 The American Naturalist. [October, 

evolution of the species, and his facts were derived from the changes 
wrought in the anatomical structure of man. The theory was that 
those elements or peculiarities of the bones and muscles of man which 
by reason of his changed condition from brute to man, from quadru- 
ped to biped, were not used, have largely disappeared, and nothing is 
now found but the vestiges, while those which in the changed condi- 
tion were more used grew and strengthened and became the new 
elements as we find them, but showing signs of their recent origin. 
He said, comparing the human hand with that of the anthropoids, its 
greater efficiency has been produced in two ways : first, increasing the 
mobility of the thumb and fingers ; second, reducing the muscles 
used to assist prolonged grasps, they being no longer necessary. The 
latest elements ought to show signs of their recent origin, while those 
going out of use ought to have become vestigial. Of the former are 
the flexor muscles of the thumb and fingers ; of the latter is the 
palmaris longus, used for climbing and grasping. These differences 
are more clearly manifested in the negro than in the white race. So 
also the change in the obliquity of the elbow-joint and the axis of the 
humerus, that the hand can be easier carried to the mouth. This is 
marked in the white race when compared with the negro, and still 
more when compared with the anthropoids. 

The scapular index is highest in the white races, less in the infant, 
the negro, the Australians, and still less in anthropoids. 

The epitrachleo-anconeuo, a small muscle at the elbow-joint, is used 
in apes to effect a lateral movement of the ulna upon the humerus, but 
in the white race this lateral motion has been lost, and the muscle has 
degenerated. A perforation of the olecranon fossa may be regarded 
as a reversion towards the anthropoids. The doctor continued these 
illustrations, citing the shoulder-blade, the foot, the great toe, the 
muscles needed for the erect position of man, the head, the spinal 
column, the pelvis, the bladder, the liver. The valves of the veins 
are arranged for a quadrupedal position. Evidently intended to resist 
the action of gravity, they should, to be effective, be found in the 
large vertical trunks. But in the most important of these they are 
wanting. Yet they occur in several horizontal trunks, where they are, 
as far as we know, of no use whatever. Place man on all fours, how- 
ever, and it is seen that the entire system of valves is arranged with 
reference to the action of gravity in that position. The great vessels 
along the spine and the portal system, being then approximately hori- 
zontal, do not require valves ; while all the vertical trunks of consider- 
able size, even the intercostal and jugular veins, are provided with 



them. A confirmation of this view is found 
are variable in character, and tend to disa 
they are no longer needed. He concludes, 

of the annelid worms, among which a singh 
ive budding a compound longitudinal body, 
firmed by the behavior of the human embry 
of the human embryo thirty-eight segments 
out. Four or five of these generally disa]. 



exact, report much greater lengths. Horn some observations it would 
appear that abnormities of this kind may he transmitted Irom parent 
to offspring. Dr. Max Bartels recently collected from widely -scattered 
literature reports of 116 actually observed and dcs< ribed cases ot tailed 
men. In 35 instances authors report such abnormities to be possessed 
by an entire people, they themselves having observed certain indi- 
viduals. These cases are scattered throughout the whole of the known 
globe, and extend back for a thousand years. 

At first man's skull seems to be much simpler than the typical form. 
The bones are fewer and less complicated. But follow back the course 
of development, and we find the bones separating,— the frontal into 
two pieces, the occipital and temporal each into four, the sphenoid 
into eight,' repeating what we find as we descend the vertebrate scale. 
The capacity of the cranium is usually held to distinguish man, yet 
the lowest microcephali approach to the apes in this respect, and the 
lower races have unquestionably smaller brains than the higher. As 
far as can be judged, there has also been an increase in average 
capacity during historic times. 

"The Indian Origin of Maple Sugar/' by Mr. Henry W. Henshaw. of 
Washington—The point was as to whether the Indians learned to 
make sugar of the whites or vice versa. The argument drawn from 
the maple-tree festivals and linguistic evidence showed the red men 
were in no way indebted to the whites for sugar, no more than for the 
cultivation of'corn, the pumpkin, bean, and tobacco. Their simple 



.riginal, result! 
Theyc 



at ion and 
i-bark vessels. These 



hold in some cases a hundred gallons. They take advantage of cold 
April nights to freeze the sap, and in the morning throw out the ice. 



978 The American Naturalist. [October, 

They evaporate it by throwing hot stones into the reservoirs of sap. 
The sugar is eaten mixed with corn. Sometimes the pure sugar is 
their only diet for a month. They boil venison and rabbits in the hot 
sap as they evaporate it. They also make sugar from the silver maple 
and box elder. That the Indians made sugar from times unknown is 
proved by their language, their festivals, and their traditions. Several 
authors of early times, telling af their visits to the Indians, mention 
maple sugar, and one of them, in 1756, describes the Indian's mode of 
preparing it. The gathering of sap and making of sugar formed one of 
their annual religious ceremonies. 

" Fort Ancient, Ohio," by Mr. Warren K. Moorehead. — Mr. Moore- 
head spent two summers in excavating the mounds and studying the 
topography of Fort Ancient, on the Miami River. He has shown as 
much energy in digging out Fort Ancient as Schliemann in excavating 
Troy. As an indirect result of his labors, the Legislature of Ohio 
authorized the purchase of the fort and surrounding ground as a State 
park. A map of Fort Ancient, together with a short notice of Mr. 
Moorehead's work, was published in the Amkrjcan Naturalist, April, 
1890, p. 383. His book on that subject, just published, which has 
already passed its second edition, gives a complete account of this 
great prehistoric earthwork. 

The fort is really two, the old fort and the new fort, connected as 
by an isthmus. Each fort has about an acre and a-half of ground, 
and the two resemble in general shape North and South America, with 
their connecting isthmus. The cemeteries, from which over two hun- 
dred skeletons have been removed and measured, reveal two classes of 
people, two kinds of implements, and two varieties of pottery, plain 
and ornamental. The village seems to have been occupied for three 
periods, and each period of occupancy lasted for many years. Four 
feet below the present surface there are occasionally a bed of ashes 
or a mass of burnt rock, around which and in which occur large 
numbers of perforated mussel shells, bone awls, shells of the land 
tortoise, pottery fragments, flint chips, hammer stones, etc. Then 
there are about two feet of earth, which may have been deposited in a 
freshet, or slowly accumulated during a period of one hundred or more 
years that the ground was unoccupied. Following this is a second 
layer, heavier, while the third or upper stratum is but one foot from the 
present surface. 

The preservation of minute bones, fragile shells, and perishable 
objects is due to the ashes, of which there were many bushels. 

There is a spot in a field within a half a mile of the new fort, 



Anthropology and Prehistoric . ■■ 



mens : its prcscr.ee indicates that a distant tribe was present when these 
clippings were deposited. 

Miami River, we found thousands and thousands of pottery fragments, 

In the bottom of the ditches outside the fort, and in the fields border- 
ing the fort upon the east side, we find aclass of pottery sherds different 
from those found within the structure. I have upwards of five thousand 
specimens of pottery of both varieties. Years might be spent at Fort 
Ancient in excavation of the graves and cemeteries that nearly every- 
where are to be found beneath the towering oaks and beeches, and yet 

geologists for a long time to come. Questions all unsolved present 
themselves at every step. For instance, the ageot fort Ancient.— was 
it constructed all at one time or in epochs? The races of people who 
constructed it,— who'aod what were they ? The civilization and social 
surroundings which required such a work, the terraces, the ravines, the 



This great enclosure, so rich in facts, so productive of implements 
that tell us of the every-day life of the ancient people who lived within 
its walls, may yet reveal to the patient investigator its history, and 
dispel the darkness that surrounds the origin and movements of ancient 
men upon the American continent. It is to be hoped that every 
aboriginal structure in the United States will become the property of 
the Government, or of some institution which can preserve, explore, 
and beautify it. 

Mr W. H. Holmes, of the Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D. 
C read a paper on the " Aboriginal Stone Implements of the Potomac 
Valley " He has lately investigated the steatite quarries around W aah- 
ington, and found the aboriginal vessels in their rudest stages of manu- 
facture, also the implements with which they had been made. 

He described his work among the quartzite bowlders on Finey 
Branch, near Washington. The impression of Mr. Holmes's paper, 
and the discussion following it, is thus told in one of the Indianapolis 
journals of the day : 

« Hence the rude forms of chipped stones are not tools at all, as has 
been taught by archaeologists for half a century, and so the « rough 



980 The American Naturalist. [October, 

stone age ' and the ' smooth stone age ' of the District of Columbia 
and all the rest of the world are knocked into smithereens. This is 
not Prof. Holmes's exact language, but that is just what he meant. 

" Professor Holmes will pick a few bushels of flint bowlders out of 
Pogue's run, and by knocking one against the other can in a few hours 
leave evidences of the poor old ' Paleolithic man ' scattered all over 
the capitol grounds. By finishing up his flint stones into good shape 
— arrow-heads, knives, skinners, etc. — he can prove that the Old 
Paleolith was followed by the Indian races. This knocks some dear 
old theories in the head, and particularly sets the French archaeologists 
in the background. 

" Professor Putnam, who knows all about it, observed exactly the same 
thing along the shores of Cape Cod several months before, and says 
the French have played the deuce with this ancient and honorable 
science, and that their ' effort to classify our ancestors on the form of 
their stone implements is no better than the matching of brass buttons.' 
'Primitive man,' said Professor Putnam, 'made only a cutting-edge 
on the bowlders. The Indian went further and made knives and per- 
forators, and that is all there is of it. The many divisions based on 
the shape of the implements is artificial and of no value.' 

" Dr. Mason, the creator of the National Museum, did not like to see 
the ' French archaeologists given such a black eye by Prof. Putnam,' 
but he placed a high value on the views of Mr. Holmes, which are 
accepted in this country almost universally. Mr. Holmes can make 
Indian arrows out of a beer-bottle, a piece of cannel coal, or anything 
that has a shell-like fracture. All he uses is a piece of hide to protect 
the hand, and a piece of deer antler or an iron nail to press off the 
flakes of flint. He can give pointers to Hiawatha's ancient arrow- 
maker, as he is not limited to jasper and chalcedony, but can shape 
them deftly out of almost anything except punk and dried pumpkin." 

"The Brains of a Man and a Chimpanzee Compared," by Prof. 
Burt G. Wilder, of Cornell University.— Four large diagrams were dis- 
played for the comparison. The fissures and contortions of the two 
brains were shown and commented upon, and the paper stated that the 
resemblances were numerous and impressive. " Indeed, if one were to 
look simply at the middle aspect of the two brains only, it would 
hardly be safe to affirm that one organism is the habitation of an im- 
mortal soul and the other one of the \ beasts that perish ;' 'that the one 
was made only a little lower than the angels, and the other only a little 
higher than the monkeys." 



1890.] Anthropology and Prtkutork . 

Prof. Cope continued the comparison of the human brain and the 
chimpanzee's brain, being especially struck with the smoothing of the 
great convolutions in the brains of the lower types of men. in which they 
resemble the other mammalia. These, he said, are characters that can- 
not be remedied in any brief space of time, — | ■<■ irhapi cannot be 
remedied at all. These differences in the brain involve 
political questions. 

"The brain structure we find in Indo Kuropean ra. a has* 
turies to develop. We are now confronted in this country with the mix- 
ture of two races, — an inferior race which bat 
with a superior race of later origin. The .;:. 
to permit it? I believe we should follow the law of Bell 
and should oppose and resist hybridization. W < ;.a\ 
problem of race depreciation, and statesmen and refiu 
study the question as Professor Wilder has studied it." 

Dr. J. A. Houser, of Indianapolis, continued the dk 
that "the American people need have no fear ot a race whose front 
brain lacks fifteen cubic inches of brain stuff as compared with the 
average. The superior cerebral convolutions of the brain have made 
the laws and governed the world. In all kindness and charity, the 
higher intellect should stoop down and say, ' I will help you, but you 
shall not control me.' " 

The discussion continued into the next paper, which was by Mr. J. 
Muller : " The Peculiar Effects of One-Sided Occupations on the Anat- 
amyand Physiology." Prof. Cope said: "The subdivisions of the 
higher races of men based upon the features of the face are of little value ; 
in the lower races the divisions based on such peculiarities are more 
constant. Deep-seated anatomical characters are not easily altered by 
occupations ; only superficial characters are so altered. A man with 
a flat shin bone is nearer the ape in relationship than a man with a 
triangular shin bone. A man with a tritubercular teeth is in that degree 
further from the ape. The shin bone, the tubercles, and the hyoid 
bone have characters which are not soon eradicated, and whose signifi- 
cance must not be forgotten. The tendency of the two last bones of the 
little toe to unite is a sign of advancement. The little toe is, in 
short, going out of existence. The man whose little toe-joints are 
anchylosed is a further remove from the ape. In the Hottentot, on 
the contrary, we have anchylosis of the bones of the nose, relating him 
to the lower primates. The science of paleontology comes in play 
here and gives us aid. These characters, like the flat shin bone and 
the smooth brow, are not easily overcome. They are deep-seated. We 



982 The American Naturalist. [October, 

should exert ourselves to get rid of them, but not so fast as to depreciate 
the higher races." 

The bearing of Prof. Cope's remarks was that important natural 
differences in races should have their weight in social life and politics. 

Prof. Jastrow, of the University of Wisconsin, called attention to 
the distinction -tics relating to functions and activi- 

ties during life and those observed upon the body after death. While 
the former may be very important and easily noticed in every-day life, 
the latter are those most in use by anthropologists for race distinctions. 
The former are modified in a relatively short period ; the latter are 
relatively fixed, and are modified with extreme difficulty. The former 
are physiological, the latter anatomical ; and it may be said that it 
takes a long time for physiology to be converted into anatomy. 

Prof. O. T. Mason, of the Smithsonian Institution, read a paper on 
"The Arts of Modern Savages as a Means of Interpreting Archae- 
ology." He cited the walrus and other animals engraved on horn and 
ivory by the Esquimaux. A century ago they engraved with flint 
points ; now they have steel knives, and their work is much superior to 
its former state. The art capacity of the people has not improved ; 
the tool has improved. Such work must not be cited to a wrong 
purpose. By studying the work of present savage races under the 
varying conditions of contact with civilized races, much light 
may be thrown upon the development of races. "There is an 
appareni millennium among the archaeologists here to-day," said 
Professor Mason; "we are holding an apparent love-feast, but we 
really represent two hostile camps. Some of us believe the tools found 
and the mounds and forts all over the great West were made by In- 
dians. There are others here who believe these great works, built 
without the use of iron, were made by a people of another race,— the 
mound-builders, whom the Indians have followed. Much light may 
be thrown on this subject in the next five years. How shall we under- 
stand and interpret the tools, the dress, the habits, the houses, the 
laws, the social life, the religion, the folk-lore, of these ancient Ameri- 
can peoples, whether they are Indians or mound-builders ? That is 
for us to do, and the humblest may do their part. Collect all the facts, 
and the truth will at some time be interpreted." 

Who were the Indians and the mound-builders ? Has America been 
peopled by three different races,— mound-builders, Indians, and Cau- 
casians, — driving off each other in succession ? Or were the Indians 
and the mound-builders one and the same people? These are the 
questions, which are considered by American archceologists of to-day. 



Prof. Putnam, of Harvard, said regarding the « two host 
"For my part, I do not regard either Indians or mound-builden 
as scientific names. The word Indian was a misnomer, a- we all know, 

word now used for the aboriginal people of every country : even Aus- 
tralian Indians are spoken of. For my part, I believe the early inhabi- 
tants of America were of several stocks. I like the word 'stock' in 

stock, as the Zunis ; there was a long-headed northwestern stock : also 

the Eskimo of the Arctic regions, and the Caribs . : tin ■ 

Of course these graded into each other and mixi 

aredistinct. These various peoples cheso-called 

mound-builders and Indians. Thes do not stand 

entirely alone. The Harvard camp and the Washington < amp have no 

other desire than to find the truth." 

Prof. Putnam gave an elaborate description of his discovery of "A 
Singular Earthwork Near Foster's Station, in the Little Miami Valley," 
about twenty miles north of Cincinnati. Prof. Putnam > 
by Dr. Hilborn T. Cresson, Messrs. G. A. Dorsey, M. H. Seville, and 
Ernest Volk, all of the Peabody Museum. A series of drawings and 
photographs were used in illustration. Prof. Putnam had also several 
bushels of cinders, burnt limestone, charcoal, and ashes dug from the 
earthwork. " This mound," said the professor, " is in the angle of a 
creek and the river. It is a flat-topped, circular hill, about one-half 
mile round at the rim,— such a hill as is frequently found at the inter- 
section of a creek and river. It is made by the river and creek wash- 
ing away the drift material on either side. Such hills command the 
valleys as lookouts, and are often fortified. Around the brow of this 
hill is a ridge in some parts; at others it is not elevated above the 
surface. This ridge is made up of well-burnt clay, and includes misses 
of burnt limestone, clinkers, charred logs, and heaps of ashes, from a 
bushel to forty bushels in bulk. This strange circular rim is over half 
a mile long, twenty to fifty feet wide, and eight to ten feet deep. To 
have burnt all this clay must have required a heat like that of a 
Bessemer furnace. Another strange feature is that the rim of burnt 
stuff is backed by an escarpment of well-laid stone wall, to keep the 
buiyit material in place. This stone wall probably extended down to 
the water, but the creek has worn its way down and away from the 
wall. We have cut through the burnt wall in several places, and shall 
penetrate it in others. No bones and but a few pieces of pottery have 



984 The American Naturalist. [October, 

been found. The fires could not have been those of charcoal pits, nor 
was it a lime-kiln. There must have been an immense amount of fuel 
collected to burn this mass of clay and stone." The theory of crema- 
tion was discussed, but if these are crematories it is quite remarkable 
that no bones or remnants are found. 



MICROSCOPY. 1 
Demonstration of the Chromosomes. 2 — In the preparation 
of the egg for tracing the history of the nuclear elements, Boveri em- 
ployed two methods. In one, the preservative fluid was a mixture of 
picric and acetic acid, and the staining fluid borax-carmine ; in the 
other, which was the principal reliance, Schneider's acid -carmine 
served both as a preservative and staining medium. The living egg is 
followed under the microscope until the desired stage is reached ; then 
a drop of acid-carmine is added at one side of the cover-glass, and 
drawn under by the aid of a bit of filter-paper applied at the opposite 
side. After 5-30 minutes the fluid is replaced by glacial acetic acid, 
which decolorizes all parts of the egg except the chromosomes, and at 
the same time renders the cytoplasm quite clear, while giving a sharp 
definition to the chromatic elements. The achromatic elements are 

The egg so prepared is mounted in glycerine. In order to determine 
the exact number of chromosomes it was often found necessary to 
press the egg more or less, and thus separate the chromosomes a little. 
These preparations last for only a few days. 

Caryokinetic Figures. 3 — Dr. Solger calls attention to the fact 
that the amnion of the rat is more convenient material for exhibiting 
the caryokinetic figures than the mesentery of the young rabbit (rec- 
ommended by Orth in his " Cursus der Normalen Histologic ")• The 
advantage of such material is that it can be prepared without the neces- 
sity of imbedding and cutting. 

The freshly-excised uterus horn is placed in a saturated aqueous so- 
lution ofpicrid acid, and then the egg-membranes— at least the chorion 
—is cut open with scissors. The amnion (of embryos 1.8 cm. long to 
2 cm. long) then floats as a very thin membrane, or as a closed sac 
still envelops the embryo. t 

1 Edited by C. O. Whitman, Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 
* Boveri. Jen. Zeitschr. XXIV., 2 and 3, 1890, p. 319. 



J 89o-] Microscopy. 

After 24 hours the preparation is washed and placed in 70 pet cent 
alcohol, which is then gradually replaced by a higher 
staining, Ehrlich's acid hsematoxylin, diluted with half its volume of 

Flemming's fluid, followed by saffranin, also gives excellent prepar- 

Direct Division of the Nucleus. 4 — Plainer avows hu con- 
viction that the nucleus does divide, in some casea at least, without 

clearly shown in malpighian tubes of insects 

gland-cells are very large, and their nuclei are often three or mire 

times the diameter of the nuclei in Triton cells. The tubular organs 

Kleinenberg's picro-sulphuric acid is recommended for hardening, 
and borax-carmine for staining. 

Spermatogenesis in the Hermaphrodite Gland of Limax 
agrestis. 5 — Platner recommends the following method of preparation 
for the reproductive elements in Limax : 

The fresh hermaphrodite gland is placed in the stronger 1 
fluid for one hour ; then three to four times its volume of water is 
added to the fluid, and the object left 24 hours. The preparation is 
then washed in the manner described by Flemming. and passed through 
ascending grades of alcohol. 

The following hematoxylin solution gives the best stain for the 



Alcohol absol 7° g- 

Aq. dest 30 g- 

To be kept in a dark bottle. 

alcoholic solution of bichromate of potash. For this purpose a 
solution of 10 parts of bichromate of potash in 300 parts aq. dest. is 
kept on hand, from which 30 ccm. may be taken each time for use, 
and mixed with 70 ccm. 95 per cent, alcohol. The fluid should be 
kept in the dark during the process of decolorizing, which may require 

The object is next placed in 70 per cent, alcohol, and kept dark for 
one or more days. Then follows absolute alcohol, cedar oil, and im- 
bedding in paraffine. 



:.iSS.-. ' 



986 The American Naturalist. [October, 

Conjugation in the Infusoria. 6 — Lack of material has hitherto 
been the chief difficulty in the way of thorough study of the phenomena 
of conjugation. Investigators like Balbiani, Stein, and Butschli have 
complained of the rarity of this state, and have explained their incom- 
plete and fragmentary observations on this ground. The subject itself 
is extremely complex, and requires, as a first condition of successful 
study, most abundant material. 

Thanks to Maupas, we now know how to supply this need. Take 
stagnant water containing algse, confervae, debris of dead leaves, and 
other vegetable matter, and keep it in dishes covered with glass plates, 
to prevent evaporation and to guard against dust, until putrid fermen- 
tation sets in. Infusoria contained in this water, finding abundant 
nourishment, multiply in great numbers. When they become abun- 
dant they may be taken up in a drop of water and kept on slides in 
damp chambers, as before described. 7 The infusoria continue to mul- 
tiply until the supply of food fails ; hunger then leads them to con- 
jugate. 

When rare species are desired, which do not multiply rapidly in 
small aquaria, two individuals from different sources may be isolated, 
and made to multiply on slides kept in damp chambers. Mixture of 
specimens from the two slides, when the food-supply is exhausted, 
usually results in conjugations. 

The isolation of groups of infusoria on slides offers still another 
important advantage : it enables one to examine them easily with the 
microscope, and thus to catch the first conjugations. 

Maupas calls attention to the fact that, as a general rule, conjugation 
is most frequent towards the end of night and during the early morning 

In beginning the study of a new species the first thing to determine 
is the duration of the period of conjugation. This point ascertained 
will serve to guide the course of investigation. The isolation of 
couples in conjugation is indispensable to the study of the phenomena 
following separation. 

For killing isolated couples at successive hours, in order to trace the 
history of the nuclei, Maupas recommends corrosive sublimate (1 : 100) 
as the best reagent. He proceeds as follows : The infusoria are taken 
up with a pipette and placed in a drop of water on a slide. Fine 
hairs, suited in thickness to the species under study, are then placed 
on either side of the drop, as supports for the cover-glass. The in- 



alist, April, 1889. 



Proceedings of Scientific 



glass is then placed, and 

tion, the preparations arc 
acetic acid, and then mo 
to omit staining altogetr 
elements. 

It is perfectly useless tc 
a powerful homoge 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

The American Association for the Advancement of Sci- 
ence, of 1890. — The committee of the A. A. A. S. on the Interna- 
tional Congress of Geologists has been discharged by a vote of the 
association at its recent meeting in Indianapolis. It is 
now to inquire into the moth es v :. er of persons 

to cause this act to be ao ation which 

was ignorant of the true facts, or to scrutinize the means employed by 
the party of destruction ; further than to say that neither the president 
nor secretary, nor (it is believed) the majority of the members of that 
committee, asked or desired such discharge. In a letter written by 
Professor Hall, the president, to Dr. Frazer, the secretai 
meeting, a copy of which was sent to Prof. Stevenson. 
had no personal or ulterior purpose in keeping the committee in exist- 
ence last year. I believe that several of us considered it better to do so 
at that time, — and certainly we were not then prepared to say our work 
is finished, nor are we prepared to say that now. * * * If the ma- 
jority of the members agree to it, I see no objection to making our final 
report and asking to be discharged. I ao not think it 'courteous or be- 
coming in gentlemen of the council of the A. A. A. S. to move the 
abolition of the committee, and especially men who are not geolo- 
gists," etc., etc. 

Upon learning, after the meeting, that it was reported there that he 
had authorized his signature to be attached to a paper asking for the dis- 
charge of the said committee, Prof. Hall wrote : " I have never signed 
nor authorized any one to sign for me any paper whatever, except to 
you [the secretary] and for your report. I sent a copy of my letter 
to you * * * to Professor Stevenson, and wrote him giving my rea- 



sons why there should be a final report before disbanding. I am 
writing now only to say that no one except yourself has had any 
authority to sign my name to any paper of any kind whatever." 

The present state of things suggests an inquiry into the American 
committee "of" and "on" the International Congress of Geologists. 

In tracing out the history of a body like the American committee 
it is essential to bear in mind that the conditions which accompanied 
: not those under which a formal delib- 
rishes its offspring. 

If such a body be on the point of doing some inconsistent act, it has 
usually many sons skilled in precedent, parliamentary rule, and the 
history of the particular case to restrain it. The executive acts of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science are generally 
crowded into a short time, and must be settled by a large and hetero- 
geneous crowd of persons, many of whom understand but vaguely what 
is proposed or why it is proposed. It must also be admitted that the 
multifarious duties of the permanent secretary, and his invariable con- 
dition of overwork during meetings render it impossible for him to guide 
the actions of the large organization, with its many motions relating 
to minute details of its work, clear of inconsistencies. 

The general secretary is changed annually, and the incoming officer 
rarely if ever can keep track of the business of the last year, still less of 
two or three years back, without which intelligent action is impossible. 

The result of this is inevitable confusion and inaccuracy in the 
printed records of the association, abundantly illustrated in the history 
of this committee, as I have to some extent pointed out in the preface 
to the reports for the London session. 

What has happened with regard to this committee is as follows : 

At the Buffalo meeting of the A. A. A. S., held in 1876, a committee 
was appointed " to consider the propriety of holding an International 
Congress of Geologists at Paris during the International Exhibition 
of 1878." 

This committee, consisting of W. B. Rogers, James Hall, J. S. 
Newberry, T. S. Hunt, C. H. Hitchcock, and R. Pumpelly, elected 
Prof. Hall, chairman, Dr. Hunt, secretary ; added to its number Prof. 
Huxley, Dr. Otto Torrell, and Dr. E. S. Van Baumhauer ; not only 
considered but decided upon the propriety of having such a congress, 
and went straight ahead to secure it. 

This committee, in reporting at the Nashville meeting, calls itself 
" a committee to arrange for an International Geological Exhibition 



P/viWtfiii^s of Scinitifn- 



ordinan resolution on recommend 

" Resolved, that in addition tc 
Director of the Geological Survey 
the International Committee, tin 
geological surveys of France, l.< 
Belgium, Italy, Spain. Portugal, 
Vienna be requested to form part < 
the American Association point o 
were not members of the \m« i < 



>ological Congr 
t vards completic 



vas to be held, and actually was held, 

^he A. A. A. S. was never asked further to sanction 
but in 1877 Prof. Ramsey and most of the foreigners above were 
added to the committee " by the standing committee." 

The opening pages of the Paris volume sin- 
was looked upon there. It is said : " At the termination < > 
Fair of Philadelphia, in 1876, there «a. 1. nned at ii, a, ■ a , 1 nut e, 
for the organization of an International Geological Congress at Pans 
in 1878." Not a word is said of the American A— , ,at,on. hut the 
names of the committee above immediately follow under the heading 
of the "comite fondateur/' This comite, it is said, appealed to tin- 
Geological Society of France, which in turn called upon its council to 
constitute a committee of organization. 

The council responded by wuninj 
first act of this committee of organization was I 

ally the following should be deemed a part of the council ol the 
congress: 

1st The members of 

ad. The member, of the, n m it. , ; • • y/ « _ '■ ^ q{ 

i*5S^iSi3I and directors of large geological 
SU ™ Y L ._;„„ address of the president, M. Hebert (Paris volume, 



1 the op 



a of the congress : 



Llf 5££2T£ are a»are, is no. due «o France. Cenain 



The American Naturalist. 



that all the credit is due." 

M. Jannettaz, the general secretary, who followed the president, 
remarked: "It is in Buffalo, as the president has just told us, at the 
end of the exposition of Philadelphia, that the savants of diverse 
nationalities, and of a large representation in the history of modern 
geology, agreed to institute the first International Geological Congress ; 
they were of the unanimous opinion that the congress could be held 
in Paris during the continuance of the Exposition Universelle. They 
created in consequence a committee, to which we in France have given 
the name of the ' comite fondateur,' to recall at once its initiative, and 
the noble American city which was its point of departure ' ' (Paris 
volume, 26, 27). 

Here, then, was the congress fully started, with no further impulse 
than the appointment of a committee by the A. A. A. S. for the 
innocent purpose of "considering the propriety" of holding one. 
No wonder that the congress regarded the concourse of scientific 
men in Buffalo as its parent, and never once alluded to the American 
Association ; for the latter had never declared whether it considered 
the holding of a congress proper or not. 

M. Jannettaz goes on to say that the secretary of the comite fonda- 
teur, Dr. T. Sterry Hunt, requested M. Tournouer to take the 
measures which he should judge advisable for the success of the idea. 

When the committee of organization was constituted it studied 
carefully the plan presented to it by the comite fondateur, and issued 
circulars to carry out the latter's wishes as much as possible. 

M. Jannettaz asserts that the programme of this session of the con- 
gress was simply an enlargement of the plans of the comite fondateur. 

At the Saratoga meeting of the American Association, in 1879, 
Prof. Hall gave a sketch of the proceedings of the Paris session, and 
" recommended that the committee be continued." At the same time 
Dr. Hunt recommended that the foreign members who had been 
added (Van Baumhauer, Huxley, and Torrell) be released from service 
on the American committee. 

The A. A. A. S. voted both of these propositions. 

It seems clear that there is here a confusion between more than one 
committee, composed of the same persons, it is true, but exercising 
entirely different functions, and existing by virtue of totally distinct 
appointments. First, the A. A. A. S. appointed 
vestigate the propriety of a congress. 



Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 



<j<j i 



This committee, instead of investigating the propriety, and without 
making any report on the subject of the propriety, actually created 
and set into operation the congress ; which in turn, after being organ- 
ized, proclaimed the committee's members the " comite fondateur," 
and one of the constituent parts of the congress's council. With this 
act the A. A. A. S. had nothing to do, and could neither add to nor 
take from the comite fondateur its function thus recognized. The only 
question is whether the congress chose to apply the advantages pertaining 
to membership in this committee to the original persons who comprised 
the comite fondateur, or preferred to admit to these privileges all who 
were named from time to time on the "propriety " committee by the 
American Association. 

The congress's decision on this point is seen in the action which it 
took during the Bologna session ; but in the meantime there is no 
doubt that as long as the congress does not rescind its act, there exists 
an integral — the first-named — part of its council, called the comite 
fondateur, which at this time coincides with the present membership of 

President Capellini, the editor of the proceedings of the Bologna 
meeting, opens that splendid volume with a somewhat more accurate 
statement of the origin of the congress than that given by President 
Hebert or General Secretary Jannettaz, which he rightly attributes to 
a motion made in the A. A. A. S., and states the facts virtually as they 
have been given above. (Bologna Volume, pp. 3, 4, and 5). 

But it must not be imagined that because Prof. Capellini inserted 
into his account of the history of the congress the motion before the 
A. A. A. S. that he interpreted it differently from MM. Hebert and 
Jannettaz in the Paris Congress. This is his understanding of the 
case, given in his presidential address : "At the termination of the 
World's Fair in Philadelphia a group of geologists assembled in Buffalo 
constituted a committee for the organization of an international geolo- 
gical congress at Paris in 1878 

"The committee created in America took the name of the « Comite 
Fondateur de Philadelphia' to recall its initiative and the exposition 
which had been the occasion of it." 

Again, the committee of organization adopted the following (Art. 
5) : " The council shall be composed (1) of the members of the comite 
fondateur ; (2) of the members of the committee of organization ; 
(3) of the members of the bureau of the congress ; (4) of the actual 
presidents of geological societies and the directors of large geological 
surveys ; (5) of those members of the congress v ' 



should i 



<j(j2 



The American Naturalist. [October, 



This view of the comite fondateur has been adhered to in every one 
of the four sessions of the congress, held respectively in Paris, Bologna, 
Berlin, and London. 

In all these sessions the congress has called every member of the 
American committee who happened to be present to a seat in the 
council (with a single accidental exception), and has thus defined what 
it means by the " comite fondateur." 

To sum up the case : (i) The American Association appointed a 
committee to investigate a question. Instead of investigating and 
reporting, it proceeded to create a congress. 

(2) The congress created in turn this committee an integral part of 
its own governing body. 

(3) With the organization of the first congress the need of a com- 
mittee to inquire into the propriety of it ceased, but the American 
Association practically changed this original "propriety' ' committee into 
its representati ins of the congress, and has been con- 
stantly receiving reports from it , and adding to its number for eleven years. 

(4) The congress, by its action in receiving all the American Asso- 
ciation's additions into its council, has proclaimed that it is not the 
original members of the comite fondateur at Buffalo, but the member- 
ship of the committee representing the American Association before 
itself that it considers the comite fondateur. 

(5) This American committee has further taken the place of the national 
committees of other countries, and as such has collected information and 
published reports illustrating American opinion on geological subjects. 

It thus appears that the American committee has filled four roles, 
the first, or that of inquiry, ceasing as the other three began ; and for 
the proper fulfilment of the three simultaneous functions, which it has 
been exercising ever since 1878, it is amenable to three independent 
bodies. That one which may claim priority of age (since the duty of 
investigation was rendered nugatory by the absolute establishment of 
the congress) is the congress itself, to which the committee's relations 
are those of a parent recognized as a member of its household ; next 
is the American Association, for which the committee has appeared in 
the debates of the congress as a representative ; and last are the geologists 
of North America, whether members of the A. A. A. S. or not, of whom 
the committee has the right (in view of its past labors) to consider 
itself the mouth-piece. 

In the light of the foregoing facts, it remains to be decided what 
action this committee proposes for itself in the future. 

Shall it, as the national North American committee, set about the 



1890.] Scientific News. 993 

work of preparing a report for the coming meeting of the Interna- 
tional Congress in this country? In this case it is to be desired that 
the work should be commenced without delay, either through the sub- 
committees already appointed or through others. 

Or shall it accept its discharge at the last meeting of the A. A. A. S. 
as a committee " on," and lapse into the passive glory of the comite 
fondateur " of" the International Geological Congress, like a soul on 
which this mortal conception has conferred immortality? Whichever 
it may decide to do, there is at least one duty of which it cannot divest 
itself. By virtue of its character as representative of the geologists of 
North America it has become the responsible subscriber for the edition 
of the geological maps of Europe assigned to America as to other 
"great countries." By diligent inquiry it has procured a list of insti- 
tutions and individuals, together making up the ten thousand francs 
for the one hundred copies which the map committee in Berlin has 

American subscribers for the delivery of these maps and the map com- 
mittee in Berlin is pledged to furnish them to the committee. Before 
ceasing its mortal and commencing its spirit career, therefore, the most 
elementary considerations of propriety require that it should provide 
for the fulfilment of this obligation. How this should be done cannot 
be determined without a meeting of the members of the ex-committee 
on, who might be called together as the existing committee of the 
International Geological Congress.— Persifor Frazer. 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 

The third session of the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods 
Holl was the most successful in the history of the institution. During 
the winter and spring a large addition was made to the building, giving 
six additional studies for advanced workers, and affording rooms for 
library and for lectures. This necessitated other changes. The old 
library quarters were fitted up for a chemical room, while a dark-room 
for photographic purposes was arranged. The crying need in past years 
was a steam launch, arrd this want has been met by the purchase of a thirty- 
nine-foot Burgess launch, capable of doing all the work required of k. 

The attendance both of students and investigators was larger than 
ever before. In the department of instruction twenty-six students 
were enrolled, some coming from the distant States of South Dakota, 
Nebraska, Kansas, and South Carolina. There were seven present 
who were beginning investigation under instruction, while fourteen 



9L>4 



The American Naturalist. 



more were conducting original investigations. Some of the results of 
the work done will be published at an early date. 

During the summer the laboratory purchased four additional lots of 
land just north of the premises of the U. S. Fish Commission. On 
one lot there is a dwelling-house, which will be used in future for a 
mess-house for students and instructors. It is proposed to move the 
present laboratory to another of these new lots; while on a third, 
when funds warrant, it is proposed to erect a permanent station at 
which work can be carried on throughout the year. As a result of 
these expansions, the laboratory concludes the year with a deficit, but 
one which is not so large as to occasion serious worry. It is desired, 
however, to obtain as much aid as possible, and the trustees feel that 
all the funds should not come from Boston. So far but about one-fifth 
of all the students have come from Massachusetts ; while, on the other 
hand, Boston has contributed over ninety per cent, of all the funds. 

The Western Society of Naturalists will hold its annual meeting this 
year in the buildings of Purdue University, at Lafayette, Indiana, 
November 12th and 13th. Dr. C. E. Bessey, the retiring president, 
will deliver the annual address. A feature of the meeting will be the 
discussion of natural science as a requirement for admission to college. 
The secretary of the society is Dr. J. S. Kingsley, of Lincoln, Nebraska. 
Howard Evarts Weed, M.Sc, recently a graduate student of the 
Michigan Agricultural College, has been appointed entomologist and 
horticulturist of the Mississippi Experiment Station. 

Professor S. A. Forbes spent the summer in the Yellowstone Park 
.investigating fish food conditions for the U. S. Fish Commission. 

Mr. A. B. Cordley, of the Michigan Agricultural College, has been 
appointed entomologist of the Vermont Experiment Station. 

At the recent meeting of the Society for the Promotion of Agricul- 
tural Science, Dr. C. E. Bessey was re-elected president, and Prof. W. 
R. Lazenby secretary, while Prof. H. W. Wiley was elected to the 
executive committee. The following gentlemen were elected members 
of the Society : Prof. L. H. Bailey, of Cornell University ; Professors 
Chas. S. Plumb and W. E. Stone, of Purdue University, and Prof. 
B. E. Fernow, of the U. S. Forestry Division. 

The cotton worm has been recently receiving attention at the hands 
of Messrs. G. C. Davis and F. W. Malley, the former for the Arkansas Ex- 
periment Station, and the latter for the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
L. H. Dewey, recently of the Michigan Experiment Station, has 
been appointed an assistant in the U. S. Division of Botany. 



THE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST 



A PICTOGRAPH FROM NOVA SCOTIA. 



TN the course of some studies of the language of the Passa- 
maquoddies, made last spring, I was shown by Mrs. \V. Wal- 
lace Brown, of Calais, Maine, an interesting collection of " squeezes " 
of Micmac pictographs from Fairy Lake, New I irafton, Nova 
Scotia. The adornment of the head of several of these interested 
me considerably, as it seems to impart information in regard to the 
manners and customs of the Indians who probably made these 
figures. The cut which is here given is an exact reduction of the 
squeeze of one of the pictographs to which I refer. 1 The original 
is remarkable in several particulars, but more especially in regard 
to the strangely-formed, Cap-like figure on the head. 

The pictograph considered in this paper is supposed to be an 
old one, and to have been made by an Indian, probably of the 
Micmac tribe. Several of the squeezes in the collection appear 
to have been made after the white man, either by Indians or by 
the white men themselves. There are representations of ships or 
vessels with sails, which would point to a modern origin, and one 
of a human figure with a gun, which cannot antedate the advent of 
the whites, but there are still others which are so closely allied to 
other Indian pictographs found elsewhere that they are probably 



ggfi The American Naturalist. [November, 

veritable Indian productions. The occurrence of old and new 
together is what might be expected. There is an almost invol- 
untary tendency to add one's name to a wall where others have 
placed theirs. Many examples of this might be mentioned ; for 
instance, Inscription Rock, on the road from Acoma to Zufii 
Pueblo, New Mexico, bears side by side Indian pictographs, an- 
cient and modern, and the names and dates of visits of travelers, 
from the end of the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. The 
fact, therefore, that there are some modern pictographs associated 
with the one we are considering does not mean that it also is 
modern. While the style of the dress might suggest modern 
times after association with the whites, the remainder of the 
pictograph has an ancient look which is suggestive. 

While it must be confessed that the explanation of these head- 
dresses proposed in the following lines is conjectural, there is evi- 
dence which seems to support it. Evidently these pictographs 
represent some costume with which the maker was familiar, and 
can hardly be called fanciful. A pictograph of an Indian with a 
gun, or a ship with sails, both of which are represented in the 
collection, affords inherent evidence of the modern origin of the 
pictograph. It would seem, if the same were not true of un- 
doubtedly ancient pictographs, that the form of the dress of the 
figure represented in the cut recalled the skirt of the white 
woman, yet the general character of the pictograph indicates its 
age, as ancient pictographs with the same form are not unknown. 
If an ancient pictograph, the form represented in the head-dress 
must have been a familiar one to the graver. Analogy with 
other pictographs of known significance, rather than exact 
knowledge, would lead me to interpret this as a mask or head- 
dress worn in the dance or on festal or religious occasions. 

I have seen at the Indian settlement at Pleasant Point a head- 
dress ornamented with feathers, which is kept as a curiosity of the 
olden time ; and it is known that in olden time our New England 
Indians wore such ornaments. Yet I am familiar with but few 
representations of pictographs of head-dressed ornamented with 
feathers which are as elaborately delineated as those cut on the 
rocks of Nova Scotia, of which a cut is here reproduced. 



1890.] A Pictograph from Nova Scotia. 997 

In trying to discover the meaning of this representation I have 
not been able to satisfy myself that its significance has been cor- 
rectly, or at least satisfactorily, interpreted. It seems improbable 
that it was intended to represent a head-dress such as have been 
taken from the skulls of Indians which have been exhumed at 




it distantly resembles the pointed caps which the Micmacs and 
Passamaquoddies wore in recent times, it seems but a rude rep- 
resentation of such, and one which an Indian would hardly have 
sketched in the relative form and size represented. 



ggS The American Naturalist. [November, 

The interpretation which has suggested itself is as follows : 
The likeness to a dance-mask or dance-tablet is so close that the 
possibility of its being a representation of some of the parapher- 
nalia of the dances occurred to me. Familiar with similar masks 
and elaborate tablets borne on the head by the Pueblo Indians at 
the present day in several of their ceremonial dances, the likeness 
of the appendage represented on the head of the Nova Scotia 
pictograph suggested that it might have a similar sacred impor- 
tance. It is not uncommon to find dance-masks represented in 
the pictographs made by the Indians. The pictographs of 
human faces which one finds in such abundance in the neighbor- 
hood of Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico, often represent those personages 
who take part in the sacred dances. This is more especially 
true where human beings are represented, and it is not rare to 
find heads of Ko kos, of Shdldkos, and even of the Kdyed uiashe, 
represented so truthfully that they can be readily recognized. It 
is not uncommon to find the masks alone of dancers represented, 
and it is believed that in all such cases there is a certain religious 
significance in the pictograph, and a sacred meaning in such rep- 
resentations. Such also, it may be surmised, is the meaning of 
the figure portrayed in the Micmac pictograph. We may have 
here a representation of an old dance-figure wearing on the head 
a mask not unlike the masks still carried by the tribes which have 
preserved to the present day their ancient religious rites. If this 
interpretation of the head-dress of the pictograph from Nova 
Scotia is a correct one, as seems plausible, it may give us an in- 
sight into the character of the dress of the dancers in ancient 
Micmac ceremonials. 

I have also seen, in the same collection above referred to, 
pointed rectangular pictographs, with one side inclined to the 
other, which would also seem to be representations of former 
head-dresses for use or ornament. Some of these are repre- 
sented elaborately ornamented with cross-lines, as in our figure, 
and some are surmounted with feathers, as in the pictograph rep- 
resented in the cut. Isolated examples of these are often cut on 
the rocks, while their frequency would indicate that they have 
a meaning of some kind. We often find in the collection the 
same rectangular structure on the heads of human figures, but 



1890] A Pictograph form Nova Scotia. 999 

quite as often the head-dresses are represented alone. It seems 
hardly probable, if they represent simple caps or hats, that the 
Indians would take the trouble to cut them on the rocks in the 
elaborate way in which they occur ; but if they represent para- 
phernalia of the dance one can readily suppose that they would 
be thus carefully represented. 

Moreover, we find among many tribes that the custom of cut- 
ting pictographs of dance-masks and other head-dresses which 
are used in religious ceremonials is a common practice, as any 
one who has studied the pictographs in the Southwest may attest. 
I would therefore suggest that in the figure represented in the 
cut we have a picture of a Micmac wearing a mask possibly 
worn in sacred ceremonials. 

The long appendage to the head is interesting. It is supposed 
to represent the hair tied up in the ancient fashion. In old times 
the Passamaquoddy Indians, more especially the squaws, tied their 
hair on a flat plate, sometimes of shell, on the edges of which 
were holes through which a string was woven. There is an old 
folk-tale of the Passamaquoddies in which a string made of eel- 
skin was used for this purpose. Possibly we have represented in 
the cut a similar method of doing up the hair formerly used by 
the Micmacs and Passamaquoddies. 

While it is not the purpose of this communication to comment 
on, much less discuss, the antiquity of the New Grafton picto- 
graphs, some of which are undoubtedly modern, it must be said 
that there are evidences of antiquity in many particulars as far as 
many are concerned. Through the kindness of Mrs. Brown, I 
have in my possession the squeezes of several of those which 
seem to indicate an ancient origin as far as the subject treated is 
concerned. It is one object of the present communication to call 
attention to the possibility of gathering some information in re- 
gard to the former customs of the ancient aborigines of Nova 
Scotia, New Brunswick, and New England from the picture- 
writings which they have left behind. The locality in which 
the pictograph represented in the cut is found is particularly rich in 
ancient picture-drawings, and would, I should judge, repay acare- 
ful, systematic exploration and study with this thought in mind # 



The American Naturalist. 



THE EVOLUTION OF MIND. 



{Continued from page grj.) 

TN the provision and care for the young animals display a great 
fertility of resource, beginning low in the scale. It is well 
known that certain Siluridse (catfishes), Gasterosteidae (stickle- 
backs), and Percidae (sunfishes) of North America make nests 
for the reception of the eggs, and that they take care of the 
young. It is not an uncommon sight, in suitable places in our 
country, to see the catfish, Amiurus nebulosus, lead about its 
shoal of young fry like a hen with her chickens. Other Siluridae 
of South America take the eggs in the mouth, and so protect 
them. In these and similar cases we may imagine that the 
animal regards the eggs and young as part of itself, to which 
it attaches a certain value, as in ordinary self-preservation. 

Such an explanation serves in the case of the ants and bees, 
which show such care of their young. Some of the most re- 
markable cases of this kind are to be found in the Batrachia 
Salientia, an order not distinguished for intelligence in any other 
direction. In some parts of South America and Africa, where 
there is a dry season, certain tree-frogs deposit their eggs in 
masses on the branchlets and leaves of trees that overhang the 
dry beds of streams. The surface of the gelatinous albumen, in 
which the eggs are enclosed, hardens by evaporation, so that the 
latter are well protected. On the arrival of the rainy season, the 
stream below the nest begins to flow, and the nest is dissolved 
and washed into it, so that the larvae can pass their branchiferous 
larval stage successfully. It is interesting to note that the species 
which adopt this habit are not closely allied in a systematic sense, 
the African belonging to the Ranidse, and the South American to 
the Hylidse. They have learned the habit independently of each 
other. Another tree-frog, of unknown species, inhabiting Japan, 
has been shown by the Rev. W. S. Holland to construct a 



isgo.] The Evolution of Mi/id. iooi 

similar nest, but of a larger and less solid character. The interior 
remains semi-fluid, and the eggs hatch and the young pass there 
a part at least of their larval life before dropping into the stream 
below. The region is not subject to drought, so that the object 
of this habit may be to escape enemies which may lurk in the 

In South America certain Hylidse (Notrotrema, Opisthodelphys) 
and Pipidae (Pipa) adopt the habit of placing the eggs on the 
back. The former mostly inhabit a region which suffers from 
drought, — the western slope of the Andes. They retain the eggs 
in an invagination of the dorsal integument until they are hatched, 
and in some cases until they have passed their metamorphosis. 
In the genus Dendrobates (Dendrobatidai), also South Ameri- 
can, the tadpoles are carried over land on the back of the parent, 
attached by their mouths, to a new pond, when the old one dries 
up. The most peculiar modification is that adopted by the 
a of Chili (fam. Phryniscidae). The male 
takes the eggs into his vocal sac, which is entered from the floor 
of the mouth. This sac is greatly extended in this species, 
reaching below the entire abdomen. Here the eggs hatch, and 
the tadpoles remain till such time as they complete their meta- 
morphosis. As in the stickleback and the catfish, this is a case 
of paternal instinct. 

The intelligent efforts of certain birds to divert the attention of 
enemies from their nests are well known. Two prominent cases of 
this kind in North America are the woodcock {Philohela minor), 
and the oven bird {Stunts aurocapillus). The flutterings of these 
birds along the ground, apparently in easy reach of the grasp of the 
pursuer, lead the latter far from the nest. When safety is assured, 
the bird flies away unharmed. The two species mentioned have no 
zoological affinity with each other, so that they have adopted the 
habit independently. 

In the capture of prey animals often show a remarkable knowl- 
edge of the physical characters of the latter. Thus the ophio- 
phagous snakes seize venomous species by the muzzle, thus 
keeping their mouths closed and preventing their biting. The 
wonderful habits of the species of mud-wasps in this respect 



1002 The American Naturalist. [November 

have often been observed. They capture the species of insects 
and spiders which they store for the use of their young by sting- 
ing them in the nervous ganglia in such a way as to paralyze 
without killing them, thus preserving them alive for many months. 
The construction of webs by spiders furnishes an excellent 
illustration of the progressive development of a capacity for 
mechanical construction. The inferior forms construct loose 
nets in the grass. Another type adds to this a funnel-shaped 
retreat, in which they lie in wait. A higher form suspends a tri- 
angular net between the branches of a bush, while the perfection 
of the art is reached by such Epeiridae as spin a complete disc 
composed of many triangular segments, which often contains a 
staircase from the centre, arranged for their ready escape from an 
enemy. At some early period in the history of the spiders an 
intelligent perception of the utility of a web in the capture of 
prey must have been attained. The habit of making the web has 
become ingrained or instinctive, and has by use absorbed the 
faculties of the species. Accident has perhaps led to the habits 
of constructing them differently with relation to the environment, 
such as the surface of the ground, etc. The triangular form is 
the simplest possible device for a suspended web, while the dis- 
coidal web is constructed by a simple repetition of the same 
device. This probably means merely increased capacity for web- 
construction ; that is, increased secretion of web-substance, and 
increased nervous activity, both the- result of use. 

The intelligence displayed by the higher animals in the capture 
of prey is well known. I once had a tame raccoon which was 
fastened by a chain of moderate length in a stable. He fre- 
quently attempted to catch the chickens that entered the stable, 
but was prevented by the shortness of his chain. But he adopted 
a device which was successful. He collected the remains of his 
meals within the circle of which his chain formed the radius. He 
then pretended to go to sleep at a point near the the centre of the 
circle, while he slyly watched the birds. The latter approached, 
and, becoming confident, proceeded to peck at the fragments. 
The raccoon then easily pounced upon and caught them. In 
the pursuit of their prey dogs, as is well known, display much 



lion of Mind. 



1003 



intelligence. Some of them anticipate the arrival of deer, which 
run in a circle, by cutting across its diameter and reaching a point 
in advance of them. In the same way foxes show remarkable 
intelligence in their endeavors to escape from dogs in pursuit. 
They double on their own tracks, and run in water to destroy 
and confuse the scent. These actions show reasoning capacity 
of a very respectable order. 

The Hymenopterus insects display the most remarkable 
powers of self-preservation and protection through social organi- 
zations. This intelligence was probably reached at some early 
geologic age, and it has been followed by remarkable conse- 
quences, both to themselves and to other members of the animal, 
and not less to the vegetable, kingdom. It may be truly said that 
man himself has produced no such important constructive effects 
on other organic beings, although his destructive effects have 
been probably greater. In the first place, the habits of many of 
the order in seeking their food in flowers have probably been the 
active agency in determining the forms of many of the latter, as 
well as of developing the nectariferous glands and increasing 
their secretion. This view was suggested by Midler and myself 
at about the same time, and has been elaborated by Henslow in 
one of the volumes of the International Scientific Series. In the 
next place, a number of animal types have been called into exis- 
tence through the food and protection offered by the domestic 
economy of the ants. Among Vertebrata we have three families 
which live in ants' nests, all of which have become blind or nearly 
so, and two have lost their limbs, through the adoption of their 
parasitism on ants. Such are the C«eciliidae (Batrachia), Amphis- 
baenidae (Lacertilia), and Typhlopidae (Ophidia). Then many 
birds (Formicariidse) live on ants and Termites, and two families 
of Mammalia, the Myrmecophagidas in South America, and the 
Orycteropodididse in Africa. Thirdly, the ants have domesti- 
cated numerous species of insects which they use for their secre- 
tions and for other purposes. In Europe about one hundred 
such species are known. The slave-making habits of various 
ant species are well known. This habit has been so long existent 
in certain species that the latter cannot exist without the aid of 



ioo4 



turalist. [November 



their slaves. The latter care for their young, and even procure 
food for the adults. This habit is an illustration of a misdirection 
of intelligence. Originating in an intelligent appreciation of 
what the slave ants could do for them, they have become so de- 
pendent on the latter as to have lost some of the most important 
functions of self-preservation, so that their persistence in future 
time is necessarily more precarious than that of any other type of 
ants, ccBteris paribus. 

The fact that the practice of stirpiculture and social division of 
labor, with the laying up of food supplies, has developed inde- 
pendently in three different phyla is of much interest. These 
habits are exhibited by the Formicidae and Apidae of the order 
Hymenoptera, and by the Termitidae of the Neuroptera. 

The habits of the beaver display intelligence in two directions. 
They adopt an effective measure of security in building their 
dams so as to flood the entrances to their houses, thus protecting 
themselves from many foes. Secondly, they display mechanical 
skill in the construction of the dams, and in the location of their 
houses. 

Some of the monkeys are the most intelligent of the animals 
below man. I had in confinement for several years three species 
of the South American family of the Cebidae, which stands lower 
in the scale than the monkeys of the Old World. One of these 
was an Ateles, and it was rather stupid. The others were the 
Cebus capucinus and the C. apella. The former was the more in- 
telligent. I have already referred to the tendency of these species 
to syncope under extreme fear. The C. capucinus, possessed un- 
limited curiosity. Everything that came into its possession was 
closely scrutinized, and would be broken up, if possible, and the 
interior examined. It used sticks and stones for its purposes, 
much as is done by man. With the former it reached for objects 
not otherwise attainable, and in their absence would unfasten the 
leather strap that passed round its waist, and whip in desirable 
objects by throwing the free end round them. Sticks were used 
in defence, and were either thrown or held in the hand by one 
end. Pounding the shining sconce of a bald-headed friend was 
an amusement for which it was always ready. It threw stones 



1890.] The Evolution of Mind. 1005 

with considerable precision, overhand. Stones were also used 
for cracking nuts and other objects, and when the latter were 
resistant, it would leap in the air and bring the stone down with 
great force, and with many grotesque attitudes and grimaces. 

It would draw bolts, lift hooks, and pull out nails which closed 
the door of its cage. I never knew it to open a buckle correctly, 
but it would pull out the threads which fastened the fold of 
leather which held the buckle, and so free itself from the strap. 
On one occasion it imitated the use of the drawing-knife by car- 
penters who were at work In the room in which its cage was kept. 
It secured a square rod of wood, and some fragments of sheet 
tin which had been left near its cage. It carried the wood to a 
shelf in the cage and sat on it, letting it project forward from 
between its legs. It took a piece of tin in both hands, and plac- 
ing the edge across the wood, drew it rapidly ban kward and for- 
ward on the latter, just as the carpenters use the drawing-knife. 
This action it repeated frequently, with many grimaces and ex- 
pressions of delight. 

It was very expert in the management of its chain. It carried 
it in a coil of its tail over obstructions and objects on which it 
was likely to be caught, quite as carefully and successfully as 
could have been done by a human being. In this it showed its 
intelligence to be superior to that of dogs, cattle, or horses, who 
will wind themselves up when tied, and cannot unwind or extri- 
cate themselves. 

In all these exhibitions the Cebus displayed predication, or 
conception of the consequences of certain causes ; e.g., the effect 
of being wound up, and the effect of carrying the chain in rela- 
tion to its environment. 

The Cebus was evidently conscious of wrongdoing. When 
detected in some particularly mischievous proceeding his furtive 
and downcast looks showed that he understood the nature of the 
act, and that before any word was spoken. He perfectly under- 
stood the tones of voice of his master, showing alarm or satis- 
faction as the case might be. In attacking a strange animal, as a 
dog, cat, or chicken, he always waited for the word of command ; 
on receiving it he would spring towards the enemy with loud 



1006 The American Naturalist. [November, 

ejaculations of hostility and open mouth, looking frequently to 
his master for approval. 

When inclined to be sociable he made rapid movements of the 
jaws and lips as though endeavoring to talk, an appearance which 
was increased by the attitudes of the head and the inquiring ex- 
pression of the eyes. The same habit is to be observed in the 
Old World monkeys, as in Cercopitheci and baboons. It appears 
to be one of the preliminary endeavors which in the ancestors of 
man led to the function of speech. 

Dt '\ >t n a> i fudg ' — The condition of deliberation is a 
restraint of intended action in view of alternatives and uncertain- 
ties. This attitude of mind requires attention. As such action 
involves an intention, more or less distinct, it presupposes also an 
inductive basis of knowledge, and a deductive application of the 

Attention is commonly observed in animals, even of the lower 
types. A slight stimulus, as a sound, will arouse it, and it will be 
often continued long after this stimulus has ceased. This is com- 
monly observed in Mammalia and in birds. It is well exhibited by 
tortoises and by snakes. The snake-like lizard, Opheosaurus ven- 
tralis, is easily tamed, and displays careful attention to the move- 
Deliberation is seen in the careful selection of a suitable place 
for the deposit of eggs by a great many animals. Urged on by 
the emotion of egg-laying the animal restrains its desire until a 
place is found when the precious property can be safely concealed 
from the eyes of enemies. This kind of deliberation is seen as 
far down as the fishes, and the insects probably exhibit it as well. 
It is also seen in the careful examination of articles which may 
or may not be edible. Monkeys are untiring investigators, and 
they often scrutinize and critically taste objects with an evident 
view of ascertaining their character as edible or not. Carnivora 
pursue the same object by the use of the sense of smell. Fowls 
and other birds often deliberate over a doubtful object. 

A dog will deliberate as to whether another dog or another 
animal is hostile or dangerous or not. An amusing illustration 
of this faculty is seen in the close consideration which a dog will 



i89°-] The Evolution of Mind. 1007 

give to an insect which more or less resembles a bee or wasp. I 
have seen a bull-dog examine with care a large fly which resem- 
bles a bee, and evince much doubt as to whether it might be 
safely snapped up or not. When urged to attack the dog would 
do so with lips retracted and dripping with saliva, so that the 
teeth only might come into contact with the suspicious insect. 
This amusing illustration is well represented by a Belgian painter 
in a picture exhibited at the Paris Exposition of 1N7S. 

In forming a decision on deliberation an animal performs an 
act of judgment Like a concept, a judgment may be very 
simple or it may be complex. Its -rules depend exactly on the 
grade of the percepts or concepts which are compared. But 
whether simple or complex, the formation of judgment is a meta- 
physical act. It results from a comparison of memories of per- 
cepts, or of generalizations derived from concepts of all degrees 
of generality. 

Self-Consciousness. — This is a grade of consciousness which is 
probably found only in the human species, and is probably want- 
ing to the lowest of human races. It is the introspection which 
occupies itself with one's own mental states. It more frequently 
occupies itself with past than with present mental states, for man 
is not accustomed to reflect on the character of his own mental 
acts when in action. He is conscious of them, as he is conscious 
of the movements of his own body, and he may also be as uncon- 
scious of the one as he is of the other. Moreover, self-conscious- 
ness may extend to the simplest mental acts as well as to the 
most complex. Hence I cannot agree with Mr. Romanes, who 
makes self-consciousness the condition of the formation of a con- 
cept. Nor can I think he has used the word subject in the usual 
sense when he restricts it to the self-conscious mind. The sub- 
ject is that which is conscious in any degree, as distinguished 
from object, which is that of which the subject i 
the insect, feeling pain, is quite as much a subject 

possible only to the highest grade of intelligence. In its exer- 
cise the subject becomes an object, when it is well termed the 
" subject-object" We have no certainty that any animals pos- 



ioo8 The American Naturalist. [November, 

sess this capacity, but it is quite possible that some low types of 
men rarely or never practice it. This we may derive from their 
vocabularies, from which words expressive of introspective mental 

Consciousness of one's body and of one's mental sensations is 
no doubt present in animals. This is, however, simple conscious- 
ness, and not self-consciousness. Animals also possess con- 
sciousness of the mental states of other animals and of men. 
This is an inference based on their appearance, gestures, tones, 
etc., and one more evidence that many animals possess the 
rational faculty of induction or inference. 

4. THE METHOD OF MENTAL EVOLUTION. 

That the highest type of mind, as seen in mankind, has been 
produced by a process of evolution by descent from primitive 
beginnings would seem to follow from the history of the organ- 
ism which displays it, i.e., the nervous system and its ganglia. 
Whether there is any insurmountable obstacle in the way of 
such a belief will be considered in the present section. 

We have traced the existence of various component elements 
of mind among the lower animals, and have found that the only 
quality which is not common to them and to man is that of self- 
consciousness. And of this there is doubt as to its existence in 
the lowest human races. We have, however, recognized that the 
animal mind cannot reach so high a grade of conception in the 
classification of the mental contents, as can man. But we have 
seen how very greatly human minds differ in this respect, so that 
there may be said to be a rising scale of mental organism from 
the lowest animal to the highest man, with but a slight interrup- 
tion at the point where we pass from the highest ape to the lowest, 
man. This slight interruption is due to the advent of language, 
which gave the mind a new machine, by which its power of ac- 
cumulating experience was increased, and a firm hold over its 
conceptual faculty acquired. The very inferior quality of the 
minds of the lowest races, however, leads us to infer the former 
existence of still less intelligent men, and their extremely simple 
languages lead us to suspect that the time was when man devel- 



1890.J The Evolution of Mind. 

oped language from inarticulate sounds and gestur 
he has since developed new complexities e xp re ss) 
gressive advance of his mental power. 

Mr. Romanes, in his work on the " Origin of H 
has been at great pains to examine and elucidate 
the origin of the human intelligence, and I cannol 
refer my readers to it as the best exposition of 



The experiential theory adopted by Locke as a statement of 
the history of the human mind has been shown by Herbert Spen- 
cer to be more correctly an explanation of the development of 
the mind of animals in general, including that of man. On this 
hypothesis, while it is admitted that much may be acquired by each 
individual human mind by experience, it is asserted that more has 
been acquired by the race in general, and handed down to the 
existing generations by inheritance. It is further held that the 
elements of the mind of man were not acquired by him at all, 
but have been derived by him by inheritance from the preexistent 
members of the animal kingdom from whom he is descended. 
It is the qualities which are thus inherited which appear to the 
student who is unacquainted with this explanation of their origin 
to be spontaneous, or " intuitive " to the human mind. Thus the 
so-called intuitions of man are shown to be the organized pro- 
ducts of the experience of preceding generations. The question 
of the origin by experience of the powers of thought of man is 
quite independent of the metaphysical question as to whether a 
given truth is contingent or necessary. The former may depend 
more directly on experience than the latter, but the capacity to 
apprehend the latter is as necessary a result of evolution as is 
the capacity to apprehend the former, if the evolution of the 
human mind be admitted. Of the truth of this mode of explana- 
tion of the origin and growth of the latter there seems to the 
present writer to be no doubt. 

As sensation appears to be present in some or all of the Pro- 
tozoa, without corresponding organs of sense, general or special, 
we believe that their protoplasm or part of it is endowed with a 
diffused conscious sensibility. Organs of a special sense, sup- 



ioio The American Naturalist. [November, 

posed to be sight, are present in many Infusoria in the form of 
small aggregates of red or black pigment. From such a 
source organs of developed sight can be traced, the subsequent 
additions of retinal nerve supply, humors, etc., having been ob- 
served in animals of successively higher types. Thus we have 
ground for believing in the evolution of this form of special sense 
step by step. 

General sensation is immediately localized on the appearance 
of special organs for its activity. These are the threads and 
bodies, termed nerves and ganglia, which appear first in the as- 
cending scale in the Coelenterata. From the simple structures pre- 
sented by the jelly-fishes we trace the successive evolution of the 
nervous system up to its highest expression in the Mammalia 
and in man. Thus we have the physical basis of the evolution 
of sense-perception plainly before us. The belief in the evolu- 
tion of the more complex forms of perception from simple con- 
sciousness is therefore inevitable. 

The evolution of ideation may be traced along the lines of the 
affections and of the intelligence. The affections differ among 
themselves in degree of intensity as well as in kind. In their 
simplest form they are mere preferences, or likes and dislikes ; in 
a more pronounced type they are the affections ; while in their 
forms of greatest intensity they are the passions. The evolution 
of the emotions is therefore quite comprehensible under the 
direction of use and experience. Profitable use develops strength, 
while experience of the evils of unprofitable use develops restraint 
and disuse. The desires and affections furnish the stimuli to 
action, whence comes experience, and therefore ratiocination. 
Reason, in turn, furnishes material to the affections, and also 
guides them to the accomplishment of their desires. 

It is evident that without consciousness the development of 
ideation would be impossible. Ideation is a result of education 
or the experience of pleasures and pains. The appetites are con- 
scious states, and they furnish, with general and special sensation, 
the basis of the knowledge which animals possess of the material 
world. Granted consciousness, and the progressive development 
of ideation is necessary, except in certain cases where degeneracy 



1890.] The Evolution of Mind. 10 u 

is exhibited. The changes of the seasons, the periodicity of the 
appearance of vegetable food, the irregular production of animal 
food, the struggle for existence between animals themselves, all 
furnish the materials of memory, and the stimuli to emotion, at- 
tention, conception, induction, and all forms of mental activity. 
By means of memory these results are cumulative ; and by reason 
of the effects of these activities on structure of the nervous 
centres the faculties themselves are augmented in power, and 
may become finally automatic, or be performed without the 
presence of consciousness. Such automatic acts or habits may 
become so fixed as to be surrendered with difficulty, or not at all, 
after changed circumstances render them no longer beneficial. 
They are termed instincts, and for a long time an essential differ- 
ence was believed to exist between Instinct and Reason. But it is 
now evident that man possesses the primitive instincts in common 
with the lower animals, and various tribes of men display especial 
characteristics which have become congenital, and may be prop- 
erly termed instincts. Such are the habits of a nomadic people, 
which they give up with great difficulty. Such is the instinct 
for the chase which persists in some men so that they move ever 
further off the frontier of a more sedentary civilization. Since it is 
known that many of the lower animals can reason, the supposed 
distinction between Instinct and Reason disappears entirely. 

As in structural evolution, ontogeny furnishes us with a guide 
to phylogeny. The study of the growth of the infant mind 
throws much light on its general evolution. The primitive con- 
dition of the emotions is that of appetites. The first of these in 
the necessary physiological order, and hence in time, is the appe- 
tite of hunger. Second in order in the history of life, but not in 
the growth of individuals, is the instinct of reproduction, such as 
it is in animals who only multiply by fission. Very early in evo- 
lution the emotion of fear must have arisen, and it is probably the 
immediate successor of hunger in the young of most animals. 



Anger appears as early as the mind can appreciate resistance to 
its first desires, and no doubt followed as third or fourth in the 
history of evolution. The rudiments of parental feeling would 
follow the origin of reproduction at a considerable interval of 



I oi 2 The American Naturalist. [November, 

time. One of the latest of the instincts to appear would be the 
love of power ; while later still would be the emotions of rela- 
tivity (Bain), because they are dependent on a degree of mental 
appreciation of objects. Such are admiration, surprise, and won- 
der. These, as well as all other consequences of inherited intel- 
lect, appear earlier in infancy than they did in evolution, by the 
process of " acceleration," as may be readily understood. 

Of these instincts and emotions it is to be supposed that hun- 
ger remains much as it has ever been. The reproductive instinct 
has, on the other hand, undergone the greatest modifications. 
Sex instinct could not have existed prior to the origin of the 
differentiation of sex. Hence it is probable that the parental 
instinct preceded the sexual in time. These two instincts, being the 
only ones which involve interest in individuals other than self, fur- 
nish the sources of sympathy in all its benevolent aspects. Hence 
it has developed in man into the powerful passion of love ; into 
affection and charity in all their degrees and bearings. Fear be- 
ing, as Bain shows, largely dependent on weakness, has varied in 
development in all times, but must be most pronounced in ani- 
mals of high sensibility, other things being equal. Hence its 
power has, on the whole, increased until it probably reached its 
extreme in the monkeys or the lowest races of men. Increasing 
intelligence of the higher order diminishes the number of its 
occasions, so that it is the privilege of the highest type of men 
to possess but little of it. The earliest of the emotions of rela- 
tivity to appear in time has probably been the love of beauty ; 
how early it may have appeared it is difficult to imagine. Sur- 
prise and wonder, as distinct from fear, one can only conceive as 
following an advanced state of intelligence. 

Thus in psychology the paleontological order oi development 
is somewhat different from the embryological. I have compared 
the two orders as follows : * 

PALEONTOLOGICAL. EMBRYOLOGICAL. 

Hunger. Hunger. 

Reproduction. Fear. 

Fear. Anger. 
* American Naturalist, September, 1883. 



The Evolution of Stind. 



Power. Pity. 

Beauty. Sex. 

Wonder. Parental instinct. 

The qualities enumerated in the first column follow each other 
directly in order from the simple to the complex. In the second 
column this order is disturbed by the earlier appearance of 
the derivative emotions, beauty, wonder, and pity or benevo- 
lence, and the later appearance of the simple emotion of sex. 
Thus in psychological as in other evolution some of the products 
of development appear earlier and earlier in life in accordance 
with the law oi acceleration. 

It is evident that a capacity for ideation has been developed, 
which is capable of conception or generalization. This is seen in 
the capacity which animals frequently display of adapting them- 
selves to new situations. This is accomplished by the conception 
of the general resemblance of the new case to certain old ones, 
although there may be much difference in detail. Thus Mr. 
Belt tells of an army of ants on the march which crossed a rail- 
road track on which cars were frequently passing. The wheels 
crushed the ants as they crossed the rails. This was observed 
by the ants, who at last escaped the danger by burrowing under 
the rails. Mr. Beaumont relates that some Termites which he 
had imprisoned in a glass jar with perpendicular sides escaped 
from it by an ingenious use of a secretion of their bodies which 
they ordinarily used in building their nests and covered road- 
ways. The soldiers furnished the workers with a semifluid 
cementfrom their bodies, which the latter deposited on the glass, 
where it hardened. They thus made a roadway to the top of 
vessel, over which the insects passed out. The faculty has plainly 
developed from the simple to the more complex. The difference 
between the dart-throwing of the Infusorian Dinidium and the 
dam-building of the beaver is one of degree only, and not of 
kind. The difference of degree resides in the more numerous 
means necessary to the beaver's act than to that of the Dinidium. 



1 014 The American Naturalist. [November, 

The latter throws only its own indurated cilia ; the beaver uses 
the earth for burrowing, the water for covering, and the timber 
for building both the dam and its house. The more complex 
the performance the more likely is the animal to employ also the 
deductive act. Thus in the case of the building of nests by birds 
and trap-door spiders, when customary materials are wanting, 
new ones are adopted ; that is, a known rule as applied to new 
cases. 

The manner of the evolution of the concept has been as fol- 
lows : The sensible qualities of objects are first learned, and 
stored in the memory. The qualities must be distinctly localized 
in the nervous centers, otherwise confusion of memory would 
result. Thus if a red bird is perceived to sing on a tree four 
distinct perceptions are experienced. First, a bird's form ; sec- 
ond, a red color ; third, the song of a bird ; fourth, a particular 
tree on which the bird was perched. It is not probable that that 
part of the nervous center which perceives form is identical with 
that which perceives color, nor either with that which perceives 
sound. The constituent parts of the center have become special- 
ized into different regions, each capable of apprehending a differ- 
ent quality. Each locality is blind or deaf, as the case may be, 
to that stimulus which affects the other, although all may be 
alike reached by the vibrations, or whatever the form of stimulus 
may be, which is derived from the common source. And each is 
so joined by connecting nervous threads with all of the other 
localities, that the general idea of the entire object is not lost. 
Thus we may believe that there is a localization of the sense of 
form, where forms are recorded, and may be compared and their 
identity or difference be consciously known. In simple minds 
identity would be often perceived, and slight differences be disre- 
garded. Hence the simple conceptions of the animal mind. In 
more advanced minds, with greater specialization and organiza- 
tion of structure, minuter differences, as well as wider resemblances 
would be recorded, and would enter into consciousness. The com- 
bination of percepts form the lowest grade of concepts. Still 
higher development would render possible wider combinations 
through the development of nervous connections between more 



widely separated localities of record, ami their conduction to 
added portions of the center or locality of gray tis>ae. where 
consciousness would necessarily perceive the resemblances and 
differences thus set before it. 

Finally, the lower concepts thus gathered from perceptions could 

semblances and differences should become obvious to conscious- 
ness, and the highest concepts, inductions, or judgments result. 
In the tracing of the development of this mechanism and its 

presence of consciousness the whole process is useless as a men- 
why the specialization or location of sense-perception should take- 
place. That it actually exists has been demonstrated by the 
researches into brain and cordal physiology conducted in recent 

Leaving for a moment the question of the physical basis, I 
revert to the metaphysical side of evolution of mind. It is gener- 
ally admitted by evolutionists in the field of psychology that ex- 
perience is the immediate agent of such evolution ; or, in other 
words, that it is a process of education, the possibility of such 
education being dependent on consciousness and memory. There 
is here no ambiguity as to the method. Consciousness is edu- 
cated by the direct action of the environment as determined by 
the active or passive condition of the organism. In other words, 
the environment impresses itself directly on the consciousness of 
the organism, and a memory remains, which is the guide to the 
future movements of the latter, and this process has been in 
operation ever since life has existed, and the result has been the 

We have here no promiscuous or fortuitous activity of sensa- 
tion, nor is any possible, since sensations are only produced 
by a stimulus from a definite material source. There is no 
" survival of the fittest " at this stage of the process, but a 
calling into being of new sensations, and consequently of new 
movements. Here we have the origin of mental changes dis- 
tinctly before us, and the question of their survival comes up at 



IOl6 The American Naturalist. [November, 

a later stage of evolution. Responses to stimuli are, however, 
necessarily " fit " or appropriate to the stimulus, and it can only 
be other features in the environment which can make them other- 
wise. And this unfitness cannot continue, — not because its 
possessor is necessarily destroyed, but because new environments 
produce new sensations and new educations. It is therefore in the 
evolution of mind that the doctrine of natural selection breaks 
down completely, even as a directive agent. As an originative 
method it has no application. 

We have now reached the keystone of the arch of evolution, 
so to speak, and we can retrace our steps over the ground of the 
origin of structure, with which we commenced. The next ques- 
tion which we have to discuss is that of the effect of mental 
conditions on the movements of organisms. 



THREE CASES OF HYPOSPADIAS IN WHICH THE 
SEX WAS UNDETERMINABLE UNTIL PUBERTY. 



'"FHESE cases are chiefly interesting from the fact that they all 
occurred in one family ; and on account of the slow evolu- 
tion of the organs continuing after birth up to puberty. 

The cases, the subject of this article, consisted of three of six 
children. The parents were of normal development physically, 
but of strong nervous temperaments, there being cases of insanity 
on both sides, — the father on the paternal side, and nieces on the 
maternal side. The father was a sea captain (whaling), intelli- 
gent, of indomitable courage and great energy. The mother was 
also intelligent, and above the average in courage and energy, be- 
longing to a large family of sturdy sea captains celebrated for their 
hardihood. The two did not live happily together ; the wife, it 
was said, was frequently the subject of maltreatment at the hands 
of her husband during her pregnancies. There were no cases of 
deformity or deaf mutes in any of the ancestry on either side, 



Three Cases of //, 



Mr< 



though there are two ck .-af mutes in the family of a brother on 
the husband's side. Of the five children born in this family, 
three were boys and two were girls. The sex of two of the boys 
and one of the girls was undetermined at birth, and was not fully 
determined until puberty, the boys during the intermediate period 
receiving girls' names and wearing female apparel. They 
attended school dressed in female attire, and Bat OB the girls' side. 
About the age of puberty they were suddenly sent away to 
school, still dressed in female attire and bearing female names. 
In due time they returned, dressed in male attire and />, a ring male 

In after years they were married, and a suit brought by the 
wife of one, charging " that her husband was not a male," enabled 
me to make a careful examination of the genital organs in order 
to establish the fact whether he was or was not a male. I may 
say, en passant, that the suit was granted by the court on the 
ground that although a male he was not capable of procreation. 

The examination disclosed the following : General appearance : 
That of an unusually well-developed and handsome man, five feet 
eleven inches in height, weighing 1 80 pounds. Of a nervous- 
sanguine temperament. Face at this time hairless. Breasts nor- 
mally developed. 

Genital organs : A deep sulcus extending from the pubes to 
the perineum; in fact, occupying the place of the external organs 
of generation of the female. Posteriorly it terminated in a cul de 
sac, sufficiently deep to admit two fingers to the depth of two 
inches. Anteriorly was an abnormally-developed clitoris, two 
and one-half inches in length, having a glans and prepuce, 
but imperforate. The orifice of the urethra was found at 
the base of the clitoris, there being an entire absence of 
the triangular smooth surface known as the vestibtile. The 
urethra opened into a normally-developed bladder. The integu- 
ment, situated in front of the pubes, and which in the female is 
known as the mons veneris, was more developed than is usual in 
the male, and was covered with an abundant crop of hair. The 
folds of integument on either side of the sulcus (labia majora) 
contained a normally-developed testicle, having the usual form, 



IO i8 The American Naturalist. [November, 

size, and general conditions of the male testicle. Placed within 
the folds of integument containing the testicle and enclosing the 
upper third of the sulcus were two smaller folds, the homologues 
of the labia minora in the female. 
• This description also answers for the brother. Of the girl not 
so much is known. What is known is as follows : At birth a 
very large clitoris was observed, so large that at first she was 
supposed to be a boy. Although dressed in female attire, she 
was retained at home, and it was not until about puberty that her 
sex was positively ascertained. Those who associated intimately 
with her frequently remarked that she ought to be in male at- 
tire. The subjects of this sketch are of good average ability, the 
boys being engaged in business, and the girl attending to her 
family duties satisfactorily. 

All are married, but without issue. 

The doubt as to the sex in these cases, extending through 
infancy and childhood up to adult age, with slow development of 
the genitalia, makes it of interest to the biologist. 

L. H. Luce, M.D. 

The family in which these cases occurred consisted of six 
children. Three of them were indisputably females, as was 
subsequently verified by two of them bearing children, though 
the youngest was reported to be malformed, probably from the 
fact of her possessing an immense clitoris, and was masculine in 
appearance. The eldest girl married, but soon separated from 
her husband. I did not become professionally connected with 
the family until after the first children were born, and was present 
at the births of the two youngest only,— one a perfect male in 
every respect, the other also perfect, with the exception of the 
genitals, which were malformed. At first sight they were female 
organs, and the appearance was so perfect and deceptive that I 
did not give it a second thought until the nurse called my atten- 
tion to it. Examination revealed the following make-up of the 
parts: Two apparently perfect labia were divided by a deep 
sulcus, covered by the common skin, which grew deeper as it ran 
under the pubic arch, and took on more of the characteristics of 



1890.] Three Cases of Hypospadias. 1019 

mucous membrane, and ended in a cul de sac. At the root of a 
small penis, imperforate, the orifice of the urethra protruded. As 
I could not detect any testicles, and thought it might possibly 
be an imperforate vagina, I advised them to await developments 
before deciding the sex ; but from the experience of the previous 
case it was concluded to consider it a male. Subsequently, after 
puberty, I made two examinations, and found two well-developed 
testicles situated in the lower part of the false labia. His 
sexuality was strong. He eventually married, but his wife ob- 
tained a divorce. The eldest, of whom I had no knowledge 
except by common report, was thought by his parents to be a 
female up to the time of puberty, and was given a feminine name, 
but was then changed to a masculine one, and male attire adopted. 
This case was presumably identical with the other. The parents 
were robust, healthy people, with no peculiar hereditary tenden- 
cies. The father was a powerful man, possessed of an uncom- 
monly strong will, strength, and energy, but of violent and 
ungovernable passions. The mother was the opposite, — mild and 
amiable, and markedly feminine in appearance. She was often 
the victim of his ungovernable temper. A brother of his had 
eleven children, all females. The mother and the six children are 
yet living ; the father is dead. 

Wm. H. Luce, M.D. 



The American A'at/transi. 



MORPHOLOGY OF THE BLOOD CORPUSCLES. 

BY CHARLES-SEDGWICK MINOT. 

TF one goes through the very extensive literature dealing with 
blood corpuscles one finds the most divergent views defended, 
and can hardly reach clear ideas, for the conceptions do not agree 
among themselves, either as to their structure or as to the devel- 
opment of the corpuscles. According to some the red corpuscles 
arise from the white ; according to others the white corpuscles 
arise from the red ; and according to still others both kinds arise 
from indifferent cells. In regard to one point only is the majority 
of investigators united, — namely, in the silent assumption that all 
blood corpuscles are of one and the same kind in spite of the 
absence of the nucleus in mammalian corpuscles. It is just 
this assumption that has caused endless confusion, and the mor- 
phology of the blood corpuscles can be cleared up only by starting 
with the recognition of the fundamental difference between nu- 
cleated and non-nucleated corpuscles. Farther, it must be recog- 
nized that no corpuscles, neither red nor white, arise from nuclei. 
The origin of red corpuscles from nuclei has been maintained 
several times. This notion is based upon defective observations. 
It is very easy in the chick, for example, to convince oneself that 
the first blood corpuscles are cells ; in the area vasculosa, at the 
time of the blood formation, the red blood-cells are readily seen, 
in part lying singly, in part in groups (blood islands), adherent to ' 
the vascular walls ; the free cells are constituted chiefly by the 
nucleus, which is surrounded by a very thin layer of protoplasm, 
which is very easily overlooked, especially if the preparation is 
not suitably stained ; this explains, I think, the statement made 
by Balfour (Works, Vol. I.) and others, that the blood corpuscles 
consist only of nuclei. By following the development along 
further we find that the protoplasm enlarges for several days, and 
that during the same time there is a progressive diminution in 
size of the nucleus, which, however, is completed before the layer 



1 890.] Morphology of the Blood Corpuscles. 1021 

of protoplasm reaches its ultimate size. The nucleus is at first 
granular, and its nucleolus, or nucleoli, stands out clearly ; as the 
nucleolus shrinks it becomes round, and is colored darkly and 
almost uniformly by the usual nuclear stains. This species of 
blood corpuscle occurs in all vertebrates, and represents the 
genuine blood-cells. According to the above description we can 
distinguish three principal stages: I, young cells with very 
little protoplasm; 2, old cells with much protoplasm and gran- 
ular nucleus; 3, modified cells with shrunken nucleus, which 
colors darkly and more uniformly. I do not know whether the first 
form occurs in any living adult vertebrate, although the assump- 
tion seems justified that they are the primitive form. ( )n the 
other hand, the second stage is obviously that characteristic of 
the Ichthyopsida in general, while the third form is typical for 
the Sauropsida. Therefore the development of the blood-cells 
in amniota offers a new confirmation of Louis Agassi/.'s law 
(Haeckel's Biogenetiches Grundgesetz). 

The blood-cells of mammals pass through the same metamor- 
phoses as those of birds ; for example, in rabbit embryos the 
cells have reached the Ichthyopsidan stage on the eighth day; 
two days later the nucleus is already smaller, and by the thirteenth 
day has shrunk to its final dimensions. 

The white blood corpuscles appear much later than the red 
cells, and their exact origin has still to be investigated, for it has 
not yet been determined where they first arise in the embryo ; 
nevertheless we may venture to assert that they arise outside the 
vessels. The formations of leucocytes outside of the vessels is 
already known with certainty to occur in later stages, as well as 
in the adult. The sharp distinction between the sites of form- 
ation of the red and white cells appears with especial clearness 
in the medulla of bone in birds, as we know from the admirable 
investigations of J. Denys (La Cellule, Tome IV.). The white 
blood corpuscles, then, are cells, which are formed relatively late, 
and wander into the biood from outside. 

The non-nucleated blood corpuscles of adult mammals are 
entirely new elements which are peculiar to the class, and arise 
neither from red nor yet from white blood-cells. Their actual 



1022 The American Naturalist. [November, 

development was first discovered, so far as I know, by E. A. 
Schafer, who has given a detailed account of the process in the 
ninth edition of Quain's Anatomy, and has shown there a full 
appreciation of the significance of his discovery. Unfortunately 
Schafer's important investigations have received little attention. 
Kuborn has recently confirmed Schafer's results in an article 
{Anatom. Anzeiger, 1890) on the formation of blood corpuscles 
in the liver. One can readily study the process in the mesentery 
and omentum of human and other embryos. The essential point 
of Schafer's discovery is that the non-nucleate corpuscles have an 
«#£ra-cellular origin, and arise by differentiation of the protoplasm 
of vasoformative cells. Several corpuscles arise in each cell with- 
out participation of the nucleus ; they are, therefore, specialized 
masses of protoplasm, and may perhaps best be compared to the 
plastids of botanists. I venture to propose the name of blood- 
plastids for these structures, since the term corpuscle (globule, 
Korperchen) has no definite morphological meaning. 

Sonsino {Arch. Ital. Biol. XI.) affirms that the red blood-cells 
transform themselves into plastids. I have, however, never been 
able to find the intermediate forms in my own numerous prepara- 
tions. I deem it probable that he has seen merely the degener- 
ating stages of the red cells. 

The present article is an abstract of a communication made in 
August last to the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science. Since then Howells' memoir on the blood corpuscles 
has appeared {Journal of Morphology, IV., 5 7). The author de- 
scribes the ejection of the nucleus from the red cells, and believes 
that this results in the formation of red plastids. The process is, I 
think, really degenerative, and the resemblance between the non- 
nucleated body of the cell and a true plastid is not one of iden- 
tity. Certainly, until proof is offered that the observations of 
Schafer, Kuborn, and myself upon the intra-cellular origin of the 
plastids are proved erroreous, the emigration of the nucleus of 
the red-cells cannot be held to result in producing plastids, but 
only to be degenerative. That the red cells degenerate and dis- 
appear has been known ; Howells' valuable observations indicate 
the method of their destruction. 



1890.] Morphology of the Blood Corpuscles, 1023 

The above review shows that the vertebrate blood corpuscles 
are of three kinds: 1, red cells; 2, white cells; 3, plastids- 
The red and white cells occur in all (?) vertebrates ; the plastids 
are confined to the mammals. The red cells present throe chief 
modifications; whether the primitive form occurs in any living 
adult vertebrate I do not know ; the second form is persistent in 
the Ichthyopsida, the third form in the Sauropsida. According 
to this we must distinguish : 

A. — One-celled Blood, i e., first stage in all vertebrates; 
the blood contains only red cells with little protoplasm. 

B. — Two-celled Blood, having red and white cells; the Bed 
cells have either a large, coarsely granular nucleus (Ichthy- 
opsida), or a smaller, darkly staining nucleus (Sauropsida, 
mammalian embryos). 

C. — Plastid Blood, without red cells, but with white cells 
and red plastids ; occurs only in adult mammals. 

Mammalian blood in its development passes through these 
stages, as well as through the two phases of stage B, all in their 
natural sequence ; the ontogenetic order follows the phylogenetic. 

I pass by the numerous authors whose views conflict with 
mine, partly because the present is not a suitable occasion for a 
detailed discussion, partly because those authors who have 
asserted the origin of one kind of blood corpuscle by meta- 
morphosis from another have failed to find just the intermediate 
forms ; it seems to me, therefore, that most at least of the oppos- 
ing views collapse of themselves. 



PROBABLE CAUSES OF POLYGAMY AMONG BIRDS. 



r\URING a recent perusal of Darwin's "Descent of Man," I was 
impressed by the frequency of his citation of gallinaceous 
birds as best illustrating the theory of sexual selection in its 
relation to the development of secondary sexual characters among 
animals. Probably half the species cited in the four important 
chapters devoted to birds belong to the Gallinae, and this may be 
taken as sufficient proof that the order deserves special study 
in our search for the causes of sexual variation, the history 
of descent, and the origin of special characters, which, we have 
reason to suppose, are the result of progressive development from 
ancestral beginnings. 

Gallinaceous birds, as an order, are noteworthy, — nay, almost 
unique, — for their love antics, use of instrumental music to supply 
deficiency of vocal organs, manner of ornamentation in color and 
form, seasonal moult for special protection, combativeness, and 
the practice of polygamy. 

It not being Darwin's object to treat of polygamy, save in its 
connection with development of secondary sexual characters, we 
find no attempt on his part to explain the causes of it ; nor, so 
far as I am able to discover, has such attempt been made public 
by any one. Darwin, however, calls our attention to the fact 
that among all avian forms which practice polygamy there are 
none which do not present strongly-marked sexual differences. 1 
This is significant, and leads to the supposition that the two char- 
acters, being inseparable, are also interdependent. I shall en- 
deavor to prove that polygamy, from the nature of those causes 
which produced it, is necessarily associated with strongly-marked 
sexual differences, though these differences sometimes exist 
among monogamous species ; in other language ; that distinctive 
sexual characters are a necessary factor to the existence of polyg- 
amy in birds. A few exceptions to this rule, notably of the 



1890.] Probable Causes of Polygamy Among />/r,/s. 1025 

horse, which exhibits slight sexual disparity, are to be found 

among aves. Seeing that such is the case, it is fair to inter that 
monogamous birds should present, if any, much less distinctive 
sexual differences. Generally speaking this is the rule, and it 
will be shown that the exceptions to it result from peculiar condi- 
tions of environment or of physical structure which nullified the 
tendency to polygamy. 

The value of the following remarks must depend somewhat on 
the success with which Darwin has proved that sexual selection 
is the cause of specific distinctions among birds through succes- 
sive variations, induced by the choice of the female during court- 
ship. The conclusions arrived at in this paper are therefore sup- 
plementary to his, and are based on the supposition that although 
he may have attached too great importance to his theory of 
sexual, as distinguished from natural, selection, we must believe, 
nevertheless, that sexual selection exerts a powerful influence in 
the genesis of species. 

Premising this, we may conclude : 1st, That the present status 
of development in birds practicing polygamy is the result of 
sexual selection. 2d, That the standard of female choice was, in 
the majority of cases, the relative perfection of beauty of colora- 
tion in the male and hence also of display by him, from which 
habit would arise the tendency to specialization of form, as in- 
stanced in the extraordinary development of alar and caudal 
appendages among many polygamous species. 3d, That in pro- 
portion to this tendency toward plumage specialization the male 
differs from the female in that he alone develops thus ; therefore, 
4th, In view of this, we must conclude that all polygamous species 
have originated from a less ornamented type which more closely 
resembled the female than her mate of to-day, while the difference 
between these was reduced to a minimum in the distant past ; and 
that the young of both sexes remained constant to the garb of 
the adult female during the first year. 5th, That this specializa- 
tion was not transmitted to the female and young, owing to their 
greater need of protection by obscure tints, and to the incon- 



1026 The American Naturalist. [November, 

venience of those ornamental appendages during the period of 



Added to these necessary results of sexual selection we should 
note the fact that, in proportion to the higher coloration or other 
masculine superiority of ornament over that of the female of the 
same species, all birds are more pugnacious and destructive to 
their rivals, and this tendency among those of polygamous habits 
finds further vent in their destruction of the eggs and newly- 
hatched young. 

From what has been said we may reasonably assume that 
strongly-marked, sexually limited, secondary characters, and a 
combative, irritable disposition, being ever associated with the 
habit of polygamy, they therefore must be in some way interde- 
pendent, and the one naturally resultant from the other. Nor do 
the results of inquiry in this direction refute such assumption, 
however they may seem to fail to establish its verity or give a 
satisfactory solution of the problematic causes of polygamy as 
practiced by birds. Shall we consider, then, that the polygamous 
habit is a cause of the tendency to perfection of secondary 
sexual characters, or that it is a result of that tendency ? I in- 
cline to the latter opinion. 

As we descend in the scale of being the lower orders become 
more strictly monogamous, till finally, among the lowest, androgy- 
nous forms appear, multiplying ad infinitum among the least 
specialized ; whereas, if we ascend from these it is noticeable how 
the disposition to polygamous unions is confined to the highest 
type of a genus or the higher genera of the sub-order. 

The genesis of to-day is an epitome of the genesis of those 
myriad yesterdays we call the past. If this be true we have no 
alternative but in the belief that birds originally practiced monog- 
amy only, that ancestral forms presented no sexual disparity in 
size, coloration, or ornamentation, and that, in the case of the 
Galling, its representatives may have originated from an obscure- 
ly-tinted, plain-haunting, monogamous ancestor. 

Given, then, such a starting point, we advance on the suppo- 
sition that sexual selection by the female, according to the stand- 

2 For full discussion on these points see "Descent of Man," Chaps. XV. and XVI. 



i ago.] Probable Causes of Polygamy Among Birds. 1027 

ard of beauty of form and color of the male (a criterion of first 
importance in female choice) inclines to variability in the secon- 
dary characters of her offspring. Take a hypothetical case: A 
monogamous female Gallus, actuated in times long past by sudden 
fancy (causation always obscure), gives preference to a male of 
her kind because of his individual superiority as a bird of extra 
fine feathers and bearing. Their young naturally inherit some- 
what of the parental peculiarity, and in accord with a recognized 
law, styled that of " prepotency," among highly-colored birds, they 
are also strong, healthy, and have a sexual vigor above their com- 
peers. Thus inaugurated, the selective faculty works its uncon- 
scious leaven during centuries of slow development until the male 
descendants of that first pair would become conscious of their 
superiority and of the value of their peculiar charms to the 
females. Courtship, as distinguished from mere off-hand pairing, 
would now assert itself as a necessary preliminary to more inti- 
mate relations, the result of which is seen at the present day in 
the love antics, war dances, and dress parades that characterize 
the amours of polygamous birds. Pride and vanity inevitably 
follow competitive display, however innocent its origin, and by a 
natural and easy progression comes the passionate appeal to 
arms, culminating in the periodic passage-at-arms in a chosen 
arena. No pyrotechnic result this, but effected by centuries of 
slow combustion from a spark of female fantasy ! 

" So far not impossible," say you ; " but where is your polyg- 
amist ? " I answer : " There he is, as far as description may iden- 
tify or an introduction make him your acquaintance; henceforth he 
can be no other; thus born, thus bred, polygamy is an inevitable 
result." As surely as the Eastern despot, of kingly descent and 
inherited superiority in mental and physical prowess, taketh unto 
himself, by virtue thereof, a harem of wives, so will our modern 
Gallus aspire to polygamous concubinage when he finds himself 
on the "lek" 3 of a spring morning, with glad prospect of a tour- 
nament ere sunrise herald him the victor of many a tilt. 

3 The spot chosen by polygamous birds on which to display their charms and battle for 



I02S The American Naturalist. [November, 

Resultant upon the first display of rivalry in a monogamous 
species, which by reason of sexual selection has developed strong 
sexual distinctions, would begin the destruction of many males, 
while the females would be exempted. Besides this the victorious 
males would drive away and disable many which would other- 
wise pair, and the females, as numerous as ever, would consort 
with the victor, — some by choice, the rest instinctively. He, 
having in the first instance undesignedly made himself lord, not 
of one but of many, would probably, in accordance with former 
habit, pair with one and disregard the rest, which latter, finding 
themselves widowed of a chance to mate elsewhere, would solicit 
his attentions, and in course of time receive them, because of 
their importunities rather than from his desire of self-gratification. 
Plural intercourse, thus persisted in, would be sure to become 
habitual, and the desire of gratification develop in like ratio. 

In this connection the statistics collected by Darwin of the 
numeric proportion of the sexes in birds show that, especially 
among the Gallinaceae, females are less numerous than males, the 
most polygamous of these showing the greatest discrepancy. The 
proportion of male to female chicks, in a careful census of iooo 
bred during eight years, was as 94.7 to 100, an excess in favor 
of the females. But with respect to birds in a state of nature, 
Brehm, Gould, and others assert that the males are proportion- 
ately far more numerous, and an experiment with the eggs of 
wild pheasants resulted in the production of " four or five males 
to one female." The ruff {Machetes pugnax), sole polygamist 
among the Scolopacidae * exhibits similar disproportion. 

While it should be remembered that females, because of their 
shy, retiring disposition and different period of migration, are not 
so likely to be seen by an observer or captured by the fowler as 
the more conspicuous and daring males, it may not be doubted 
that the number of the former exceeds that of the latter in most 
instances. Nor can we deny that some connection is apparent 
between this numerical ratio of the sexes and the practice of 
polygamy. 

*The Solitary Snipe {Scolof ax major) is thought to be polygamous. See Lloyd's 



incurred, the 
polygamous s 



going on at the present day am : 

given, for in the case of the don: nubial rela- 

tions are wisely regulated by the careful breeder, a larger per- 
centage of female chicks were produced, W 

stricted wild pheasants brought forth four times as many males 
as females. 

Furthermore, it is worthy of note that among hi 
mented animals virility is excessive. Cock pheasant 
to a scant number of hens, are sure to abuse them on that ac- 
count, and the canary (Fringilla canarid), a monogamist by nature 
is, by reason of domestication and consequent apt 
transformed into a modified polygamist, and in case he be not 
provided with more than one mate, she is tormented by his ex- 
cessive amours. Like the turkey cock, male canaries will fre- 
quently destroy both eggs and young, presumably to induce 
the female to renew the sexual relation. The case of the 
canary is very convincing proof that human interference in 
sexual selection, with a view to higher coloration or improve- 
ment in secondary characters, has actually created 
sexual power and desire, by virtue of which the birds 



1030 The American Naturalist. [November, 

mous nature is so changed as to induce it to polygamy. We 
may infer, therefore, that sexual power and high sexual characters 
go hand in hand, and that in proportion to the advance toward 
organic perfection, virility increases. A canary, so domesticated, 
probably would not at first endeavor to mate with more than 
one female, if not induced to do so by the breeder ; but in a 
cage where one male is associated with many females his flirta- 
tions are notorious, and like human polygamists he practices 
favoritism, — one is his mistress, the rest, according to his incon- 
stancy, maids of dishonor. No less convincing is the case of 
the wild mallard {Anas boschas). If a male and several females be 
captured and restricted to the limits of a small pond, and receive 
proper care, the latter will all receive the voluntary attentions 
of the drake, though in a state of nature he contents himself 
with one. 

Especially, if not exclusively, does this hold true with monog- 
amists presenting strong sexual differences. On the contrary, 
we should observe that species of slight sexual dissimilarity (and 
therefore plainly colored), however subjected to long domestica- 
tion, retain with tenacity their original monogamous habits. For 
example, the male guinea fowl {Numida meleagris), when forced to 
associate with more than a single female, chooses one and ignores 
the rest; ancTDixon asserts, in his book of " Ornamental Poul- 
try," that the eggs of one female alone will, in such a case, prove 
fertile. Domestication, therefore, in the abstract will avail noth- 
ing unless seconded by previous condition of high ornamentation 
and strong sexual differences, or unless directed to the production 
of these. In the breeding of guinea fowl high coloration was not 
an object; in the canary it was a most desirable production; in 
the mallard it already existed, and required but slight change of 
environment and food habits to induce its possessor to alter its 
marriage code. 

Putting facts together, I am induced to believe: 1st, That 
sexual selection in favor of beauty of color and form of sec- 
ondary characters, whether voluntary or the result of man's inter- 
ference, is always accompanied by proportionate increase of sexual 
vigor. 2d, That such increase is a provision of nature to 



meet the excessive demands of c< as* qu ni 

3d, That such prepotency, beii 
selection, may be restrained b) 

inherent specific peculiarities in its tendency to produce such 

practices, while anion-- species that arc free from the>e limitations 
polygamy finds willing victims. 4th, That domestication may- 
conduce to polygamy in two ways, first, by removing these 

limitations, as in the mallard; or second, by artificial development 
of special characters not found in a state of nature, as in the can- 
ary. 5th, That the domestication of a monogamous 
slight sexual differences, unless first directed to the higher devel- 
opment of secondary characters, will have no influence on the 
connubial relations, as instanced by the guinea fowl. 

It may be asked, Why, then, are not many highly-colored 
species merging toward polygamy? I rep]}- that probably many 
are. The Trochilidffi, according to Salvin, are in some cases polyg- 
amous, and so are the Paradiseids, if we may beli. 
though Wallace inclines to doubt the fact. More intimate 
acquaintance with these families during the breeding period will 
possibly reveal indubitable proof that they contain many exam- 
ples of a habit which, as is shown, is developed only in connec- 
tion with extraordinary sexual secondary characters. 

As was mentioned in the third of the above conclusions, the 
tendency towards polygamous unions may be checked by 
many circumstances of a physical or mental nature, or 
it may be nullified by conditions of environment. Among 
many highly-plumaged groups we find less quarrelsome disposi- 
tions than is common with the majority. This may be caused 
by climatic or constitutional influences, which, however, did not 
prevent development of secondary characters by sexual selection, 
yet restrained in great degree the spirit of, rivalry and consequent 
destruction of high-tempered males commonly attendant on such 
development. Again it appears that the quarrelsome disposition 
is powerless in other families to destroy much life, because of the 
ability of males to escape each other when defeated, which, coupled 
with the uniform distribution and individual independence of the 
sexes in species of arboreal habits, enables conqueror and con- 



1032 The American Naturalist. [November, 

quered equally certain of a wife, — "a Jill for every Jack," so to 

Birds most noted for polygamy are least adapted for escape by 
flight, and because of their terrestrial habits are more intimately 
associated for self-preservation. They are more liable to the 
attack of enemies both terrestrial and aerial, less migratory or 
capable of migration, and hence suffer more from vicissitudes of 
weather. Their habit of family association, added to the pugnac- 
ity of the males and clannishness of the females, results fatally to 
the weaker males, while the majority of those that survive are 
ostracized (another form of death) because of their inability to find 
a mate outside the harem. It is apparent, therefore, that the 
Gallinae, on account of their physique and ancestral predilections, 
were constitutionally more likely to develop polygamous habits 
as they rose in the scale of being than the higher insessorial 
groups. I am disposed to believe that careful scrutiny of the 
habits of the Trochilidae and Paradiseidae will reveal that the 
former does not contain any polygamous species, but that the 
latter as a family generally practice it. 

I base such a prediction purely on analogical reasoning from 
what is presented in the preceding paragraph. The Trochilidae 
are remarkably pugnacious, but for structural reasons are quite 
harmless combatants, however furious and spiteful their contests 
may appear. 5 Further, their powers of flight enable them to 
escape each other, to seek and find females over a vast expanse of 
country, and to escape destruction from enemies despite their high 
ornamentation. With the birds of paradise we are less ac- 
quainted, but from their habit of assembling in certain trees for 
parade during courtship it is to be inferred that similar results to 
those always incident to such assemblages among polygam- 
ous species are likely to occur. The activity and flight-power 
of birds of paradise, according to Wallace, is remarkable, 
enabling them to escape their natural enemies; but during 
the pairing season the magnificent plumes of the three- 
year-old males render their flight more laborious and the 



birds more conspicuous and liable to destruction. From 
our general knowledge of female preferences we must be- 
lieve these highly-plumaged males more desirable than the 
plainly-colored two-year-olds; 6 but the percentage of the former 
to the latter is so very low that it is highly probable many fe- 
males in their extremity " took hold of one " (figuratively speak- 
ing), preferring dishonor to the reproach of pairing with a less 
handsome bird. In view of the maximum development of the 
Paradiseida: in their secondary sexual characters, an opposite- 
course of selection on the part of the female would result in the 
regression of development to former obscurely tinted male types, 
provided the unadorned males of the second year transmit to their 
offspring less distinctive secondary sexual characters than males 
of the third year. Such variability in the degree of transmission, 
when limited by age, is worth special study. 

The conspicuous adornment of male polygamous birds, as I 
have said, exposes them to the scrutiny of their enemies, whereas 
the females, retaining their original protective colors, are still 
preserved. Another cause of male destruction is due to their 
greater value as prey, being larger and better favored than the 
opposite sex. These facts, coupled with their great destruction 
of each other, overbalance everything conducive to an increase of 
male birds and favor the preponderance of females, so that 
although a larger percentage of males be yearly produced, the 
law of survival, exclusively directed against them, perpetuates the 
inequality. Such, we exclaim, are the sad results of what may 
be termed psycho-physical development ! Let not mankind sit in 
judgment here. The skirts of immortals are yet defiled by simi- 
lar practices. 

Before quitting this interesting subject we may discuss a few 
questions arising from the nature of our deductions. 

Firstly, — among our native birds it is asserted that, after the 
turkey {Melagris gallopavd), the cock of the plains {Centrocercus 
urophasiamis) and the pinnate grouse (Cupidonia cupido) practice 
polygamy to the greatest extent. It will be objected that the two 



1034 The American Naturalist. [November, 

latter exhibit slight sexual dissimilarity, that their colors are ob- 
scure, and therefore the theory that distinctive secondary charac- 
ters and strongly-marked sexual differences are necessary ad- 
juncts to polygamous habit is disproved. This conclusion ap- 
pears reasonable ; but if we examine the sexes of both species 
during courtship the contrast between their respective males and 
females is very great, and the exhibition of secondary characters 
evident. In both the males possess large cervical appendages, 
which, during the reproductive period, assume a dark orange hue 
and are capable of voluntary inflation. In Centrocercus this disten- 
sion is enormous, and observers who have witnessed the males at 
their leks assert that their natural appearance is thereby changed 
beyond recognition. In Cupidonia this inflation is further supple- 
mented by overlying wing-like tufts, which, in connection with 
the crown and tail feathers, are erected on occasions of parade. 
Any one who will take the trouble and patience to observe these 
birds during the pairing season will not fail to wonder at the 
transformation of the cocks, and freely admit the possession by 
them alone of strongly characteristic sexual features. Worthy 
of remark, on the other hand, is the lack of these sexual differ- 
ences in other nearly allied plain-haunting species, as exhibited 
by the monogamous red grouse and ptarmigan {Tetrao scoticus 
and Lagopus albus). 

In the case of plain-loving species the results of sexual selection 
have been counteracted by the law of survival. So soon as any 
males became, in consequence of sexual selection, more conspic- 
uous than the rest, they would be the most likely victims to 
beasts of prey by virtue of that superiority, while the less attrac- 
tive would survive ; and so the tendency toward high ornamenta- 
tion would be thwarted as long as the species continued to exist 
under unaltered conditions of environment. The necessity of 
protective resemblance to many birds has thus exerted a control- 
ling influence on sexual selection, and indirectly on polygamy 
itself. 

The ability of organism to evade (so to speak) the laws of 
nature, or rather to compromise with conflicting laws, is curiously 
exhibited in the pinnate grouse. In it the selective tendency, in 



isgo.] Probable Causes of Polygamy Among Birds. 1035 

accordance with the law which guided it toward specialization of 
color, finding its action at the outset nullified by the law of pro- 
tective resemblance, made truce therewith, developing characters 
conformatory to both, first by modification of the form of plumes 
and addition of appendages of periodic color-brilliancy, and sec- 
ondly by enabling the possessor of these characters to exhibit 
them at discretion, for in times of danger the win-like neck tufts, 
previously employed to attract attention, in turn conceal the 
shrunken air-sacs from observation when depressed. Similar 
cases have produced other combinations of protective 
with high coloration, those parts of the body being most ornate 
which are screened from observation of other birds of prey, yet 
capable of voluntary display to an appreciative admirer, as many 
have witnessed in the sudden transformation of a passive, incon- 
spicuous gobbler or peacock by mere erection and distension of 
certain parts. 

If we premise that the original gallinaceous type from which 
the existing forms have sprung was an inhabitant of treeless plains 
of vast extent, the causes which have induced some to betake them- 
selves to forests, while others clung to their original habitat, are 
difficult to surmise. Owing to well-recognized natural agencies, 
forest limits may have widely extended and at last invaded their 
haunts ; or we may conjecture that migration, induced by climatic 
changes, was the cause of their first woodland experience. In 
either event the proximity of forests would result in the discovery 
by the birds of their value as a resort in times of danger, or for 
roosting purposes, or in the search of mast, when from any cause 
there was a scarcity of food stuffs in their accustomed feeding 
grounds. This would eventually remove the counter effects of 
the law of protective resemblance to sexual selection, and favor 
higher ornamentation, and thus, by slow degrees, the evolution 
of organic characters would progress simultaneously with a 
change of habits to accord with altered environment. The fact 
of the more gorgeously ornamented polygamists being forest- 
hunting species (witness the Menuridae and Phasianidae) is in full 
accord with our supposition. We may, on the other hand, attrib- 
ute the continuance of Cupidonia and Cutrocercus in their orgi- 



1036 The American Naturalist. [November, 

inal haunts to some physical peculiarity which became so strongly 
developed previous to any change in their secondary sexual char- 
acters as to necessitate a life on the barrens and prairie, and 
debar them from a woodland existence. Centrocercus urophasi- 
anas subsists wholly upon the buds of the Artemisia, which grows 
exclusively upon unwooded barrens and tablelands, and its gizzard 
has in consequence been so metamorphosed as to unfit it for the 
digestion of other food. Conditions none the less local and arbi- 
trary may be discovered to restrict Cupidonia cupido to a prairie 
life, despite the evident tendency of natural law to induce him to 
quit it for the forest. 

In an investigation of this nature, the infinite complexity of 
organic life, the inscrutable interdependence of natural laws, and 
the mysterious sequence of past events rise before us in fuller 
revelation. Nature stands accused of a mysterious crime. There 
is no direct evidence in the case. History and precedent seem 
to fail us, but the present — never. It is the supreme court ; its 
records are perpetual, its proofs infallible, and its judgment based 
on the testimony of ages. Our appeal is made, and we must 
wait, trusting that the future will justify what the past allowed. 



RECORD OF AMERICAN ZOOLOGY. 



TT is the intention to catalogue here in systematic order all 
papers relating to the Zoology of North America, including the 
West Indies, beginning with the year 1889. An asterisk indi- 
cates that the paper has not been seen by the recorder. Owing 
to the method of preparation it is impossible to collect in one issue 
all the papers relating to any group, but it is hoped that succeed- 
ing numbers will correct this. Authors are requested to send 
copies of their papers to J. S. Kingsley, Lincoln, Nebraska. 

ARTHROPODA. 

Watase, S. — On the morphology of the compound eyes of 
Arthropods. Studies Biol. Lab. Johns Hopkins University, IV., 
p. 287, 1890.— See Am. Nat, XXIV., p. 37s, 1890. 

CRUSTACEA. 

Fewkes, J. W. — A new parasite of Amphiura. Proc. Bost. 
Socy., XXIV, p. 31. — A copepod in brood sac. 

Hay, O. P. — Notice of a supposed new species of Branchipus 
from Indiana. Proc. A. A. A. S, XXXVIII, p. 2S6.—B. gelidus. 

ARACHNIDA. 

McCook, H. C. — Note on the true systematic position of the 
Ray Spider. Proc. Phila. Acad, 1889, p. 180.— Microepira 
Emerton = Therididsoma Cambridge. Notes on spinning habits. 

Weed, C. M.— A descriptive catalogue of the Phalangiinae of 
Illinois. Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist, III, p. 79, 1889.— De- 
scribes ten species, of which L. elegans, L. polilus, are new. 

A partial bibliography of the Phalangiinae of North 

America, /. c, p. 99, 1889. 

" Riley and Howard."— A contribution to the literature o( 
fatal spider bites. Insect Life, I, p. 204, 1889.— Case of poi- 
soning from a bite of Latrodectus mac tans. 



I03 8 The American Naturalist. [November, 

Webster, F. M.— Notes on a species of Bryobia infesting 
dwellings [in Indiana]. Insect Life, L, 277, 1889. 

Corson, E. R.— The spider bite question again. Insect Life, 
I., 280, 1889. — Six cases; none fatal. 

Blanchard, A. D. — More evidence bearing on spider bites. 
Insect Life, I., 313, 1889.— One case. 

Riley, C. V.— The six-spotted mite of the orange. Insect 
Life, II., 225, 1890. — Tetranychus 6-maculatus, n. sp. from 
Florida. 

Cockerell, T. D. A. — Phalangodes robusia. Can. Ent., XXI., 
p. 140, 1889. — Occurs in Colorado under logs. 

Poison from spider bites. Discussion in Proc. Ent. Socy. 
Washington, I., p. 139, 1889. 

Marx, G. — On a new and interesting spider from the United 
States. Proc. Ent. Socy. Washington, I., p. 166, i8Sg.—Nypo- 
chilus thorelii from Lookout Mountain, Tenn. (vide Ent. Amer., 
IV., 160, 1888). 

On the importance of the structural characters of Hypo- 

chilus in the classification of spiders. Proc. Entom. Socy. 
Washington, L, p. 178, 1889.— A tetrapneumonous spider with 
dipneumonous features. 

On a new species of spider of the genus Dinophis from 

the Southern United States. Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1889, p. 341' 
1890.— D. spinosus (Alabama). 

McCook, H. C— American spiders and their spinning work. 
A natural history of the orbweaving spiders of the United States, 
with special regard to. their industry and habits. Philadelphia, 
1889, Vol. I., 4 , pp. 372. — A general account, largely of habits. 
Will need to be read in structural portions in connection with 
Apstein, 

Kingsley, J. S. — The ontogeny of Limulus. Am. Nat., 
XXIV., p. 678, 1890. 

Weed, C. M.— A new Phalangium. Am. Nat., XXIV., p. 
783, 1890. 

Poteat, W. L.— A tube-building spider. Jour. Elisha Mit- 
chell Set. Socy., 1889.— Description of the tubes constructed by 



l8 9»] Record of American Zoology. 1039 

Atypus niger, and account of the methods of capturing food and 
feeding. 

Weed, C. M.— The black harvest spider. Am. Nat., XXIV.. 
p. 683, 1890. 

HEXAPODA. 

Howard, L. O. — A commencement of a study of the parasites 
of cosmopolitan insects. Proc. Entom. Socy. Washington, L, p. 

118, 1889. — Gives list of arthropods, with European and Ameri- 
can parasites. 

Swartz, E. A.— [Insect fauna of Florida.] Proc. Eat. Socy. 
Washington, I., p. 145, 1889.— Abstract showing relationships of 
semi-tropical Floridan hexapods. 

Weed, C. M.— Studies in pond life. Bull. Ohio Exp. Sta., 
Tech. Series, I., p. 4, 1889. — Life-histories, habits, etc., of various 
hexapods. 

Weed, C. M. — A partial bibliography of insects affecting 
clover, /. c, p. 19, 1889. — List of 82 species, with references. 

Cockerell, T. D. A.— Some notes on Dr. A. R. Wallace's Dar- 
winism. Nature, XL, 393, 1890. 

Oestlund, O. W. — On the reproduction of lost or mutilated 
limbs of insects. Bull. Minn. Acad. Sci., III., p. 143, 1889.— 
Absence of reproduction in hexapods; figures five-winged 
Tremex. 

Forbes, S. A. — Sixteenth report of the State entomologist on 
the noxious and beneficial insects of the State of Illinois. 
Springfield, 1890. — Deals with chinch bugs, cornbill bugs 
(Rhynchophora), cut worms (Noctuidse), meadow maggot 
{Tipula bicornis), burrowing web-worm (Pseudanaphora arcanella), 
and gives (p. 122) a bibliography of chinch bug. 

Cockerell, T. D. A.— Some insects common to Europe and 
Colorado. Ent. Mo. Mag., XXV., 255, 1889. 

Entomological notes from Colorado. Ibid, p. 324, 1889. 

— Continuation of above, etc. 

Notes from Colorado. Ibid, p. 362, 1889. 

Asymmetry in insects. Ibid, 382, 1889. 

Evolution of metallic colors in insects. Entom. News, 

I., p. 3, 1890.— Absence of knowledge of causes of color. 



1040 The American Naturalist. [November. 

ORTHOPTERA. 

Wheeler, W. M. — The embryology of Blatta germanica and 
Doryphora decemlineata. Jour. Morphol., III., p. 291, 1889. 

Bruner, L. — New North American Acrididae found north of 
the Mexican boundary. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XII., p. 47, 1889 
[1890]. — The forms described are Mesops cylindricus (Neb.), 
Dracotettex [n. g.] monstrosus (Cal.), Ochrilidia (?) cremdata (Neb- 
to N. Mex.), 0. (?) cinerea (Neb. to Idaho), Mermira texana (Tex., 
Mex.), M. maculipenms(Tex.), Syrbula acuticornis (Tex.), Eritetiix 
[n.g.]variabilis (New Mex.),Bootettix [n. g.] argentatus (Tex., Mex.), 
Pedioscertetes pidchella (Idaho), Psolcessa buddiana (Tex.), P. euro- 
ti<z (Col.), Arphia saussureana (Cal.), Aidocara scudderi (Kan. to 
Saskatchawan), Mestob. U<>nt.), Conozoa texana 

(Tex.), C. albolineata (Cal.), C. kcebeli (Cal.), Trimcrotropis cyanei- 
pennis (Utah), T. azurescens (Mont, Ida., Wy.), T. bifasciata (Cal.). 
T. calif omica (Cal.), T. modcsta (N. Mex.), T. thalassica (Cal.> 
r. pacifica (Cal.), Z. perplexa (Neb.), Circotettix lapidicolus (Idaho), 
C. skasto#m(CaL), (Edipoda{?) occidentalism), Thrincus (?) avi- 
dus (N. Mex.), 77*. (?) maculatus (Cal.), Haldemanclla robusta 
(Ariz.). A plate illustrates the paper. 



Sherman, J. D., Jr.— Notes on Coleoptera of Peekskill, N. Y., 
for 1887. Proc. Ent. Socy. Washington, I, p. 162, 1889.— Habits 
and food plants. 

Schwartz, E. A. — Notes on the food habits of some North 
American Scolytidae and their Coleopterous enemies. Proc. Ent. 
Socy. Washington, I., p. 163, 1889. 

On a collection of Coleoptera from St. Augustine, Fla- 

Proc. Ent. Socy. Washington, I, p. 169, 1889. — Facies of fauna. 

Coleopterological notes. Proc. Ent. Socy. Washington, 

I., p. 174, i88g.—Spa?ricus gibbus, a museum pest; Scolytidae on 
tamarack; sexes in Pissodes and Photinus; notes on Sinoxylon- 

Townsend, Tyler.— Twelve species of Coleoptera taken from 
stomachs of toads in Michigan, with remarks on the food habits of 
toads. Proc. Ent. Socy. Washington, I, p. 167, 1889. 

Weed, C. M.— Preparatory stages of the 20-spotted lady bird. 
Bull. Ohio Exp. Sta,Tech. Series, I., p. 3, 1889. 



lego.] Record of Awuruem 1041 

Studies in pond life, /. c, p. 4, 1889. — Life-histories and 

habits of ListronoUis la tin satins, Donacia subtil is, Hi# I 

punctata. 

Wheeler, W. M.— The embryology of . 

Doryphora dcccmlincata. Jour. Morphot., Ill . Jul, 1889. 
Forbes, S. A.— Cornbill bugs [Rhynchophora] in 

Entom. 111., p. 58, 1890.— Spkenopham* min 

S. ochrais, pcrtinax, robustus, scoparius, mdanoccpha. 

parvulus. 

Blanch ard, F.— Revision of the gpeci 

Esch. of America north of Mexico. Trans. Am. hnt 

p. 1, 1889.— Enumerates 31 species, the following n ■ 

datus (Cal.), coxalis (Ore-.), pulL 

abbreviates (Cal.), angu status (1 

(Cal), pubescens(\Vy., N. Mex, Colo.), car bo natu s {C.x\.). senkmlm 

(Cal.), dispar (Cal.). 

Dietz W. G.— On the species of Macrops Kirby inhabiting 
North America. Trans. Am. Ent. Socy., XVI., p. 28.-33 species, 
the following new: M. indistinctus (N. J. to Wy.). cryptops (Ga., 
Fla.), hyperodes (Cal.), nevadensis {Nev.),gryp/iiodcs (Wy. to Tex.), 
zvickhami (N. Mex.). intapunctulatus (Neb. to Tex.), ulka (Dak., 
Wy., Tex.), dorsalis (111., La., Tex.), tenebrosus (Mont., Dak., 
Wy.), alternates (III.), mantanus (111. to Mont.), intcrstitiahs (Or.), 
hornii (Ga., Fla.), setiger (Fla.), subscribes (Fla.). longulus 
(Dak.), rotundicollts (Tex.), obscurellus (Tex., D. C), mbefhs (La 
Wash. Terr.), hirtdlus (Ariz., N. Mex.), echinatus (Mass to Ariz.), 
«Asftttef (Ariz.), myasdlus (Colo.), ***&& (111.), ««^"*««* 
(Cal, Wash.), anthracinus (Fla.). 

Hamilton John.— Catalogue of the Coleoptera common to 
North America, Northern Asia, and Europe, wit! 
and biblic 



Ent. Socy., XVI., p. 89, 



-484 species 



numerated, 48 1 being common 1 



Europe and 



America, 328 occurring m am. Notes are g.ven on several 
species doubtfully referred to the North Amencan fauna_ 

Horn, G. H.— Antenna of Coleoptera. Proc. A. N. S. Fnila., 
1889, p. 3H, 1890.— Seat of special sense. 



1042 The American Naturalist. [November, 

Cockerell, F. D. A.— Colorado Coleoptera. Ent. Mo. Mag., 
XXV., p.- 1 86, 1889.— List of finds. 

Lewis, G. — On a new species of Teretriosoma. Ent. A 
Mag., XXV., 397, 1889.— T. horni (Key West). 

Horn, G. H. — Notes on Coleoptera. Entom. News, I, p. 
1890. — Separation of species of Cryptohypnus. 

Liebeck, Ck. —Phytonomus punctatus Fabr. Ent. Notes, I, 
12, 1890.— Abundant at Philadelphia (?) 

Hamilton, J.— Rare beetles on the New Jersey coast. E 
Notes, I. p. 12, 1890.— Cafius sericeus, Cryptobium pusillum, 
lugubra, Quedius brunneus, Actobins nanus. 

Wickham, H. F.— Notes from the northwest. Ent. Notes, I* 
p. 33, 1890. — Captures in Montana to Oregon and Victoria. 

Lugger, Otto. — Fond of grammar. Ent. Notes, I, 38, 1890. 
— Larva of Trogosita mauritanica boring in books. 

Liebeck, C— Notes on Coleoptera. Ent. Notes, I, 52, 1890. 

Horn, G. H.— Notes on Elateridae. Ent. Notes, I., 53, 1890. 
— Notes on Candeze's species, chiefly synonymical ; Megapenthes 
limbalis is male, M. granulosus female ; Corymbites inflatus male, 
C. crassus female. 

Hamilton, John.— Balaninus : its food habits. Can. Ent., 
XXII, p. 1, 1890.— Habits of B. proboscideus, rectus, quercus, 
nasicus, caryce, ?tniformis, obtusus. 

Cockerell, T. D. A.— Notes on the insect fauna of high alti- 
tudes in Custer county, Colorado. Can. Ent., XXII, p. 37- 

Cook, A. J. — A new clothes beetle. Can. Ent., XXI, f 
1889. — Lasioderma serricorne. 

*Bourgeois, J. — Deux malacodermes noveaux de l'Amerique 
meridional. Ann. Soc. Ent. France, VIII, 4 Trim. Bull, 176, 
1889. — Chaidiognathus cardiaspis ; Cantharis metallica. 

♦Blanchard, F. — Observations on some variations of the 
males in Clinidium. Psyche, V, p. 165, 1889. 

*Woodworth, C.W. — Trox at electric light. Psyche, V, p. 169* 

Schwartz, E. A.— On Xyleborus pyri and an undescribed 
allied species. Proc. Ent. Socy. Washington, I., p. i3 8 > i 88 9-~~ 
Describes mines of X. pyri and of new (unnamed) species from 
Florida. 



I 8 9 oJ Record of American Zoology. 1043 

On the types of Tomicus. kmnaris Harris. Proc. Ent 

Socy. Washington, I., p. 149, 1889. — Shows that Harris confused 
HvIcsiuHs ofdi-ulus with above. Gives Harris's notes on other 
Scolytidae. 

Termitophilous Coleoptera found in North America. 

, Proc. Ent. Socy. Washington, I., p. 160, 1889.— Enumerates nine 

Horn, G. H. — A synopsis of the Halticina of boreal America, 
Trans. Am. Ent. Socy., XVI., 163, 1889.— An exto 
pages) paper, with,numerous new species and the following new- 
genera: Pseudolampsis, Phydanis, Hemiphrynus, Hemiglyptus, 
Leptotrix. 

Long, C. W.— Staten Island fireflies. Am. Nat., XXIV., p. 
691, 1890. 



Heidemann, O. — Remarks c 



!>v M-. 



Schwartz in Dade county, Florida. Proc. Ent. Socy. Washington 
I., p. 142, 1889. — General account. 

Uhler, P. R.— Observations on the Heteroptera collected in 
Southern Florida by Mr. E. A. Schwartz. Proc. Ent. Socy. 
Washington, I., p. 142, 1889.— 95 species collected, the follow- 
ing new : Acanthochila exquisita. 

Weed, C. M.— Studies in pond life. Bull. Ohio Exp. Sta., 
Tech. Series, I., p. 4. 1889 — Habits of Zait/ia Jiunnnca, Xotonccta 
indulata ; eggs of Benacus grisea, Belostoma amcricanum. 

Forbes, S. A.— Studies on the chinch bug, II., 16th Rep. 
Entom. 111., p. 1, 1890. 

Contribution to an economic bibliography of the chinch 

bug. 1 6th Rep. Entom. 111., Appendix, 1890. 

Distant W. L.— Description of a new species of neotropical 
Capsidae. * Ent. Mo. Mag., XXV., p. 202, 1889.- Eccritetanus 
exitiosus (Trinidad). 

Cockerell, T. D. A.-Coccus cacti in Colorado. Ent. Mo. 
Mag., XXV., 382, 1889. 

Weed, C. M.— Siphonophora or Nectarophora. Ent. Notes, I., 
p 20, 1890.— Former preoccupied. 

Gillette, C. Y.-Abcanthia papistrilla in nests of the barn 
swallow. Ent. Notes, I, 26, 1 890. 



io44 The American Naturalist. [November, 

*Uhler, P. R. — New genera and species of American Ho- 
moptera. Trans. Amer. Acad. Science for 1888-89, p. 33, 1889. 
— Mostly California forms. 

DIPTERA. 

Forbes, S. A.— The meadow maggots or leather jackets. 
16th Rep. Entom. Ill, p. 78, 1890.— Larva of Tipula bicornis. 

Ives, J. E. — An interesting method of egg deposition. EnL 
Notes, I., p. 39, 1890. — Oviposition of Atherix. 



Aaron, E. M. — Erebia epipsodea var. sine-ocellata. Ent. Notes, 
I., p. 12, 1890. — Synonym of E. epipsodea var. brucei. 

Slosson, A. T.— May moths in northern New Hampshire. 
Ent. Notes, I, p. 17, 1890. 

Skinner, H.— Random notes on Lepidoptera. Ent. Notes, I, 
p. 19, 1890.— Sex of Cecropia cocoons, male compact, lighter in 
color, and more slender; cocoons of Callosamia. 

Jones, F. M.— Notes on Smerinthus astylus Drury. EnL 
Notes, I, 21, 1890. — Life-history. 

Aaron, E. M.— North American Hesperidae. Ent. Notes, I, 
23, 1890.— First of series ; descriptions of Eurycides urania West, 
and Endamus hesus West, Southwest U. S. 

Skinner, H. — Notes on Lepidoptera. Ent. Notes, I, p. 5 1 * 
i8 9 o.—Protoparci dalica = P. rustic a ; Phyciodes ianthe = Acca 
hera; Eresia taxana = Smerdis. Questions distinctions of 
(Enosanda noctuiformis and Cantethia grotei ; asks for type of 
Arctia pallida. 

Beutenmuller, W, and Skinner, H.— [Spinning of Callosa- 
mia angulifera.'] Ent. Notes, I, 58, 1890. 

Skinner, H. — Two new species of butterflies. Trans. Am. 
Ent. Socy, XVI, 86, 1889.— Anartia dominica (West Ind.), 
Myscelia streckeri (Lower Cuba). 

Riley, C. V. — Two brilliant and interesting Microlepidoptera, 
new to our fauna. Proc. Ent. Socy. Washington, I, p- *55> 
1889.— Describes as new Setiostoma fernaldilla (Los Angeles, 
Cal.) and Walsinghamia [n. g.] diva (Florida). 

Weed, C. M.— Studies in pond life. Bull. Ohio Exp. Sta, Tech. 
Series, I, p. 5, 1889.— Habits and life-history of Arzatna obliquata. 



i8go.] Record of American Zoology. 1045 

Forbes, S. A. — Notes on cut worms. 16th Rep. Entom. 111., 
p. 84, 1890. — Noctuids, several larva? figured. 

The burrowing web worm. 16th Rep. Entom. 111., p. 98, 

— Pseudanaphora acandla. 

Barrett, C. G. — Capture of Hadena albifusa Grote in Great 
Britain. Ent Mo. Mag., XXV., 180, 1889. 

Cockerell, T. D. A. — Alucita hexadactyla L. in Colorado. 
Ent Mo. Mag., XXV., 212, 1889. 

Smith, J. B.— Hadena albifusa Grote in Great Britain. lint. 
Mo. Mag., XXV., 228, 1889. 

Skinner, H. — Notes on butterflies found at Cape May. X. J., 
with description of a new species of Pamphila. En/, 
p. 6. 1890.— />. aaroni, range of Satyrus abpe % opposition of 
Terias lisa, first stages of Pamphila panoqmn. 

Smith, J. B. — Preliminary catalogue of the Arctiichr of tem- 
perate North America, with notes. Can. En/., XXII., p. 9, 31, 
1890. — Genera Arctia. 

Grote, A. R.— Note on the larval ornamentation of the N. 
Am. Sphingidae. Can. Ent, XXII., p. 15, 1890. 

Beutenmuller, Wm.— Descriptions of Lepidopterous larvae. 
Can. Ent., XXII., p. 16, iSgo.—Mamestra lorea, Phycis rubifas- 
ciella, Salebria contatella, S. celtella, Botys fissalis. 

Grote, A. R.— Note on the genus Crocota and Prof. J. B. 
Smith. Can. Ent., XXII., p. 17, 1 890.— Controversial. 

Edwards, W. H.— Description of a new species of Melituca 
from Southern California. Can. Ent, XXII., p. 21, 1890.— M. 
augusta. 

Grote A. R.— The Noctuidse of Europe and North America 
compared [continued]. Can. Ent, XXII., p. 26, 1 890. 

Cockerell, T. D. A.—Erebia epipsodea var. sine-ocella/a. 
Can. Ent. XXII., p. 40, 1890— (?) var. brucei. 

Beutenmuller, Wm.— Description of the larva of Trtrhabda 
tormentesa. Can. Ent, XXII., p. 36, 1890. 

Riley, C. V.— Notes on Pronuba and Yucca pollination. 
Proc. Ent. Socy. Washington, I., p. 150, 1889.— Largely con- 
troversial. 

Blake, C. A.— Hop-worms. Ent. Notes, I., p. 43, 1890.— 
Larva of Gortyna nitela. 



I04 6 The American Naturalist. [November, 

Edwards, H.— Bibliographical catalogue of the described 
transformations of North American Lepidoptera. Bulletin U. S. 
Nat. Mas. No. 35, pp. 147, 1889.— References to early stages of 
1069 species. 

Smith, J. B. — Contributions toward a monograph of the 
Noctuids of temperate North America. — Revision of some 
Taeniocampid genera. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XII., p. 455. * 88 9 
[1890].— The genera included are Barathra, Trichoclea, Scoto- 
gramma, Ulolonche, Himella, Crocigrapha, Orthodes, Taeniocam- 
pa, Perigrapha ; no new species. 

Taylor, W. E.— Preliminary catalogue of and notes on Ne- 
1 braska butterflies. Am. Nat., XXIII., p. 1024, 1889 [1890]. 



Harrington, W. H.— Tenthredinidee collected at Ottawa 
[Canada], 1889. Can. Ent., XXII., p. 23, 1890. 

Cockerell, T. D. A.— Notes on the insect fauna of high alti- 
tudes in Custer county, Colorado. Can. Ent., XXII., p. 37, 1890. 

Harrington, W. H.— The corn saw fly. Can. Ent, XXII., 
p. 40, 1890. — Cephus pygmmis at Ottawa and Buffalo. 

*Gillette, C. P.— Notes on certain Cynipidae, with descrip- 
tions of new species. Psyche, V, 183, 1889. 

Robertson, C. — Notes on Bombus. Ent. Notes, I., p. 39. 
1 890. — Distinctness of B. americanorum and B. pennsylv aniens ; 
Apathus elatus male of first. 

Hamilton, J. — The inhabitants of a hickory nut gall. Ent. 
Notes, I., 49, 1890. — Pimpla, Phanerotoma tibialis. 

Cresson, E. T.— [In above, p. 50].— Describes as new Pimpla 
km from Missouri. 

Robertson, Ch.— Synopsis of North American species of the 
genus Oxybelus. Trans. Am. Ent. Socy, XVI., p. 7h 1889.— 
14 species; new are 0. subulatus = mucronatus Pack. (Penn. to 
Mont.), cornutus (Mont.), packardii = lactus Pack. (111., Tex.), 
sericus (111.), fnlvipes (Fla.), niger (111.), crcssonii (111.), mexicanus 
(Mex.), frontalis (Pa, 111, Tex.), forbesii (Colo.). 

Ashmead, W. H.— Descriptions of new Ichncumonicke in the 
collection of the U. S. National Museum. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus, 



XII., p 


k 387, 1890.— Nc 


1 new 


genera 


are giv 


en of the species 


of Ei 


isticus, 1 


pelma, 


Limneria. Man} 


' ««» 


species 



ABOUT fifty years ago the British Association for the Ad- 
** vancement of Science adopted certain rules for the guidance 
of nomenclators in science. These rules were based partly on 
customs which had become prevalent, but all were designed to 
secure fixity in consonance with the other interests of science. 
These other interests of science may be embraced under two 
heads : First, the maintenance of a high standard of scientific 
work; second, justice to the investigator. In accordance with 
these views, fixity is secured by the strict adhesion to the law of 
priority, without exception. The standard of scientific work is 
sustained by the requirement that names adopted shall represent 
work done or ideas worked out, and not prospective discoveries 
to be made or not made at some future time. Justice to the 
investigator is secured by the two requirements just mentioned, 
viz., that the originator of ideas and the discoverer of facts, and 
not some other person, shall be credited with them. 

These rules have been carried more and more fully into prac- 
tice as time has advanced. The American Association in 1876 
adopted similar rules, and the Congress of Zoologists of Paris 
has followed the same example. The attempts made by c.ent.sts 
holding important positions in the governmental or other educa- 
tional organizations to ignore and override the work of private 
and perhaps humbler citizens, which were not uncommon in the 
early part of this century, have fallen to the ground. In fact, 
we are now confronted with the opposite extreme, viz., the dis- 



1048 The American Naturalist. [November, 

position to recognize pretenders to scientific research who do 
not fulfil the requirements of the second of the ends above 
mentioned, which a healthy nomenclature has in view. It 
is in this democratic country that this danger has arisen, in the 
adoption by some naturalists of the opinion that names are to be 
adopted which represent nothing, and which should therefore never 
be regarded as a part of scientific literature. The result to sci- 
ence is quite the same as that produced by the autocratic prac- 
tices of official scientists of a half century ago, viz., the encour- 
agement of pretence and the discouragement of work. The only 
difference is that all kinds of shams are recognized, and not only 
official shams. We have here an illustration of the close affinity 
between mobocracy and aristocracy. Indeed, they may harmonize 
perfectly under the system referred to. We are reminded of the 
song in Madame Angot's Daughter : 

Jadis les rois une race proscrite 

Enrichissait leurs partisans 

lis avaient mainte favorites 

Et cent mille courtezans. 



Mais Barras est roi et Lange est sa reine, 

II n'ait pas la peine, il n'ait pas la paine, 

II n'ait pas la paine assurement 

Changer le gouvernement ! 
It was indeed scarcely worth while to adopt rules if we 
were to be transferred from official monopolists to lexicographers 
and catalogues of gardeners and dealers in butterflies, bird-skins, 
and shells ! 

The rules for the correct construction of scientific names are 
based on ordinary classical orthography, which needs only to be 
known to be followed. Yet this is often ignored, not only in 
America but in Europe, in the most glaring manner. Thus, hy- 
brid names have been repeatedly constructed, such as Venustodus 
and latirhinus, and they cannot be set aside if put forth as the 
expression of good scientific work. Classical accomplishment is 
not of course science, but it is a pity to have scientific literature 
defaced by such exhibitions of ignorance. The fact that such 



isgo.] Editorial. 

names can only be changed, if at all, by their authors, should 
make nomenclators careful. Attention to euphonv is recom- 
mended in the rules. Names should be pronounceable or usable, 
otherwise they are liable to be set aside in familiar convene if 
not in the systems. Thus we have Homalodontotherium. of 
unnecessary length; Propalaehoplophorus, which is almost unpro- 
nounceable ; Neeuryurus and Hipphaplous, still worse. And all 
this where endless opportunities for the construction of names, 
both short and euphonious, exist. 

A reform is needed in some quarters in the matter of compli- 
mentary names. The object of naming a species or genus after 
a person is to compliment that person, and in order that it shall 
do so some care in the use of the method should be observed 
The undiscriminating use of it of course destroys it as a compli- 
ment. But it is an easy way of escaping the ne cessi t y of con- 
structing a suitable classical name on the part of persons who 
never studied Latin. One abuse of the custom we refer to spe- 
cifically, and that is the habit; seemingly very common, of naming 
species after deceased persons. Such persons do not appreciate 
the compliment. 

— The peculiarities of an admixture of science and politics are 
exemplified in the case of Indiana. The last Legislature made the 
office of State Geologist an elective one, and this year all four 
parties nominated candidates for the office. The result is 
not one to commend itself to the scientific mind. The Republi- 
cans nominated a good botanist for the position; the other 
parties put up nobodies for the office. In any event the 
office would not be filled by a trained geologist. Bad as this state 
of affairs is, it is no worse than when the officer was appointed. 
It is but a few years since a mediocre poet and lawyer, without 
an iota of geological knowledge, was rattling around in the posi- 
tion. There are some geologists in the State, but somehow the 
have none of them. — K. 



—It is a well-known fact that there is not a little pretty poor 
science teaching in America, but in many schools this is not to be 
wondered at, for the pay is correspondingly poor. A certain Ohio 



1 050 The American Naturalist. [November, 

school advertises for an "Assistant Professor of Chemistry, 
Physics, and Biology ; salary $600, with distinct understanding 
that all salaries for faculty are deducted pro rata if income is not 
sufficient to pay in full." What can they expect ? Doubtless 
the institution will get all they pay for, but there is another aspect 
to the question. Are the poor students rightly treated by having 
their science taught them by such an intellectual smooth-bore as 
this advertisement calls for ? 

—A " Prominent Botanist '" sets up a wail in the September 
number of the Botanical Gazette because (so he claims) the 
zoologists have appropriated and misapplied the term biology. In 
many a school " Biology " is taught, but the study is all devoted 
to the animal side of the living world. This is admittedly so, and 
on a broad etymological basis the use of the word in this way is 
wrong. Still the zoologists are not wholly without excuse. 
Fully half of the teachers of botany are utterly unable to give any 
of the living side of their subject. Analysis is all that they know, 
and so when the zoologist goes as far as he can, and teaches all 
that there is taught of life, is he to be blamed for claiming the 



Oligoclase from North Carolina Exhibiting Curious Optical Properties. 

GAUDRY, A — Le Drjropfthkqoe. Mcmoire I. dc la Soc. Geol. de France. Fron 
the author. . 

General Account of the Instruction and Equipment in the Dcpt. <* Geology a 

GEIKE, J.-Tne Evolution of Climate. From the author. 

GILBERT, G. K.— The History of th, N ** Ann. Repor 



Lea, H. C.-The Endemoniadas of Quer 
Lewis, H. C— The Terminal Moraines 
3C. British Association, Sept. 1887. From tl 
LlNTNER, J. A— Report on Insects of th 



. Anthropologist, Vol. II., 1889— The Worlds Supply of Fuel. Ext. Forum, 



11. Geol. Soc. i 



alia. Ext. Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci., Oct., 1888. 

-The Origin of the Corpus Callosum, a Contribution upon 



1 Remnants or Vestiges of Amphibian and Reptilian Structu 
iirds, both Carinate and Ratitae. Reprint from Proc. Roy. Soc^ 
1 the Secondary Carpals, Metacarpals, and Digital Rays in theV 



1 Some Fresh-Water 



Philosoph. Soc., 1889. From the author. 

Report of the Committee on the International Congress of Geologists. Ext. Proc. 
Am. Ass. Adv. Sci., Vol. XXXVIII. 

Report of the New York State Museum of Natural History, 1888. 

Reyes, A. DE Los.— Arte en Lengva Mixteca. 

ROTH, S.— Beobachtungen iiber Entstehung und Alter der Pampasformation in Ar- 
gentinian. Abdruck a. d. Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Geolog. Gesellschaft, Jahrg., 1888. From 

A Physiological Hypothesis of Heredity and Variation. Reprint from AM. 

—The Eye, Ocular Muscles, and Lachrymal Glands of the Shrew-Mole. Reprint 
Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, Vol. XXVIII., 1890. From the author. 

SHALER, N. S— Tertiary and Cretaceous Deposits of Eastern Massachusetts. Bull. 
Geol. Soc. of America, Vol. I., pp. 443"452. From the author. 

The Topography of Florida. Bull. Harvard Mus. Comp. Zool., Vol. XVI., No. 

7. From A. Agassiz. 

SHANNON, W. P.— A List of the Fishes of Decatur County, Ind. From the author. 

Stejneger, L.— Description of Two New Species of Snakes from California.— i -on- 
tribution to the History of Pallas' Cormorant. Exts. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XII. 
From Smithsonian Institution. 

Studies from the Biological Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University, Vol. IV. 
Thurston, Edgar.— Notes on the Pearl and Chalk Fisheries and Marine Fauna 
' of the Gulf of Manaar. From the author. . 

Todd, D. P.— Provisional List of Mammals of Angola and Vicinity.— Terrestna 



ical Society, 1889. From the author. 

Wasmuth, H. A.— Notes on the Pittsburgh Coal-Bed and its Disti 
from the Am. Geo/., May, 1888— Studies on the Stratification of the Anth: 
of Penna. Ext. Journ. Franklin Inst., Vol. CXXIV., Aug., 1887. From 

Contribution to a Knowledge of the Autumn Life-History of Certai 
Aphididas. Ext. from Psyche, Vol. V. From the author. 

Whitman, C. O.— Some New Facts about Hirudinea. Reprint fr 
Morphology, Vol. II., No- 3, April, 1889. From the author. 



Recent Literature. 



i.n 



G. H. Williams's Elements of Crystallography. Holt ft 

Co., New York., 1890, pp. VIII., 250, Figs. .^.— At last mineralogists 
— practical specialists as well as teachers— are to be cor.: 
the appearance of a treati.se which discusses the numerous forms of 
crystallography in such a logical manner that they need no longer 

the first clear statement of the beautiful tin- 
has appeared in English. Not Only has he done this. ! • 
duced the best concise treatise on the subject that h.. 
appeared. In this country there has long exist 
nected description of the relation of the rwioti 

to each other, in order that the excellent discipline a!l'>>nicd by the 
methods used in developing these from each other might be availed of 

All who have studied crystallography as a system U 
no subject exists which has a higher value than this as a corrector of 
loose thought and hasty expression. Its tardy introduction into the 
curricula of our colleges has been due more to the lack of a good text- 
book than to anything intrinsically hard in the subject itself. Happily 
there is no longer an excuse for the neglect of this important science. 
The little book before us comprehends within its small volume all of 
the most essential principles of the science. It is well written, concise 
in expression, clear in the statement of the thought, and logical in the 
development of the ideas contained in it. 

It opens with the discussion of the molecule, takes up in order the 
general principles underlying crystallography, treats each of the seven 
systems in detail, tells something about crystal aggregates, and describes 
the various methods made use of in the graphical representation of 
crystals. Both the Naumann and the Miller systems of nomenclature 
appear side by side whenever the symbol of a plane or form is needed, 
and so the reader is brought into frequent contact with these two rival 
claimants for ascendency. The notion of symmetry is everywhere 
emphasized, and this it is that gives the treatise its logical connection. 
The book is very well illustrated. It contains few typographical errors, 
and in general make-up it leaves but little to be desired. 

The publishers, as well as the author, deserve the commendation of 
all mineralogists for their successful attempt to place before the Eng- 
lish-reading public a volume which shall be worthy of their unqualified 



io 54 The American Naturalist. [November, 

approbation. It is to be hoped that their venture (for it is a venture 
to place upon the market such an expensive book as this must have 
been at such a low price) will prove no less profitable financially than 
it has proved excellent from a scientific and bibliographic point of view. 
We expect an immediate adoption of .the book by all the leading 
colleges in the country, not only because of the importance of the 
subject of which it treats, but also because of its excellent qualities as 
a treatise.— W. S. B. 

Britton's Catalogue of New Jersey Plants. 1 — This thick 
volume of 642 octavo pages is one of which the botanists of the coun- 
try may well feel proud, inasmuch as it is the most complete of any yet 
attempted in the United States. From the table in the end of the 
volume we learn that there are : 

Anthophyta ,, 01g species and varieties . 

Ptendophyta 7 6 « 

Bryophyta 46l u 

Thallophyta 3)Q2X 

Protophyta \ 64 « 

Total "^~ u u u 

The preface states that "the present work is based, so far as the 
flowering plants, ferns, and fern allies are concerned, on specimens 
actually seen and examined by myself, and contained in the State 
Herbarium above alluded to, or in other collections of repute. The 
""i °1!™Z ?!?** haV f bCen SUppHed b >' s P eciali ^ of high reputation 
uthoritative catalogue, which is suscep- 



and authori 

tible of correction, 



need be, at any time in the future 



in discussing the distribution of the plants of the State the author 
refers to the rocky and mountainous areas of the northeastern portion, 
the glacial drift of the same region, the lower level of the southern 
part, and Ae much greater sandiness of its soil. « Our flora may thus 
J *h considerable accuracy into a northern and a southern, 
: present distribution has been determined by differences of soil 



whc • j 



These 



separated by the gla 



! of our flora, there i 



" Besides these two 

may be termed I 

ieties especially characteristic of the sea 1- a. iws' an«l silt and brackish 

s€SiHH!ri?V''' * : ;,;: f r 

science. Trenton, N. J. : Printed by The foi 1 ,„, na nv. 1880. 



1890.] Recent Literature 

marshes and meadows. Some of these are 
origin which have accommodated themselve 
ings, and been thereby slightly changed in i 
so as now to be evidently distinct from th 
relatives, while others appear to be very dist 

The sequence of the orders of flowering \ 
Bentham and Hooker in their "Genera I'la 
tion that "the class Gymnospermrc has 1 
natural position at the extreme und of the 



with the willows and poplars, next to wlr.. .. 

lowed, "the oldest specific or varietal name ava 
whatever genus the plant is located, or whatever its rank 

" The method adopted of citing the original author of : 

varietal name — the only permanent portion of the binomial— in a 

behind the parenthesis shows who first brought the names together in 
their present combination. This method has, with slight modifications, 
been generally adopted by zoologists and by students of fungi, algae, 
lichens, and mosses, and its general use in botany tends to bring all 
biological nomenclature into harmony." 

It may be of interest to note some of the changes of names to be 
observed in this catalogue, as follows : 

Anemone pennsylvanica L. (of Gray's Manual) = A. dichotoma L. 

Nymphcea odorata Ait. (of Gray's Manual) = Castalia odorata 
(Dryand.) Greene. 

Nymphcea rentformis DC. (of Gray's Manual) = C. tuberosa (Paine) 
Greene. 

Nuphar advena Ait. f. = Nymphcea advena Soland. 

Nitphar kalmianum Ait. = Nymphaa microphylla Pers. 

Dicentra is given as Dielytra. 

Adlumia cirrhosa Raf. = A. fungosa (Ait.) Greene. 

Acer saccharimnn Wan.ir. = A. saccharum Marsh. 

Acer dasycarpum Ehrh. = A. saccharimim L. 

Carya alba Nutt. = Hicoria ovata (Mill.) Britt. 

Carya tomentosa Nutt. = H. alba (L.) Britt. 

Carya microcoria Nutt. = H. microcarpa (Xutt.) Britt. 

Carya porcina Nutt. = H. glabra (Mill.) Britt. 



1056 The American Naturalist. [November, 

Carya amara Nutt. = H. minima (Marsh.) Britt. 

Leersia virginica Willd. = Homalocenchms virginica (Willd.) Britt. 

Leersia oryzoides Swartz = Homalocenchms oryzoides (L.) Poll. 

Phragmites communis Trin. = P. vulgaris (Lam.) B. S. P. 

Chamcecyparis splueroidea Spach. = C. thyoides (L.) B. S. P. 

Pinus inops Ait. = P. virgimana Mill. 

Pinus mitis Michx. = P. echinata Mill. 

Picea nigra Link. = Picea -mariana (Mill.) B. S. P. 

Larix americana Michx. = L. laricina (DuRoi) B. S. P. 

Many other changes might be cited, but these will serve to show the 
treatment of the vexed question of nomenclature and synonymy. 
While some of the changes are quite startling and uncomfortable, there 
can be little doubt that a rigid enforcement of the " law of priority " 
will eventually result in a greater fixity of names than now exists — 
Charles E. Bessey. 

The West American Oaks. 2 — Dr. Albert Kellogg began the 
preparation of a series of drawings to illustrate the oaks, pines, and 
other trees of the Pacific coast of the United States, intending to ac- 
company them by appropriate descriptions, but death closed his work 
long before it came to completion. Now, through the munificence of 
Mr. McDonald and the aid of Professor Greene, the work is brought 
out in an appropriate form. 

The first species figured and described is Quercus kelloggii Newberry, 
which bears a strong resemblance to the eastern red oak (Q. rubra). 
It is the Q. sonomensis Benth. of DeCandolle's " Prodromus." Then 
follow Q. morehus Kellogg, Q. wizlizeni A. DC, and Q. agrifolia 
Nee, all apparently related, although the first is deciduous and the 
others evergreen. Q. hypoleuca Engelm. is a narrow-leaved species 
quite distinct from the preceding. Q. garryana Dougl. and Q. lobata 
Nee, are closely related, and resemble the white oak of the eastern 
United States. The last-named species is the Q. hindsii Benth. of the 
Pacific Railroad Reports. Q. gambelii Nutt. is still more like the 
white oak, both in leaf and acorn. It is a shrub of six to eight feet in 
height, or a middle-sized tree from thirty to sixty feet high, with a 
trunk three feet in diameter. The tree form is confined to the " mid- 
dle and higher elevations of the mountains of southern New Mexico 
and Arizona, and of adjacent Mexico." The smaller form occurs upon 



McDon-il-l, Kv|., 

West American Oaks, 
plates XXV. to XXXVII 






lower ground from central Colorado and Utah to the l>or 
and Mexico. It is the Q. alba var. gitnmsom of Torrejr, the g. 
douglam var. gambelii of A. DeCandolle, and the (). utululata var. 
gambelii of Engelmann. 

mann and (2- densiflora Hook, and Arm.tt. the latter . 

enjoys the distinction of being " the most valuable oak ot the Pact fie 
forests." Like many other western species, it ; 
other names, viz., Q. putrescent Kellogg, and ( ' 

The second part of the work contains plates of ten q 
varieties never before figured. It is a supplement to the work ot the 
lamented Kellogg, and is most fittingly added to it I w 
species are: Q. palmeri Engelm., Q. turbnu:- 
Engelm., Q. macdonaldi Greene, and its \ , 
Q. fendleri Leibmann, Q. jacobi R. Browi 

Greene, Q. venustula Greene, Q. dumosa forma polyearpa Greene.— 
Charles E. Bessey. 

The Flora of Nebraska. 3 — Nebraska has an interesting flora. 
Its geographical position, stretching from the mountains on the west 
across the arid plains to the rich prairies on the east, and a midway 
latitude between north and south, is strong indication of the fact. 
The well-known catalogue of Nebraska plants by Samuel Aughey, 
published fifteen years ago, upon data now known to have been sadly 
defective, contained such a wealth of plant names that it has led 
botanists ever since to believe in the superior richness of the flora. 

The really earnest and careful study of the State flora dates from 
the connection of Professor C. E. Bessey with the State University at 
Lincoln. Upon his entrance into the State the collection of a repre- 
sentative herbarium was begun, together with a study of the r 



: vegetation. Valuable papers upon 



lifferent portio: 



the work have been published from time 

given in the Annual Report of Nebraska State B 

for 1889, recently issued. 

This paper is the official report of the botanist 
covers 160 pages. The first part is an account 
forage plants of Nebraska, in which many practical sugg. 
comments are introduced. So far 106 native species are known within 
the State, and 22 kinds that have been introduced as weeds. The 



board, and 

. ■ ■ - ' • ' 



3 The Grasses a 






r Herbert J. 1 






; Board of Agriculture for 1889. Lincoln, 1890. 



1058 The American Naturalist. [November, 

cultivated grasses and some of the forage plants also receive attention; 
and notes upon cultivation, use of irrigation for meadows, diseases of 
grasses, and other topics make the report of great value to the Nebraska 
farmer. In the preparation of part of the topics Professor Bessey has 
been assisted by his pupils, Herbert J. Webber and Jared G. Smith. 

The second part of the report is a catalogue of the flora of Nebraska,, 
prepared by Mr. Webber under Professor Bessey's direction. This 
is in every way an admirable local flora. It embraces all manner of 
plants from the humblest protophyte to the most exalted anthophyte. 
The total number of species listed reaches (by a curious coincidence) 
1890. From Professor Bessey's well-known views certain things 
among the departures from the commonly-accepted form in local 
floras, such as the arrangement of groups in an ascending order, the 
use of " phyta " as a uniform termination for the names of the grand 
divisions, and the decapitalization of specific names, were to be ex- 
pected ; but in the present instance we meet with an unlooked-for 
innovation in the use of Luerssen's arrangement of the phanerogams 
instead of one of the common American or English systems. This 
abolishes the division of Apetalae, distributing the orders of this group 
according to their affinities, and brings the Composite at the end of 
the list as representing the highest development of plant life. Many 
minor changes of arrangement will be noted by the student, and 
especially the attempt to follow the most advanced views in both 
arrangement and nomenclature. 

A feature of the work to which too much praise cannot be accorded 
is the indication under each species of the particular herbarium in 
which the specimen on which the determination was made can be 
found. This makes it possible to re-examine the data for any part of 
the catalogue desired, should the necessity for doing so ever arise. 
Could this practice be made universal the days of slight appreciation 
of local lists would soon be past, and they would become an important 
factor in the study of geographical distribution, etc., instead of being 
largely ignored as heretofore. 

Further interesting features of this catalogue might be mentioned. 
It will undoubtedly serve as a model for other collectors who are 
ambitious to embody the results of the latest studies in their local lists, 
a desire which should not be discouraged.— f. C. Arthur. 

Physikalische Krystallographie, 4 by Dr. Th. Liebisch, is an 
excellent treatise on the physical properties <,f crystals as distinguished 
from uncrystallized bodies. An introduction of fifty pages discusses 
the differences between crystallized and uncr\sta!!i/rd substances, and 
* Leipzig, Veil and Comp., 1891, pp . VIII., 614. =08 fi*., Q tables. 



of crystallized material i 



and other parts of America. About thirty pages of the little volume 
are reprints of the descriptions of these minerals as found in the 
original articles of the authors first describing them. Following these 
is a classified list of minerals, with their composition and crystallisa- 
tion. Finally, an alphabetical index to mineral names completes the 
volume, which is such an excellent little compendium of matters min- 
eralogical that it will surely find a place upon the shelves of all lovers 
of minerals. Bound copies of the catalogue we believe are for sale 
by the publishers at a nominal price. — W. S. B. 

We have received from Burnz & Co., of 24 Clinton PI* 
pamphlet with the the modest title of " Diana," by Mrs. E. B. Burn/. 
The wisdom which is therein set forth consists 
nature of man which divides its manifestati 

one functional, the other affectional. The author sets forth her belief 
that the latter of these is the proper outlet for - 

and that proper gratification of the affectional desires would operate 
as a safety-valve, so to speak, ia | reaU of the 

desire for the functional manifestations. This propoMtion mu-t s?an<i 
or fall by the facts of the human organism, mental and physical, as we 
find them. We admit that the pamphlet brings an obstacle to its re- 
ception along with it in the new phonetic spelling which the author 
has adopted. However, we would not have this prejudice sturdier 
readers from attempting to judge for themselves. 



The American Naturalist. 



General Notes. 



GEOGRAPHY AND TRAVEL. 
Honduras.-Still rising before us are numerous peaks and 



i in different forms, 
huge barren rocks,— a porphyritic cap. Before a 



nabled 
: of this formation. 



• crowned by 
! heights 



our imagination, the original magnitude 
huge rounded 



M or other peculiar forms, in the shape c 
! of the summits have disappeared, but we will find them as debris 
nulated at the base. The lithological character of this debris 
srs in every respect to those rocks, which have remained as mou- 
lts of a nearly-destroyed rock-formation once crowning the heights 
e Pacific slope of Honduras. 



urface of the r 



r med and supplied 



creeks, and deep gulches separate the once cohere. 

These wide gulches and river beds are as characteristic of Honduras as 

the absence of narrow canyons. 

The presence of gulches and the absence of narrow canons in that 
country is caused by the extreme variation of the water supply by 
rams in this tropical zone, and its steep slope, producing rapid drainage. 

-By aid of heavy rains streamlets may pass into torrents and later 
into floods, demanding a large area for their agitated waves, which 
rapidly sweep down the steep slope of the mountain region. There is 
no rock material in existence which could restrict the suddenly-aroused 
masses of water into a small or limited area. The surrounding and 
enclosing rocks are dislocated and carried away till the fierce element 
has satisfied its demands. 

Meteoric events are thus the makers of scenery ; the latter will 
change as soon as the former will assume other conditions, and there- 
tore they are in close relation to each other. 



Contrary 



remarks about the present climatic condition of Hon- 



common belief, Hondu 



a salubrious, healthy climate. The thermometer rises on the low coast- 
lands from 8o° up to ioo°, but the latter quotation may be considered 
as one of the high extremes. In an altitude of 2 , 5 oo feet we will 



istant temperature < 
round. At 3,500 feet, for exam 
Honduras, Tegucigalpa, is 70-80 
a temperature of 68-75 F. The 
tioned places is between 10-15 
about 5 F. Towards evening no; 
render the nights pleasant and c>i 



that the small area of Honduras, which covers only thn< 

which is not at all the case. The rainy season gradual] 
from the Pacific coast towards the interior, and from there to the north 
coast. It thus happens that the Atlantic and Pacific coasts are polar, 
or opposite, in regard to their seasons. In January the dry season is 
prevailing on the Pacific coast, whilst there is a wet season on the 
Atlantic shores. In the interior of Honduras rains are less powerful, 
but they usually continue longer. On the Atlantic slope the rains are 
heavier than on the Pacific, which is, most likely, caused by the more 
vigorous growth of vegetation on the latter coast. 

It is quite evident that a territory which originated chiefly through 
the aid of plutonic and volcanic agency is destined to be most diversi- 
fied in regard to the diffusion of its valleys and mountains, and more 
so if we remember that the huge edifice, the Central American con- 
tinentj is not the effect of one upheaval of firm land, or one sudden 
rise of fused mineral masses, but that this process was a gradual and 
periodical one, consisting of sudden eruptions, followed by long pauses 
of rest. 

As these eruptions occurred at different times, it may follow that the 
direction of the eruptive mountain ranges was likewise divergent, which 
is actually the fact. 

Over the whole territory of Honduras there are spread numerous 
systems of mountain ranges, which usually are called in that country 
"montanas," and montanitas if of a smaller size. On the western 
boundary of Honduras these ranges run usually from north to south ; 
as, for example, the montanas de Monticillos and the montanas de 



1062 The American Naturalist. 

Yojoa, whilst on the western portion of this cou: 
ranges extend nearly from east to west, as is the cas 
de Jutegalpa, and the montanas de Tonpocente. 

We have thus in Honduras two main directions < 
—north to south, and east to west,— with a erreat se 



5 of other ranges, 



which intersect the above directions at vari< 

The zone of extension of these ranges is usually not in 
straight lines, but bent or curved, passing even into a circle, ii 
case the whole range, with its enclosed surface or valley, as; 
huge crater-form. A similar effect is sometimes obtained 






i different lithological 



character in a peripheric zone, around an undisturbed < 

Most of the ranges which present this curved zone of accumulation 
are but sections of large circles, or waves of undulation, in the 
center or height of which the protrusion of fused masses occurred. 

The topographical structure of Honduras, with its diffused arrange- 
ments of mountain ranges of different eruption centers, is therefore 
most favorable for a display of numerous valleys, which are formed at 
the expense of large plateaux. 

In regard to the shape and origin of the valleys of Honduras, we 
may make the following classification. Valleys are formed : 

i. By the folding up of upheaved, undulating mountain masses. 

2. By the accumulation of eruptive masses around an undisturbed 

3- By the erosive action of water. 

The first class of valleys is not often found in Honduras ; they 
principally occur toward the Atlantic or plutonic coast. 

The second class is of most frequent occurrence, usually of volcanic 
origin. Their manner of formation has been already explained by the 
deposit of fused mineral masses, around a centre which is the actual 
base of the valley. 

The common form of valleys of this class is a round or elongated 
one, but various other shapes occur, as, for example, oblong ones, as 
the result of the intersection of two parallel mountain ranges. In fact, 
it would be impossible for me here to describe the diversified aspects 
of this class of valleys, originated as already explained, but subjected 
to manifold alterations by previously-existing objects. 

I proceed to another group of numerous valleys, which I may call 
crater-valleys, as they are nothing but craters or vents of volcanic 
ranges now inactive. Their ordinary form is circular, and the base of 
the valleys is from two to ten miles in diameter. Usually they occur 



i8go.] Geography and Travel. 1063 

in series of from two to six v«IIeys, arranged in a ;;-.-.-ar .'action, and 

only separated from each other b) 

vation above sea level of from six hundred 

Such a linear arrangement of crater-valleys we encounter 

canic side of Honduras, the Pacific coast, in the neighb irl 

village of Langli. 

Before reaching the village we arrive at the foot of the volcanic 
range, the top of which is provided with a ->erie> : < ra- 
the theatre of fiery eruptions, now parti \ cove; 
inhabited by man. 

We ascend the ridge of the mountain range and arrive at its top, 
when we descend its steep slope, traverse the plain of the valley, and 
ascending again we find on the top, below us, 
as that of Langli, and so on until we have traversed the \\ 

This form of ranges, with their tops provided with a seriea of tun- 
nels or craters, has great resemblance to those which I have previously 
described as presenting a series of peaks or cones on their summits 
arranged in a linear succession. In fact, we may call it the same, with 
the only difference that in the first-mentioned case the figure of the 
peak or cone is most prominent, whilst in the second case (the valley- 
arrangement) the form of the crater or funnel is more decidedly ex- 
pressed by nature. These two mountain forms stand in the relation to 
each other as do the matrix and the mould. 

Our third class of valleys— the erosive valleys— are, as their name 
expresses, caused by the erosive action of water, and are the products 
of the drainage of Honduras. They are of comparatively modern 
origin, and "contain river beds which during the rainy season carry 

extension of the valleys in regard to width and depth. 

In order to obtain a complete survey of the various past epochs up 
to the present time let us once more return to the tertiary period. 

The idyllic and picturesque valleys of the present Honduras were 
then for the greater part the theatre of volcanic activity. After a long 
elapse of time the fiery, eruptive zones cooled down, assisted in this 
process by water, which came in the form of rain or aqueous ebullitions 
from the craters. A great number of these craters became thus filled 
up with water, forming lakes. By aid of the drainage of the volcanic 
mountain slope, which enclosed, as previously mentioned, large tracts 
of land, thus forming valleys, the latter were transformed into basins, 
which became covered with water, thus passing into lakes of large 
dimensions. 



I0 64 The American Naturalist. [Novei 



l large lake area during the < 



riod, which 



I found to have extended nearly over the whole territory of Honduras, 
is not merely based upon the theory of a necessary accumulation of 
water in natural basins, on account of the absence of erosive valleys 
or river systems, but it is founded upon the existence of well-preserved 
shore-marks and shore-lines of these former lakes. 

The lines of the erosive action upon the mountains surrounding our 
present valleys extend in a horizontal direction, dividing the slope of the 
mountains into two zones, one acted upon by water, the other by air and 
vegetation, but destitute of these marks. The lines of demarkation 
between the sea level and the shores are as well preserved and marked 
as if the lakes were still in existence. 

These lines of erosion are horizontal, and not inclined as those pro- 
duced by river erosion, and are therefore a strong evidence of the 
existence of accumulated water or lakes in those valleys bearing those 
shore-marks. 

Descending from the height of the lake shores to the base of the 
valley, we find in sinking a shaft stratified formations of soil, sand, and 
clay, containing animal remains. At the present time these lakes have 
disappeared, but we have one illustrating example left in the form of 
the lake of Yojoa. This system of former lakes stretched across Hon- 
duras. I may mention, as former lake-beds, the valleys of Tegucigalpa, 
Comayagua, Danli, Portrerius, Santa Barbara, and a great portion of the 
province of Olancho. 

There is an old Indian legend extant among some Indian tribes of 
Central America which tells us of an underground passage connect- 
ing the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, in the form of a natural canal, 
used by their ancestors for navigation. Might this tradition not have 
reference to an overground passage through those lakes existing in 
former or ancient times, perhaps even in the early era of man ? The 
topographical arrangement of the present valleys, formerly craters, 
passing into reservoirs of lakes, would form a great deal of probability 
)re so as a similar passage is proposed in 






,,; the 



the Nicaraguan canal project, which would utilize the existence 

two large lakes, Managua and Nicaragua, which unite, by aid of the 

river San Juan, with the Atlantic. 

The large amount of water spread in ancient times over Honduras 
must have caused heavy rainfalls, a vigorous growth of vegetation, fre- 
quent earthquakes and new eruptions of volcanic material. 

These results combined contributed to the wear of the banks ot 
those lakes, and the enclosed water masses found their way to the sea, 



The absence of these self-registered graphiial : 

Honduras, or that the .narks or engraving of ; : - 
destroyed by the artion of water and vegetation. The Lit: : 
very probable, but the ahsenee of red gift) ial 

is a strong indiration of the non-existenre ■ : ' 

good preservation from ten to fifty feet below the alluvial grounds of 
former swamps or lake-. As mastodon \<n Cities 1 mention the valleys 
of Danli, Portrerius, Santa Gracias, Santa Rosa, Santa Barbara, and 
Olancho. Inasmuch as we find nearly whole skeletons of mastodons 
in certain places, we may conclude that these animals existed in close 
neighborhood to their present burial-places, and were not carried from 
afar by streams or rivers. The mastodon remains are in size and form 
nearly corresponding to the New York mastodon, with the exception 
that the tusks of the Hondurian mastodon are less curved, and are 
therefore nearly straight. With the lakes disappeared also the gigantic 
mastodon, but of their associates, the tapir and the wild boar have 
been left behind in present Honduras. 

A new scene— a psychozoic one— is going to unroll itself before 
our eyes. The swamps have partly passed into fertile grounds, covered 
with valuable woods, inhabited by animals, which provide an abundant 
supply of food for man, and richly impregnated wdth mineral sub- 
stances, which were ejected from the interior of the earth through 
large fissures in which they deposited, forming mineral accumulations 

Such was the country given by nature to daring man ! He soon 
appears before us, not as an uncivilized giant or savage, but as a man 
accustomed to comfort and experienced in art and music. In Hon- 
duras no woeful remains of giants are found, and most likely never will 
: we find, nevertheless, abundantly, genuine remains, 



1066 The American Naturalist [November, 

in form of temple and sacrificial mounds, containing vases, idols, 

From the character of the painting on a large vase, in excellent 
preservation, excavated at Oropoli, in Honduras, we feel strongly 
inclined to attribute the vase to a nation who came in contact with 
Israelites, Persians, or Egyptians. The face of the main figure is of 
Hebrew cast ; the costume is Asiatic ; Persian hat, with Egyptian veil 
or head-dress, and long narrow boots ; seated on a high Egyptian 
throne, holding two clarionets in the hand. The scene represented is 
that of snake-charming, which art is usually found with Asiatic people. 
If we remember that the Phoenicians, whose history is yet half con- 
cealed in the dim twilight of human records, penetrated far out on the 
Pacific ocean, we must not wonder if future archaeological discoveries 
in Mexico and Central America should prove a close relation between 
the Aztecs, or the first settlers in Honduras, with an Asiatic people 
who might have reached the shores of the New World by aid of 

With these archaeological remains, which indicate a high grade of 
civilization on the part of their manufacturers, we find sometimes crude 
implements, as arrowheads, hatchets made of greenstone, idols of clay 
and jade. The idols of this race are also of an Asiatic character. 
There are yet direct descendants of this race living in Honduras, 
usually called Indians, but their whole appearance, their plays and 
traditions, are Asiatic. How did this race reach Central America? is 
what we ask. Most likely by emigration from Asia via Behring Strait 
to North America, and from there to Central America, in a similar 
manner as the mastodon extended its migrations from the southern 
part of Europe, Asia, and North America down to Central America. 

The Asiatic or Mongolic tribes, as, for example, the Alans and Huns, 
at an early period of our history undertook large migrations, conquer- 
ing a large portion of Europe. Should not similar large Asiatic migra- 
tions have extended towards the northern part of Asia, driving its 
inhabitants over the Behring Strait to the American continent? 

The American continent, probably once known to some Asiatic 
people, became forgotten. 

On the 14th of August, 1502, the precise records of history mention 
the American continent in their annals. On that date Christopher 
Columbus appeared before the Cape Casinas on Honduras territory, 
and entered for the first time the American continent as the first 
stranger who rediscovered America in our historical time. 



1890.] Geology and Paleontology. 1067 

We know enough of the cruel Spanish systems of oppression and 
barbarities. The Spaniards were compelled on the 15th o\ Septem- 
ber, 1 82 1, after some struggle with the natives of Central America, to 
resign their assumed rights over that country and its people. 

Central America divided itself politically into the republics of Hon- 
duras, Guatemala, Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rici. all of which 
abolished slavery as one of their first acts. Honduras, 
republic, is at the present time in a very prosperous < 
doors are opened for commerce, and its coasts and interior offi 
rewards for the industrial enterprises of man. The wheel 
producing changes, is never at rest. M. J. R. Fkit/<,akr 



GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY. 

On a New Dog from the Loup Fork Miocene.— Aelurodon 
compressus sp. nov. Represented in my collection by a single mandibu- 
lar ramus of the left side, and by two rami in the collection of the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology of Cambridge. The latter have 
been referred by Professors Scott and Osborn to the Ae. hyaenoides 
Cope (Bulletin Mus. Compar. Zoology, 1890, December), but I 
find on direct comparison with the type that the species is different. 
When the heel of the inferior sectorial is placed in position on the first 
tubercular superior molar of the Ae. hyaenoides, the second superior 
tubercular of the latter does not reach the second inferior tubercular 
of the Ae. compressus ; and the posterior border of the superior canine 
marks the middle of the penultimate inferior premolar of the latter. 

The canine in the Ae. compressus is rather small, while the sectorial 
and first tubercular are large. The fourth premolar is one-rooted, and 
the third has two distinct roots, and is nearly as large as the second. 
The crowns of these teeth are not preserved in the specimen. The 
first inferior premolar is not so robust as in the Ae. savus Leidy and 
other species, but is more compressed. It has a strong posterior 
cutting lobe, and a low posterior basal cingulum. No anterior basal 
cusp or cingulum. The heel of the sectorial is as wide as long, and is 
half as long as the blade. The anterior border of the latter overlaps 
a little the heel of the first premolar on its inner side. The borders 
of the heel are of equal elevation. Roots of first tubercular divergent. 
Root of second tubercular compressed and situated on the oblique 
base of the coronoid process. The ramus mandibuli is rather shallow 



1068 The American Naturalist. [November, 

and robust. Its inferior border is nearly straight to below the second 
root of the first tubercular. It is there strongly curved upwards, in a 
regular convex outline. There are two mental foramina, one below 
the second, the other below the third premolars. The alveolus of the 
external incisor is large, and is directly in front of the canine. The 
symphysis extends posteriorly to the middle of the pm. iii. 

Measurements. — Length of dental series, inclusive of canine (in a 
straight line), 73 mm.; of premolar series, 30 mm.; of sectorial, 19 
mm.; of base of S~», 10 mm.; of alveolus of nT^, 5.5 mm.; length of 
heel of sectorial, 6 mm.; width of do., 6 mm. Depth of ramus at 
pm. iv., 15 mm.; at front of m~2, 18 mm. 

From the Loup Fork Miocene of Nebraska. 

In illustration of the general characters of the genus Aelurodon, I 
give a restoration of the skeleton of the Ae. scevus Leidy, from a 
mounted specimen in my collection. The shaded parts represent the 
bones in my possession. — E. D. Cope. 

On Dendrophycus triassicus Newb- In the last number of 
the Naturalist is a paper on " Variation," by Professor Joseph F. 
James. Much of the matter of that paper is interesting and valuable; 
but there is one paragraph, on page 1080, to which I decidedly object. 
It does injustice to me and discredit to the author. The passage is as 
follows : 

"Even in one of the latest monographs published by the U. S. 
Geological Survey (Vol. XIV.) we observe an inorganic marking (as 
it appears to us) masquerading under the name of a sea- weed ; and 
under a new name, too, because its brother rill-mark existed some 
geological ages prior to its own oncoming formations." 

This paragraph must refer to my Dendrophycus triassicus, since there 
is no other sea-weed described in the volume, and I remark upon the 
resemblance which this bears to Dendrophycus desorii Lesq., from the 
Pottsville red shale (Lower Carboniferous). 

Now, as Mr. James has probably never seen a specimen of the plant 
I described, and certainly has never seen the type specimens, he seems 
to me hardly qualified to express an opinion upon the subject. Besides 
that, there can be no question that Dendrophycus triassicus is a plant, 
and not a rill-mark. I have been for half a century studying rocks 
and fossils in the field, and have given special attention to fossil plants ; 
hence I ought to be qualified to decide whether the impression in 
question is of mechanical or organic origin. 

I am familiar with the discussion which has taken place between 
Dr. Nathorst and the Marquia de Saporta about fossil algse, tracks, and 



Geology and Paleontology. 



the confidence with \\hi< h Mr. Jame-; pronoin . 

subject of which he realh know- nothing. V 

character of Spirophyton ; but no one can compare I >endt 

the various species of Spirophyton which occur 

and thence upward into the Coal Measures, without teeing that they 

of Dendrophycus — those showing the extremities (if the fronds — with 
sea-weeds of the genus Desmarestia without finding so muc h in « ommon 
as to be convinced that the \ an: nearly related. This similarity was 
remarked by Professor Balfour, to whom the plant of the I mbral 
shales was referred by Professor Rogers. We find in both the same 
cylindrical, firm, hard and smooth stems. dichotomou>i\ forked, be - 

points. In Dendrophycus, as in Desmarestia, many of these terminal 
branches are set with lateral, acute, alternate thorns. Any one who 
will examine the specimen, part of which is figured in Monograph XIV., 
U. S. Geological Survey, PI. xxi., Fig. 2, will, I think, regard the 
theory that it is a rill-mark as untenable. To all those who have been 
led to such a conjecture by the imperfection of the figures given, or 
the positive tone of Mr. James's paragraph, I can only say, examine 
the specimens and that idea will be no longer entertained. 

In order to get all the light possible on this subject, I sent some 
specimens of Dendrophycus and Spirophyton to Professor W. G. 
Farlow, of Cambridge, our highest authority in all that pertains to the 
algae ; he kindly gave me the result of his examination of these speci- 
mens in a letter of considerable length, in which he expresses the 
opinion that they are organic and not of mechanical origin, and that 
they are the remains of sea-weeds. Had Mr. James waited until he 
could have seen the specimens of Dendrophycus, I venture to say he 
would never have given expression to the dogmatic and even con- 
temptuous opinion which is contained in the paragraph I have quoted. 

New York, Nov. fth, 1890. 



The American Naturalist. 



MINERALOGY AND PETROGRAPHY. » 

Petrographical News.— A most important contribution to the 
study of the origin of the crystalline schists has lately been made by 
Van Hise, 2 through the medium of the Bulletin of the recently or- 
ganized Geological Society of America. It will be remembered that 
only a short time ago this writer 3 showed that certain mica-schists of 
the Penokee-Gogebic region in Wisconsin and Michigan are nothing 
less than sediments, in which secondary mineral changes have taken 
place. He now goes further, and shows that under the influence of 
pressure, and probably heat, the pre-Cambrian slates and conglomerates 
of the Black Hills, Dakota, have been changed into schistose rocks, 
among which are gneisses. The reasons given for this conclusion are : 
(i) The gradation of the slates into schists, with loss of slaty cleavage, 
and the development of a foliation, usually oblique to the cleavage, and 
sometimes even perpendicular to it ; (2) the concentric arrangement of 
the schists around granitic areas in such a way that the strike of their 
foliation is always parallel to the boundaries of the eruptive rock, and 
the dip always inclined away from them; (3) the clear evidence 
afforded by the microscope to the effect that the rocks intermediate 
between the schists and slates have all suffered squeezing to such an 
extent that their various constituents, more particularly the quartz, have 
been flattened, cracked, and even broken, so that their different parts 
extinguish differently ; and finally (4) the certainty that much of the 
material of the schists is of secondary origin. The new minerals pro- 
duced by the forces at work are silica in different forms, biotite, mus- 
covite, and feldspar, and sometimes hornblende, garnet, tourmaline, and 
staurolite. In the less schistose varieties the grains of the original 
slates can be distinguished, as they are outlined by a layer of ferrite 
deposited upon them before they had lost their characteristic shapes. 
The quartz grains are flattened in the direction of the line of supposed 
pressure, and are broken. The cracks are often filled with particles of 
iron oxides, and sometimes are marked by lines of fluid inclusions. The 
deposition of silica around the fractured quartz grains and the produc- 
tion of secondary mica and feldspar are regarded as abundantly able 
to change a slate into a schist, especially when foliation has been 



1890.] Mineralogy and Petrography. 107 1 

superinduced by pressure, with the aid of heat sufficient for the fusion 
of the original sediments. Attention is called to the fact that these 
schists are not members of the great complex underlying the earliest 
sedimentary rocks, but are contemporaneous with some of the latter 
which are probably of Huronian age. After a very thorough dis- 
cussion of fifty-three analyses of plutonic and effusive rocfa RoiOh 
busch* concludes that the cause of the great variety in the rocks 
extruded from an eruptive center is the capacity of an origil 
for separating into portions with different • 
fahigkeit). These different portions may exist under the 1 
in positions very near each other. From the very nature of the dis- 
cussion, depending as it does upon so much detail, it is 
reproduce its argument in these pages. It most ntisfj 
purposes to state that Prof. Rosenbusch thinks the original magma had 
a composition near that of a mixture of elaeolite-syenite, pendente and 
residues of the formulas (NaK)AlSi, and R,Si. The residue 
(NaK)AlSi 2 possesses the capacity of taking up silica and yielding 
granite magma. The first splitting of the original magma yielded deriv- 
ative magmas (theilmagmen), which have solidified as plutonic rocks. 
Further differentiation produced the materials whose solidification 
yielded the effusive rocks. This explanation of the differences existing 
in the composition of the plutonic rocks and their corresponding 
effusives is thought by Rosenbusch to be better than that which ascribes 
them to a separation of the original magma according to the density 
of its parts, whereby the highest portions (those producing the effusive 
rocks) had of necessity a different composition from the lower por- 
tions. The paper contains significant utterances with respect to the 
relations between the geological age of a rock and its structure. It is 
said that the difference between older and younger effusive rocks is 
"that the former have existed on the surface for a longer time than the 
latter, and consequently have suffered a series of changes (umbilden- 
den Processen) ... One needs no great gift of penetration to prophesy 
that in the near future this separation [of the paleovolcanic from the 

neovolcanic rocks] will lack recognition." Dahms • has examined 

a set of hand-specimens brought from the Transvaal, Africa, among 
which he recognizes gabros containing pleochroic diallage and augite, 
the two minerals occurring in different parts of the same mass, and 
secondary quartz and hornblende. He finds also diabases and quartz- 
diabases, a quartz-porphyry in whose quartz-phenocrysts are inclusions 

* Miner, u. Petrog. Mitth., XL, 1890, p. I+4- 

* Neves Jahrb.f. Min., etc., Beil. Bd.. VII.. 1890, p. 9°- 



of carbon-dioxide, augite-porphyrite, granite, and granitic and syenitic 
porphyries. Each of these rocks is described, and analyses of several 
of them and their constituents are given. The most interesting point 
brought out by the analyses has reference to the relation between the 
diallage of a gabbro and the secondary hornblende derived from it. 

SiO, A1 2 3 Fe 2 3 FeO CaO MgO Na 2 K 2 H 2 
Diall. 53.53 3.12 5.09 13.54 6.19 18.77 -57 - 2 ° 
Hornb. 52.73 4.70 5- 26 IO - 21 I2 -5S i 2 -59 - 2 3 -° 6 *-54 
An increase in CaO and decrease in MgO in passing from diallage to 
hornblende is in opposition to the view held in regard to the nature of 
the change. The author is compelled to look upon it as paramorphic. 

Cathrein 6 has re-examined the rock from Ehrwald in the Tyrol, 

called by Pichler augite-porphyry, and thought by Rosenbusch to 
belong possibly with the teschnites, and has found it to consist of 
phenocrysts of augite, both monoclinic and orthorhombic, in a 
ground-mass composed of crystals of biotite, pyroxene, hornblende, 
apatite, and magnetite, in a base containing some radially fibrous 
mineral in an isotropic substance. The rhombic-pyroxene has been 
changed to bastite, which is intergrown with biotite and augite, and is 
surrounded by small crystals of augite of the second generation, of 
hornblende, and of biotite. The augite of the ground-mass is grouped 
in aggregates resembling chondrites, and is pleochroic in violet and 
yellowish-red tints. The author classes the rock with the augitites, and 

calls it bastite-augitite or Ehrwaldite. Spherulites composed of 

radiating bundles of an alkaline feldspar and spherical masses of tndy- 
mite occur in the obsidian of the Lipari Islands, according to Mr. 
Iddings. 7 They are similar to the spherulites and lithophysae of the 
rock from Obsidian Cliff, and contain, like the latter, little honey- 
yellow crystals of fayalite. In an appendix to an article by Mr 

Barlow 8 on the contact of the Huronian and Lauren tian rocks north 
of Lake Huron, Dr. Lawson briefly describes a few sections of quartz- 



: with gneisses, 



r of which 



are evidences of contact alteration, in which event the gneisses must 
be regarded as eruptive. Mr. Fairbanks 9 has examined eighty sec- 
tions of basic dykes from the north shore of Lake Huron, and has 
found them to be diabases, diorites, and alteration products of these. 



chroism of glaucophanc. It is found in a n>< k < (imposed of green 

trix of quartz, calcite, and minute blue and gi 

It is an alteration product of the brown hornblende and the augite, 

from both of which it results either directly or through the interposi- 

are also found as enlargements attached to the clinopinacoidal and 
terminal planes of the brown hornblende and the angite. The axis 
of greatest elasticity of the blue hornblende i> imlnnd ijj° to 15 to 
the vertical cleavage, and is on the same side of it as in the iase of 
glaucophane, actinolite, etc., while in common hornblende it is on the 
opposite side, since the extinction angle is here the angle included be- 
tween c and the axis of least elasticity. The optical angle of the blue 
amphibole is large, and the absorption is A> B> C A second rock 
in which the mineral occurs is a conglomerate, in pebbles in which 
the same relations exist between the hornblendes as those mentioned. 
A second rare variety of amphibole discovered in these rocks is of a 
rich chestnut-brown color, and has an extinction of 8°. It is regarded 
as an added growth. An emerald-green secondary augite occurs in 
diorite pebbles in the conglomerate above mentioned. It is an altera- 
tion product of the blue hornblende and of an unknown yellow mine r 
Its axis of greatest elasticity is but slightly inclined to c. Its pleo- 
chroism is strong in green and yellow tints, and its absorption as fol- 
lows : A> B> C. Upon comparing the properties of these minerals 
with those of other members of the amphiboloid group Mr. Cross is 
inclined to regard the chestnut-brown hornblende as closely allied to 
barkevicite, while the blue variety is either arfvedsonite or riebeckite. 
The green augite is considered to be agerine or acmite. Twelve dia- 
grams exhibiting the relations of the axes of elasticity to the crys- 
tallography axes of the different varieties of amphibole and pyroxene 
accompany the article. If the plane usually taken as the orthodome 
in hornblende and augite is made the basal plane, the relations shown 
by the diagrams are rendered quite simple; whereas if the usual 



1074 Th* American Naturalist. [November, 

orientation is accepted the relations are not apparent. The paper is 
important as affording strong argument for a change in the position of 
crystals of hornblende and augite, as also for the interesting announce- 
ment of the discovery of a secondary augite. The parting of cer- 
tain hornblende crystals from St. Lawrence County, N. Y., analogous 
to the basal parting of augite, has been found by Williams 11 to be the 
result of twinning along gliding planes parallel to the face usually re- 
garded as the orthodome. Since the parting in augite takes place 
parallel to the basal plane, and since in parallel growths of hornblende 
and augite the parting in the two minerals is parallel, it is suggested 
that in both cases t